Oak Grove Cemetery (Fall River, Massachusetts)
Oak Grove Cemetery is a historic cemetery located at 765 Prospect Street in Fall River, Massachusetts. It was established in 1855 and improved upon in the years that followed, it features Gothic Revival elements, including an elaborate entrance arch constructed of locally quarried Fall River granite. The cemetery contained 47 acres, but has since been expanded to 100 acres; the cemetery is the city's most significant, built in the planned rural-garden style of Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It was designed and laid out by local architect Josiah Brown, known for his designs of early mills including the Union, Border City, others. Oak Grove Cemetery is the final resting place of many of the city's elite, including prominent mill owners and merchants, it contains the city's Civil War Monument, donated by Richard Borden. The cemetery was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983, it is still operated by the City of Fall River. Thomas Almy, co-founder of The Herald News.
Abby Durfee Borden, second wife of Andrew Jackson Borden and murder victim. Andrew Jackson Borden and murder victim. Nathaniel Briggs Borden, Mayor of Fall River, US Congressman, founder of Pocasset Mill. Colonel Richard Borden, industrial pioneer, businessman. Lizzie Borden, alleged murderer. Emma Borden, sister of Lizzie Borden, daughter of Andrew and Sarah Borden. Sarah Morse Borden, first wife of Andrew Jackson Borden and mother of Lizzie Borden and Emma Borden. Spencer Borden, delegate to 1924 Republication National Convention, served as director on boards of a number of local concerns. Charlie Buffinton, Major League Baseball player. James Buffington, the first mayor of Fall River. Earle Perry Charlton, founder of E. P. Charlton & Co. 5 & 10 stores chain. Through mergers, he became a co-founder of the F. W. Woolworth Company. Benjamin Cook, a District Court judge. Sarah M. Cornell, found murdered on the John Durfee Farm in nearby Tiverton, Newport County, RI, she was buried there and moved to Oak Grove.
Robert T. Davis, mayor of Fall River and United States Representative from Massachusetts. Bradford Matthew Chaloner Durfee, born into a wealthy and influential Fall River family, he was a philanthropist who died in his prime; as a memorial, his mother had the local school board erect the B. M. C Durfee High School. Dr. Nathan Durfee, early industrialist and deacon of Central Congregational Church. William Thomas Grant, founder of W. T. Grant Department Store chain and philanthropist. William S. Greene, United States Representative from Massachusetts mayor of Fall River. Cornelius Hargraves, an immigrant from England who in 1851 founded Hargraves Manufacturing Company, a soap and glue substitute manufacturing operation. Reuben Hargraves and Thomas Hargraves, sons of Cornelius Hargraves are buried in the Hargraves Mausoluem. James Holehouse, received the Medal of Honor for bravery at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 3, 1863, he was a private in Company B, 7th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.
Grace Hartley Howe, wife of Louie Howe and delegate to the 1936 Democratic National Convention. Louis McHenry Howe, political strategist who masterminded Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1932 presidential election, he was the only close friend both Eleanor Roosevelt shared in common. Andrew Jackson Jennings, noted local attorney, now best remembered for defending Lizzie Borden. Lewis Howard Latimer, African-American inventor and engineer who collaborated with Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison. John O. Milne, co-founder of The Herald News. Lt. Joseph S. Milne, mortally wounded at Battle of Gettysburg. James Madison Morton, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts. James Madison Morton, Jr. a Federal judge. Maude Frances Darling Parlin, pioneer female architect and 1907 M. I. T. graduate who designed many Fall River homes. Richard Sears, owner of the Sears Mill. Cornelia Otis Skinner, biographer, essayists and screenwriter. F. H. Stafford, owner of Stafford Mills, is shaped like a textile mill building.
Friends of Oak Grove Cemetery page on the Stafford memorial. National Register of Historic Places listings in Fall River, Massachusetts North Burial Ground Friends of Oak Grove Cemetery~An Historic Victorian Cemetery in Fall River, Massachusetts Oak Grove Cemetery History Find-A-Grave
The Wampanoag rendered Wôpanâak, are an American Indian people in North America. They were a loose confederacy made up of several tribes in the 17th century, but today many Wampanoag people are enrolled in two federally recognized tribes: the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe and the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head in Massachusetts; the Wampanoag lived in southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island in the beginning of the 17th century, at the time of first contact with the English colonists, a territory that included Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket islands. Their population numbered in the thousands due to the richness of the environment and their cultivation of corn and squash. From 1615 to 1619, the Wampanoag suffered an epidemic, long suspected to be smallpox. Modern research, has suggested that it was leptospirosis, a bacterial infection known as Weil's syndrome or 7-day fever, it decimated the Wampanoag population. Researchers suggest that the losses from the epidemic were so large that English colonists were able to establish their settlements in the Massachusetts Bay Colony more easily.
More than 50 years King Philip's War of Indian allies against the English colonists resulted in the death of 40 percent of the surviving tribe. Many male Wampanoag were sold into slavery in Bermuda or the West Indies, some women and children were enslaved by colonists in New England; the tribe disappeared from historical records after the late 18th century, although its people and descendants persisted. Survivors continued to live in their traditional areas and maintained many aspects of their culture, while absorbing other peoples by marriage and adapting to changing economic and cultural needs in the larger society; the last speakers of the Massachusett language Wôpanâak died more than 100 years ago, although some Wampanoag people have been working on a language revival project since 1993. The project is working on curriculum and teacher development. Wampanoag means "Easterners" or "People of the Dawn." The word Wapanoos was first documented on Adriaen Block's 1614 map, the earliest European representation of Wampanoag territory.
Other interpretations include "Wapenock," "Massasoit", the exonym "Philip's Indians." In 1616, John Smith erroneously referred to the entire Wampanoag confederacy as the Pokanoket, one of the tribes. Pokanoket was used in the earliest colonial reports; the Pokanoket tribal seat was located near Rhode Island. The Wampanoag people were semi-sedentary, with seasonal movements between sites in southern New England; the men traveled far north and south along the Eastern seaboard for seasonal fishing expeditions, sometimes stayed in those distant locations for weeks and months at a time. The women cultivated varieties of the "three sisters" as the staples of their diet, supplemented by fish and game caught by the men; each community had authority over a well-defined territory from which the people derived their livelihood through a seasonal round of fishing, planting and hunting. Southern New England was populated by various tribes, so hunting grounds had defined boundaries; the Wampanoag have a matrilineal system, like many indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands, in which women controlled property and hereditary status was passed through the maternal line.
They were matrifocal. Women elders could approve selection of sachems. Men acted in most of the political roles for relations with other bands and tribes, as well as warfare. Women with claims to plots of land used for farming or hunting passed those claims to their female descendants, regardless of their marital status; the production of food among the Wampanoag was similar to that of many American Indian societies, food habits were divided along gender lines. Men and women had specific tasks. Women played an active role in many of the stages of food production, so they had important socio-political and spiritual roles in their communities. Wampanoag men were responsible for hunting and fishing, while women took care of farming and gathering wild fruits, nuts and shellfish. Women were responsible for up to 75 percent of all food production in Wampanoag societies; the Wampanoag were organized into a confederation where a head sachem presided over a number of other sachems. The colonists referred to the sachem as "king," but the position of a sachem differed in many ways from what they knew of a king.
Sachems were bound to consult their own councilors within their tribe, but any of the "petty sachems" in the region. They were responsible for arranging trade privileges, as well as protecting their allies in exchange for material tribute. Both women and men could hold the position of sachem, women were sometimes chosen over close male relatives. Pre-marital sexual experimentation was accepted, although once couples opted to marry, the Wampanoag expected fidelity within unions. Roger Williams stated that "single fornication they count no sin, but after Marriage… they count it heinous for either of them to be false." In addition, polygamy was practiced among the Wampanoag. Some elite men could take several wives for political or social reasons, multiple wives were a symbol of wealth because women were the producers and distributors of corn and other food products. Marriage and conjugal unions were not as important as ties of kinship; the Wampanoag spoke Wôpanâak, a dialect of the Massachusett language which belongs to the Algonquian languages family.
The first Bible published in Ame
Chichen Itza was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Yucatán State, Mexico. Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic through the Terminal Classic and into the early portion of the Postclassic period; the site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion. Chichen Itza was one of the largest Maya cities and it was to have been one of the mythical great cities, or Tollans, referred to in Mesoamerican literature; the city may have had the most diverse population in the Maya world, a factor that could have contributed to the variety of architectural styles at the site.
The ruins of Chichen Itza are federal property, the site's stewardship is maintained by Mexico's Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. The land under the monuments had been owned until 29 March 2010, when it was purchased by the state of Yucatán. Chichen Itza is one of the most visited archaeological sites in Mexico with over 2.6 million tourists in 2017. The Maya name "Chichen Itza" means "At the mouth of the well of the Itza." This derives from chi', meaning "mouth" or "edge," and chʼen or chʼeʼen, meaning "well." Itzá is the name of an ethnic-lineage group that gained political and economic dominance of the northern peninsula. One possible translation for Itza is "enchanter of the water," from its, "sorcerer," and ha, "water."The name is spelled Chichén Itzá in Spanish, the accents are sometimes maintained in other languages to show that both parts of the name are stressed on their final syllable. Other references prefer the Maya orthography, Chichen Itzaʼ; this form preserves the phonemic distinction between chʼ and ch, since the base word chʼeʼen begins with a postalveolar ejective affricate consonant.
The word "Itzaʼ" has a high tone on the "a" followed by a glottal stop. Evidence in the Chilam Balam books indicates another, earlier name for this city prior to the arrival of the Itza hegemony in northern Yucatán. While most sources agree the first word means seven, there is considerable debate as to the correct translation of the rest; this earlier name is difficult to define because of the absence of a single standard of orthography, but it is represented variously as Uuc Yabnal, Uuc Hab Nal, Uucyabnal or Uc Abnal. This name, dating to the Late Classic Period, is recorded both in the book of Chilam Balam de Chumayel and in hieroglyphic texts in the ruins. Chichen Itza is located in the eastern portion of Yucatán state in Mexico; the northern Yucatán Peninsula is arid, the rivers in the interior all run underground. There are four visible, natural sink holes, called cenotes, that could have provided plentiful water year round at Chichen, making it attractive for settlement. Of these cenotes, the "Cenote Sagrado" or Sacred Cenote, is the most famous.
In 2015, scientists determined that there is a hidden cenote under Kukulkan, which has never been seen by archaeologists. According to post-Conquest sources, pre-Columbian Maya sacrificed objects and human beings into the cenote as a form of worship to the Maya rain god Chaac. Edward Herbert Thompson dredged the Cenote Sagrado from 1904 to 1910, recovered artifacts of gold, jade and incense, as well as human remains. A study of human remains taken from the Cenote Sagrado found that they had wounds consistent with human sacrifice. Several archaeologists in the late 1980s suggested that unlike previous Maya polities of the Early Classic, Chichen Itza may not have been governed by an individual ruler or a single dynastic lineage. Instead, the city's political organization could have been structured by a "multepal" system, characterized as rulership through council composed of members of elite ruling lineages; this theory was popular in the 1990s, but in recent years, the research that supported the concept of the "multepal" system has been called into question, if not discredited.
The current belief trend in Maya scholarship is toward the more traditional model of the Maya kingdoms of the Classic Period southern lowlands in Mexico. Chichen Itza was a major economic power in the northern Maya lowlands during its apogee. Participating in the water-borne circum-peninsular trade route through its port site of Isla Cerritos on the north coast, Chichen Itza was able to obtain locally unavailable resources from distant areas such as obsidian from central Mexico and gold from southern Central America. Between AD 900 and 1050 Chichen Itza expanded to become a powerful regional capital controlling north and central Yucatán, it established Isla Cerritos as a trading port. The layout of Chichen Itza site core developed during its earlier phase of occupation, between 750 and 900 AD, its final layout was developed after 900 AD, the 10th century saw the rise of the city as a regional capital controlling the area from central Yucatán to the north coast, with its power extending down the east and west coasts of the peninsula.
The earliest hieroglyphic date discovered at Chichen Itza is equivalent to 832 AD, while the last known da
Nathaniel Hawthorne was an American novelist, dark romantic, short story writer. He was born in 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts, to Nathaniel Hathorne and the former Elizabeth Clarke Manning, his ancestors include John Hathorne, the only judge involved in the Salem witch trials who never repented of his actions. He entered Bowdoin College in 1821, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in 1824, graduated in 1825, he published his first work in the novel Fanshawe. He published several short stories in periodicals; the next year, he became engaged to Sophia Peabody. He worked at the Boston Custom House and joined Brook Farm, a transcendentalist community, before marrying Peabody in 1842; the couple moved to The Old Manse in Concord, Massachusetts moving to Salem, the Berkshires to The Wayside in Concord. The Scarlet Letter was published followed by a succession of other novels. A political appointment as consul took Hawthorne and family to Europe before their return to Concord in 1860. Hawthorne died on May 19, 1864, was survived by his wife and their three children.
Much of Hawthorne's writing centers on New England, many works featuring moral metaphors with an anti-Puritan inspiration. His fiction works are considered part of the Romantic movement and, more dark romanticism, his themes center on the inherent evil and sin of humanity, his works have moral messages and deep psychological complexity. His published works include novels, short stories, a biography of his college friend Franklin Pierce, the 14th President of the United States. Nathaniel Hawthorne was born on July 1804, in Salem, Massachusetts. William Hathorne was the author's great-great-great-grandfather, he was a Puritan and was the first of the family to emigrate from England, settling in Dorchester, before moving to Salem. There he became an important member of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and held many political positions, including magistrate and judge, becoming infamous for his harsh sentencing. William's son and the author's great-great-grandfather John Hathorne was one of the judges who oversaw the Salem witch trials.
Hawthorne added the "w" to his surname in his early twenties, shortly after graduating from college, in an effort to dissociate himself from his notorious forebears. Hawthorne's father Nathaniel Hathorne Sr. was a sea captain who died in 1808 of yellow fever in Suriname. After his death, his widow moved with young Nathaniel and two daughters to live with relatives named the Mannings in Salem, where they lived for 10 years. Young Hawthorne was hit on the leg while playing "bat and ball" on November 10, 1813, he became lame and bedridden for a year, though several physicians could find nothing wrong with him. In the summer of 1816, the family lived as boarders with farmers before moving to a home built for them by Hawthorne's uncles Richard and Robert Manning in Raymond, near Sebago Lake. Years Hawthorne looked back at his time in Maine fondly: "Those were delightful days, for that part of the country was wild with only scattered clearings, nine tenths of it primeval woods." In 1819, he was sent back to Salem for school and soon complained of homesickness and being too far from his mother and sisters.
He distributed seven issues of The Spectator to his family in August and September 1820 for the sake of having fun. The homemade newspaper was written by hand and included essays and news featuring the young author's adolescent humor. Hawthorne's uncle Robert Manning insisted. With the financial support of his uncle, Hawthorne was sent to Bowdoin College in 1821 because of family connections in the area, because of its inexpensive tuition rate. Hawthorne met future president Franklin Pierce on the way to Bowdoin, at the stage stop in Portland, the two became fast friends. Once at the school, he met future poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, future congressman Jonathan Cilley, future naval reformer Horatio Bridge, he graduated with the class of 1825, described his college experience to Richard Henry Stoddard: I was educated at Bowdoin College. I was an idle student, negligent of college rules and the Procrustean details of academic life, rather choosing to nurse my own fancies than to dig into Greek roots and be numbered among the learned Thebans.
In 1836, Hawthorne served as the editor of the American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge. At the time, he boarded with poet Thomas Green Fessenden on Hancock Street in Beacon Hill in Boston, he was offered an appointment as weigher and gauger at the Boston Custom House at a salary of $1,500 a year, which he accepted on January 17, 1839. During his time there, he rented a room from George Stillman Hillard, business partner of Charles Sumner. Hawthorne wrote in the comparative obscurity of; as he looked back on this period of his life, he wrote: "I have not lived, but only dreamed about living." He contributed short stories to various magazines and annuals, including "Young Goodman Brown" and "The Minister's Black Veil", though none drew major attention to him. Horatio Bridge offered to cover the risk of collecting these stories in the spring of 1837 into the volume Twice-Told Tales, which made Hawthorne known locally. While at Bowdoin, Hawthorne wagered a bottle of Madeira wine with his friend Jonathan Cilley that Cilley would get married before Hawthorne did.
Phoenicia was a thalassocratic, ancient Semitic-speaking Mediterranean civilization that originated in the Levant Lebanon, in the west of the Fertile Crescent. Scholars agree that it was centered on the coastal areas of Lebanon and included northern Israel, southern Syria reaching as far north as Arwad, but there is some dispute as to how far south it went, the furthest suggested area being Ashkelon, its colonies reached the Western Mediterranean, such as Cádiz in Spain and most notably Carthage in North Africa, the Atlantic Ocean. The civilization spread across the Mediterranean between 1500 BC and 300 BC. Phoenicia is an ancient Greek term used to refer to the major export of the region, cloth dyed Tyrian purple from the Murex mollusc, referred to the major Canaanite port towns, their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to those of ancient Greece, centered in modern Lebanon, of which the most notable cities were Tyre, Arwad, Berytus and Carthage. Each city-state was a politically independent unit, it is uncertain to what extent the Phoenicians viewed themselves as a single nationality.
In terms of archaeology, language and religion there was little to set the Phoenicians apart as markedly different from other residents of the Levant, such as their close relatives and neighbors, the Israelites. Around 1050 BC, a Phoenician alphabet was used for the writing of Phoenician, it became one of the most used writing systems, spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, where it evolved and was assimilated by many other cultures, including the Roman alphabet used by Western civilization today. The name Phoenicians, like Latin Poenī, comes from Greek Φοίνικες; the word φοῖνιξ phoînix meant variably "Phoenician person", "Tyrian purple, crimson" or "date palm" and is attested with all three meanings in Homer. The word may be derived from φοινός phoinós "blood-red", itself related to φόνος phónos "murder", it is difficult to ascertain which meaning came first, but it is understandable how Greeks may have associated the crimson or purple color of dates and dye with the merchants who traded both products.
Robert S. P. Beekes has suggested a pre-Greek origin of the ethnonym; the oldest attested form of the word in Greek may be the Mycenaean po-ni-ki-jo, po-ni-ki borrowed from Ancient Egyptian: fnḫw, although this derivation is disputed. The folk etymological association of Φοινίκη with φοῖνιξ mirrors that in Akkadian, which tied kinaḫni, kinaḫḫi "Canaan" to kinaḫḫu "red-dyed wool"; the land was natively known as its people as the knʿny. In the Amarna letters of the 14th century BC, people from the region called themselves Kenaani or Kinaani, in modern English understood as/equivalent to Canaanite. Much in the sixth century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus writes that Phoenicia was called χνα khna, a name that Philo of Byblos adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: "Khna, afterwards called Phoinix"; the ethnonym survived in North Africa until the fourth century AD. Herodotus's account refers to the myths of Europa. According to the Persians best informed in history, the Phoenicians began the quarrel.
These people, who had dwelt on the shores of the Erythraean Sea, having migrated to the Mediterranean and settled in the parts which they now inhabit, began at once, they say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the wares of Egypt and Assyria... The Greek historian Strabo believed. Herodotus believed that the homeland of the Phoenicians was Bahrain; this theory was accepted by the 19th-century German classicist Arnold Heeren who said that: "In the Greek geographers, for instance, we read of two islands, named Tyrus or Tylos, Aradus, which boasted that they were the mother country of the Phoenicians, exhibited relics of Phoenician temples." The people of Tyre in South Lebanon in particular have long maintained Persian Gulf origins, the similarity in the words "Tylos" and "Tyre" has been commented upon. The Dilmun civilization thrived in Bahrain during the period 2200–1600 BC, as shown by excavations of settlements and Dilmun burial mounds. However, some claim there is little evidence of occupation at all in Bahrain during the time when such migration had taken place.
Canaanite culture developed in situ from the earlier Ghassulian chalcolithic culture. Ghassulian itself developed from the Circum-Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex, which in turn developed from a fusion of their ancestral Natufian and Harifian cultures with Pre-Pottery Neolithic B farming cultures, practicing the domestication of animals, during the 6200 BC climatic crisis which led to the Neolithic Revolution in the Levant. Byblos is attested as an archaeological site from the Early Bronze Age; the Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically though the Ugaritic language does not belong to the Canaanite languages proper. The Canaanite-Phoenician alphabet consists of all consonants. Starting around 1050 BC, this script was used for the writing of Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language, it is believed to be one of the ancestors of modern alphabets. B
B.M.C. Durfee High School (1886 building)
B. M. C. Durfee High School is an historic former high school building at 289 Rock Street in Fall River, Massachusetts; the school was built in 1886 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. In 1978, it was replaced by the current B. M. C. Durfee High School building; the old building was restored in the early 1990s and is now operated as a probate and family courthouse by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The building was built as a donation from Mrs. Mary B. Young to the people of the city of Fall River, in memory of her son Bradford Matthew Chaloner Durfee, who had died at a young age in 1872, leaving a sizable inheritance. George A. Clough, a Boston architect was chosen to design the building. Ground was broken in August 1883; the first story of the school is constructed of native Fall River Granite, while the stone of the upper portions is from Mason, New Hampshire. The new high school was formally dedicated to the city on June 15, 1887; the building occupies a commanding position atop a hill in the city's Highlands neighborhood, is visible from miles around.
Today, the school's sports teams are known as the "Durfee Hilltoppers". In 1978, the city opened a new, much larger high school in the north end named "B. M. C. Durfee High School"; the old high school remained vacant until the early 1990s when it was taken over by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, for use as a Probate Court House. The restoration was completed in the mid-1990s; the Southeast branch of the Massachusetts Housing Court is located in the building as well. The building features a rare 4-foot telescope with an 8-inch lens, built by the Warner & Swasey Company in 1887; the observatory sat idle for decades, until volunteers began work restoring the telescope and clock mechanism in 2009. The telescope opened for public viewing for select nights in 2015. National Register of Historic Places listings in Fall River, Massachusetts Highlands Historic District B. M. C. Durfee High School
The Dighton Rock is a 40-ton boulder located in the riverbed of the Taunton River at Berkley, Massachusetts. The rock is noted for its petroglyphs, carved designs of ancient and uncertain origin, the controversy about their creators. In 1963, during construction of a coffer dam, state officials removed the rock from the river for preservation, it was installed in a museum in Dighton Rock State Park. In 1980 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the boulder has the form of a slanted, six-sided block 5 feet high, 9.5 feet wide, 11 feet long. It is gray-brown crystalline sandstone of medium to coarse texture; the surface with the inscriptions has a trapezoidal face and is inclined 70 degrees to the northwest. It was found facing the water of the bay. In 1680, the English colonist Rev. John Danforth made a drawing of the petroglyphs, preserved in the British Museum, his drawing conflicts with the reports of others and the current markings on the rock. In 1690 Rev. Cotton Mather described the rock in his book, The Wonderful Works of God Commemorated: Among the other Curiosities of New-England, one is that of a mighty Rock, on a perpendicular side whereof by a River, which at High Tide covers part of it, there are deeply Engraved, no man alive knows How or When about half a score Lines, near Ten Foot Long, a foot and half broad, filled with strange Characters: which would suggest as odd Thoughts about them that were here before us, as there are odd Shapes in that Elaborate Monument.
During the 19th century, many popular publications and public figures mentioned the rock. The satirist James Russell Lowell suggested that it should be mentioned by presidential candidates in letters to newspapers: "f letters must be written, profitable use might be made of the Dighton rock hieroglyphic or the cuneiform script, every fresh decipherer of, enabled to educe a different meaning." Lowell made other references to the rock in his circulated satirical writing, may thus have helped to popularize it. In 1912 Edmund B. Delabarre wrote that markings on the Dighton Rock suggest that Miguel Corte-Real reached New England. Delabarre stated that the markings were abbreviated Latin, the message, translated into English, read as follows: "I, Miguel Cortereal, 1511. In this place, by the will of God, I became a chief of the Indians."Other hypotheses about the creation of the markings include: Indigenous peoples of North America – who were known to have inscribed petroglyphs in rocks Ancient Phoenicians – proposed in 1783 by Ezra Stiles in his "Election Sermon."
Norse – proposed in 1837 by Carl Christian Rafn and debunked by Jason Colavito Portuguese – proposed in 1912 by Edmund B. Delabarre, who believed that they used the rock for their own inscriptions Chinese – proposed by Gavin Menzies in his 2002 book 1421: The Year China Discovered America In November 1952, the Miguel Corte-Real Memorial Society of New York City acquired 49½ acres of land adjacent to the rock to create a park. However, in 1951 the Massachusetts Legislature expropriated the same land for a State Park. More land was purchased. Dighton Rock State Park now has an area of 100 acres; the vicinity of Dighton Rock has been furnished with parking and picnic facilities. Although Mather described these as cut, a statement, repeated to the present day, early reports suggested that this was not the case. DelaBarre wrote: One thing is certain, that former descriptions of the depth of the incisions cannot be used as evidence for any change; the first who describes them calls them "deeply engraved" in 1690.
Greenwood gives the first reliable description, in 1730. He says that the "indentures are not considerable," and his drawing and his other statements prove that he had as much difficulty in making out the real characters as has been experienced since then. On the lowest part of the face, which alone does show evident signs of much wear, Mather's draughtsman, Greenwood, their next followers, were less successful in making out apparent characters than have been some observers. Sewall in 1768 and Kendall in 1807 made definite statements to the effect that the greater part of the lines were so much effaced as to make their decipherment impossible, or wholly subject to the fancy. National Register of Historic Places listings in Bristol County, Massachusetts Newport Tower Douglas Hunter, The Place of Stone: Dighton Rock and the Erasure of America's Indigenous Past. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2017. Media related to Dighton Rock at Wikimedia Commons Dighton Rock State Park, Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation Edward Brecher, "The Enigma of Dighton Rock", American Heritage, June 1958, Volume 9, Issue 4