Depeche Mode are an English electronic band formed in Basildon, Essex, in 1980. The group consists of a trio of Dave Gahan, Martin Gore, Andy Fletcher. Depeche Mode released their debut album Speak & Spell in 1981, bringing the band onto the British new wave scene. Founding member Vince Clarke left after the release of the album. Gore took over as primary songwriter and in 1982, Alan Wilder joined to fill Clarke's spot, establishing a lineup that continued for 13 years; the band's last albums of the 1980s, Black Celebration and Music for the Masses, established them as a dominant force within the electronic music scene. A highlight of this era was the band's June 1988 concert at the Pasadena Rose Bowl, where they drew a crowd in excess of 60,000 people. In early 1990, they released an international mainstream success; the following album, Songs of Faith and Devotion in 1993 was a success, though internal struggles within the band during recording and touring resulted in Wilder's departure in 1995.
Depeche Mode has had 17 top 10 albums in the UK chart. Q included the band in the list of the "50 Bands That Changed the World!". Depeche Mode rank number 98 on VH1's "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". In December 2016, Billboard named Depeche Mode the 10th most successful dance club artist of all time. Depeche Mode's origins date to 1977, when schoolmates Vince Clarke and Andy Fletcher formed a Cure-influenced band called No Romance In China, with Clarke on vocals and guitar and Fletcher on bass guitar. Fletcher would recall, "Why am I in the band? It was accidental right from the beginning. I was forced to be in the band. I played the guitar and I had a bass. In 1979, Clarke played guitar in an "Ultravox rip-off band", The Plan, with friends Robert Marlow and Paul Langwith. In 1978–79, Martin Gore played guitar in an acoustic duo and the Worms, with school friend Phil Burdett on vocals. In 1979, Marlow and friend Paul Redmond formed a band called the French Look, with Marlow on vocals/keyboards, Gore on guitar and Redmond on keyboards.
In March 1980, Clarke and Fletcher formed a band called Composition of Sound, with Clarke on vocals/guitar, Gore on keyboards and Fletcher on bass. Soon after the formation of Composition of Sound, Clarke heard Wirral band Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, whose output inspired him to make electronic music. Along with OMD, other early influences included Daniel Miller and Fad Gadget. Clarke and Fletcher switched to synthesisers, working odd jobs in order to buy the instruments, or borrowing them from friends. Dave Gahan joined the band in 1980 after Clarke heard him perform at a local Scout hut jam session, singing a rendition of David Bowie's "Heroes", Depeche Mode were born. Gahan's and Gore's favourite artists included Sparks and the Banshees, Cabaret Voltaire, Talking Heads and Iggy Pop; when explaining the choice for the new name, taken from French fashion magazine Dépêche mode, Gore said, "It means hurried fashion or fashion dispatch. I like the sound of that." However, the magazine's name is "Fashion News" or "Fashion Update".
Gore recalled that the first time the band played as Depeche Mode was a school gig in May 1980. There is a plaque commemorating the gig at the James Hornsby School in Basildon, where Gore and Fletcher were pupils; the band made their recording debut in 1980 on the Some Bizzare Album with the song "Photographic" re-recorded for their debut album Speak & Spell. The band made a demo tape but, instead of mailing the tape to record companies, they would go in and deliver it, they would demand the companies play it. They'd say'leave the tape with us' and we'd say'it's our only one'. We'd say goodbye and go somewhere else."According to Gahan, prior to securing their record contract, they were receiving offers from all the major labels. Phonogram offered them "money you could never have imagined and all sorts of crazy things like clothes allowances". While playing a live gig at the Bridge House in Canning Town, the band were approached by Daniel Miller, an electronic musician and founder of Mute Records, interested in their recording a single for his burgeoning label.
The result of this verbal contract was their first single, "Dreaming of Me", recorded in December 1980 and released in February 1981. It reached number 57 in the UK charts. Encouraged by this, the band recorded their second single, "New Life", which climbed to number 11 in the UK charts and got them an appearance on Top of the Pops; the band went to London by train. The band's next single was "Just Can't Get Enough"; the synth-pop single became the band's first UK top ten hit. The video is the only one of the band's videos to feature Vince Clarke. Depeche Mode's debut album, Speak & Spell, was released in October 1981 and peaked at number ten on the UK album charts. Critical reviews were mixed. Clarke began to voice his discomfort at the direction the band was taking, saying "there was never enough time to do anything. Not with all the interviews and photo sessions". Clarke said he was sick of touring, which G
New Musical Express is a British music journalism website and former magazine, published since 1952. It was the first British paper to include a singles chart, in the edition of 14 November 1952. In the 1970s it became the best-selling British music newspaper. During the period 1972 to 1976, it was associated with gonzo journalism became associated with punk rock through the writings of Julie Burchill, Paul Morley and Tony Parsons, it started as a music newspaper, moved toward a magazine format during the 1980s and 1990s, changing from newsprint in 1998. An online version, NME.com, was launched in 1996. It became the world's biggest standalone music site, with over sixteen million users per month. With newsstand sales falling across the UK magazine sector, the magazine's paid circulation in the first half of 2014 was 15,830. In 2013, the list of NME's The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time and the way it was conceived was criticized by the media; the printed magazine NME was relaunched in September 2015 to be distributed nationally as a free publication.
The first average circulation published in February 2016 of 307,217 copies per week was the highest in the brand's history, beating the previous best of 306,881, recorded in 1964 at the height of the Beatles' fame. By December 2017, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, average distribution of NME had fallen to 289,432 copies a week, although its publisher Time Inc. UK claimed to have more than 13m global unique users per month, including 3m in the UK. In March 2018, the publisher announced that the print edition of NME would cease publication after 66 years, leaving it as an online-only title. NME's headquarters are in Southwark, England; the brand's current editor is Charlotte Gunn, replacing Mike Williams, who stepped down in February 2018. The paper was established in 1952; the Accordion Times and Musical Express was bought by London music promoter Maurice Kinn, for the sum of £1,000, just 15 minutes before it was due to be closed. It was relaunched as the New Musical Express, was published in a non-glossy tabloid format on standard newsprint.
On 14 November 1952, taking its cue from the US magazine Billboard, it created the first UK Singles Chart, a list of the Top Twelve best-selling singles. The first of these was, in contrast to more recent charts, a top twelve sourced by the magazine itself from sales in regional stores around the UK; the first number one was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino. During the 1960s the paper championed the new British groups emerging at the time; the NME circulation peaked under Andy Gray with a figure of 306,881 for the period from January to June 1964. The Beatles and the Rolling Stones were featured on the front cover; these and other artists appeared at the NME Poll Winners' Concert, an awards event that featured artists voted as most popular by the paper's readers. The concert featured a ceremony where the poll winners would collect their awards; the NME Poll Winners' Concerts took place between 1959 and 1972. From 1964 onwards they were filmed and transmitted on British television a few weeks after they had taken place.
In the mid-1960s, the NME was dedicated to pop while its older rival, Melody Maker, was known for its more serious coverage of music. Other competing titles included Record Mirror, which led the way in championing American rhythm and blues, Disc, which focused on chart news; the latter part of the decade saw the paper chart the rise of psychedelia and the continued dominance of British groups of the time. During this period some sections of pop music began to be designated as rock; the paper became engaged in a sometimes tense rivalry with Melody Maker. By the early 1970s, NME had lost ground to Melody Maker, as its coverage of music had failed to keep place with the development of rock music during the early years of psychedelia and progressive rock. In early 1972 the paper found itself on the verge of closure by its owner IPC. According to Nick Kent: After sales had plummeted to 60,000 and a review of guitar instrumentalist Duane Eddy had been printed which began with the immortal words "On this, his 35th album, we find Duane in as good as voice as ever," the NME had been told to rethink its policies or die on the vine.
Alan Smith was made editor in 1972, was told by IPC to turn things around or face closure. To achieve this and his assistant editor Nick Logan raided the underground press for writers such as Charles Shaar Murray and Nick Kent, recruited other writers such as Tony Tyler, Ian MacDonald and Californian Danny Holloway. According to The Economist, the New Musical Express "started to champion underground, up-and-coming music.... NME became the gateway to a more rebellious world. First came glamrock, bands such as T. Rex, came punk....by 1977 it had become the place to keep in touch with a cultural revolution, enthralling the nation's listless youth. Bands such as Sex Pistols, X-Ray Spex and Generation X were regular cover stars, eulogised by writers such as Julie Burchill and Tony Parsons, whose nihilistic tone narrated the punk years perfectly." By the time Smith handed the editor's chair to Logan in mid-1973, the paper was selling nearly 300,000 copies per week and was outstripping Melody Maker, Record Mirror and Sounds.
According to MacDonald: I think all the other papers knew by 1974 that NME had become the best music paper in Britain. We had most of the best writers and photographers, the best layouts
The Devotional Tour was a 1993 concert tour by English electronic band Depeche Mode in support of the group's eighth studio album, Songs of Faith and Devotion, released in March 1993. The tour began with an eleven-week European leg, which kicked off in Lille, France in mid-May and culminated in London in late July. In September 1993, the group began a North American leg, which commenced in Canada; the 50-date tour continued until early December. In the month, the band returned to Europe for a short tour of the United Kingdom and Ireland; the five date jaunt ended, once again, in London. The concerts in Barcelona, Liévin and Frankfurt were filmed, with the compiled footage issued that year on a video release entitled Devotional; the video was reissued on DVD in 2004. Additionally, a live album entitled Songs of Faith and Devotion Live was released in December 1993; the album was a track-by-track live duplicate of Songs of Devotion. The release featured recordings from the concert in Liévin, although two of the tracks were recorded in Copenhagen and New Orleans respectively.
The group continued to promote Songs of Faith and Devotion the following year on the Exotic Tour/Summer Tour'94, which included an additional North American leg. Q magazine refers to Devotional Tour as "the most debauched rock tour ever". "Higher Love" "Policy of Truth" "World in My Eyes" "Walking in My Shoes" "Behind the Wheel" "Halo" "Stripped" "Condemnation" "Judas" Song performed by Martin Gore "A Question of Lust" "Death's Door" "One Caress" "Get Right with Me" "Mercy in You" "I Feel You" "Never Let Me Down Again" "Rush" "In Your Room" encore 1 "Personal Jesus" "Enjoy the Silence" encore 2 "Fly on the Windscreen" "Something to Do" Song performed by Martin Gore "Somebody" "Everything Counts" Festivals and other miscellaneous performances A Belga Beach Festival Dave Gahan – lead vocals Martin Gore – guitar, samplers and backing vocals Alan Wilder – synthesizers, piano, percussion pads, backing vocals Andy Fletcher – synthesizers, backing vocals Hildia Campbell – backing vocals Samantha Smith – backing vocals Production Manager - Craig Sherwood Production Manager - Andy Franks Stage Manager - Howard Hopkins Stage Manager - Tom Wilson Rigger - Phil Broad Wardrobe - Carol Graham Wardrobe - Paula Bradley Keyboard Tech - Wob Roberts Guitar Tech - Jez Webb Drum Technician - Tom Wilson FOH Sound Engineer - Jon Lemon Sound Crew Chief - Dave Bracey Sound Crew - Scott Ashton Video/Projection - Richard Turner Lighting Designer - Patrick Woodroffe Stage Design & Concept - Anton Corbjin The show in Rome was scheduled at the PalaGhiaccio, but the promoter moved it to the PalaEur a few weeks before the event.
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means, that produced using electronics only. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, so on, electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, the electric guitar, which are made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the theremin and computer can produce electronic sounds; the first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical.
During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. By the 1940s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the 1940s, in Egypt and France. Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. Music produced from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music was created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. Algorithmic composition with computers was first demonstrated in the 1950s. In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry, Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music.
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303. In the early 1980s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 were popularized, a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Electronically produced music became prevalent in the popular domain by the 1990s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Today, pop electronic music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form and more connected with the mainstream culture as opposed to its preceding forms which were specialized to niche markets.
At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments. These initial inventions were not sold, but were instead used in demonstrations and public performances; the audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments. While some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium synthesized the sound of orchestral instruments, it achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments. Ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments, he predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. Futurists such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo began composing music with acoustic noise to evoke the sound of machinery.
They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises. Developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller and more practical for performance. In particular, the theremin, ondes Martenot and trautonium were commercially produced by the early 1930s. From the late 1920s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt them, they were used within orchestras, most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments. Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes; the instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse. Further, Percy Grainger used the theremin to abandon fixed tonation while Russian composers such as Gavriil Popov treated it as a source of noise in otherwise-acoustic noise music.
Developments in early recording technology paralleled that of electronic instruments. The first means of recording and reproducing audio was invented in the late 19th century with the mechanical phonograph. Record players became a common household item, by the 1920s comp
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Walking in My Shoes
"Walking in My Shoes" is a song by British electronic music band Depeche Mode. It was released on 26 April 1993 as the second single from their eighth studio album, Songs of Faith and Devotion; the song reached number 14 on the UK Singles Chart and matched the success of the previous single "I Feel You" on the Modern Rock Tracks chart, where it reached 1. The 7" version of "Walking in My Shoes" is not the same as the one in the Songs of Faith and Devotion album; the sound has been made more noisy and dirty the drums in the verse, the intro has been shortened. When performed live, elements of the "Grungy Gonads" mix are used in an extended intro and throughout the song; the B-side is "My Joy", the only exclusive B-side from the Songs of Faith and Devotion album, is a rock track in the vein of "I Feel You" and "Halo". The song was cited by then-member Alan Wilder to be his favourite song from the album together with "In Your Room"; the music video for "Walking in My Shoes" was directed by Anton Corbijn.
At the beginning of the second verse, there's a shot of Martin Gore, Andy Fletcher, Alan Wilder with naked women on their laps. This was removed in the MTV version in the US and replaced with footage of the three members standing still, from earlier in the video; the uncut version is on The Videos 86-98, The Best Of, Volume 1 and Video Singles Collection DVDs. The single was released on 26 April 1993 in the UK and on 27 April of the same year in the United States; the song peaked number 14 on the UK Singles Chart and number 69 on the US Billboard Hot 100, however, it peaked number one on the Billboard Modern Rock Track chart. The single was featured during the opening credits of episode 9 of season 2 of USA Network series Mr. Robot, entitled "eps2.7_init_5.fve". "Walking in My Shoes" – 4:59 "My Joy" – 3:577" released as a promo only, not commercially released, hence why both songs appear on the 12" version. "Walking in My Shoes" is the first Depeche Mode single not to have a commercial 7" release in the UK.
"Walking in My Shoes" – 6:24 "Walking in My Shoes" – 4:59 "My Joy" – 3:57 "My Joy" – 5:11 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:54 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:35 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:11 "Walking in My Shoes" – 4:54 "Walking in My Shoes" – 4:59 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:24 "My Joy" – 3:57 "My Joy" – 5:11 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:54 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:35 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:11 "Walking in My Shoes" – 4:54 "Walking in My Shoes" – 4:59 "My Joy" – 3:57 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:24 "My Joy" – 5:11 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:54 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:35 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:11 "Walking in My Shoes" – 4:54This CD is the 2004 re-release "Walking In My Shoes" – 6:24 "Walking In My Shoes" – 5:00 "My Joy" – 3:58 "My Joy" – 5:11 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:54 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:35 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:24 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:11 "Walking in My Shoes" (Ambient Whale Mix – 4:54 "My Joy" – 5:11Released 4 May 1993 "Walking in My Shoes" – 4:59 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:24 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:10 "My Joy" – 5:11 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:54 "Walking in My Shoes" – 6:11 "My Joy" – 3:57 "Walking in My Shoes" – – 4:54Released 27 April 1993 The full version of the "Random Carpet Mix" was released on Remixes 81–04.
All songs written by Martin L. Gore Number one modern rock hits of 1993 Single information from the official Depeche Mode web site Allmusic review Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
A bracket is a tall punctuation mark used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text. The matched pair is best described as closing. Less formally, in a left-to-right context, it may be described as left and right, in a right-to-left context, as right and left. Forms include round, square and angle brackets, as well as various other pairs of symbols. In addition to referring to the class of all types of brackets, the unqualified word bracket is most used to refer to a specific type of bracket. Chevrons, ⟨ ⟩, were the earliest type of bracket to appear in written English. Desiderius Erasmus coined the term lunula to refer to the rounded parentheses, recalling the shape of the crescent moon; some of the following names are contextual. – parentheses, parens, round brackets, first brackets, or circle brackets – braces are "two connecting marks used in printing". – square brackets, closed brackets, hard brackets, third brackets, crotchets, or brackets ⟨ ⟩ – pointy brackets, angle brackets, triangular brackets, diamond brackets, tuples, or chevrons < > – guillemets, inequality signs, pointy brackets, or brackets.
Sometimes referred to as angle brackets, in such cases as HTML markup. Known as broken brackets or "brokets". ⸤ ⸥. The characters ‹ › and « », known as guillemets or angular quote brackets, are quotation mark glyphs used in several European languages. Which one of each pair is the opening quote mark and, the closing quote varies between languages; the corner-brackets ｢ ｣ are quotation marks used in East Asian languages. In English, typographers prefer not to set brackets in italics when the enclosed text is italic. However, in other languages like German, if brackets enclose text in italics, they are also set in italics. Parentheses contain material, aside from the main point. A milder effect may be obtained by using a pair of commas as the delimiter, though if the sentence contains commas for other purposes, visual confusion may result. In American usage, parentheses are considered separate from other brackets, calling them "brackets" is unusual. Parentheses may be used in formal writing to add supplementary information, such as "Sen. John McCain spoke at length".
They can indicate shorthand for "either singular or plural" for nouns, e.g. "the claim". It can be used for gender neutral language in languages with grammatical gender, e.g. "he agreed with his physician". Parenthetical phrases have been used extensively in informal writing and stream of consciousness literature. Examples include the southern American author William Faulkner as well as poet E. E. Cummings. Parentheses have been used where the dash is used in alternatives, such as "parenthesis) educational testing, b) technical writing and diagrams, c) market research, d) elections. Parentheses are used in mathematical notation to indicate grouping inducing a different order of operations. For example: in the usual order of algebraic operations, 4 x 3 + 2 equals 14, since the multiplication is done before the addi