Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock was an English film director and producer regarded as one of the most influential filmmakers in the history of cinema. Known as "the Master of Suspense", he directed over 50 feature films in a career spanning six decades, becoming as well known as any of his actors thanks to his many interviews, his cameo roles in most of his films, his hosting and producing of the television anthology Alfred Hitchcock Presents. Born in Leytonstone, Hitchcock entered the film industry in 1919 as a title card designer after training as a technical clerk and copy writer for a telegraph-cable company, he made his directorial debut with the silent film The Pleasure Garden. His first successful film, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog, helped to shape the thriller genre, while his 1929 film, was the first British "talkie". Two of his 1930s thrillers, The 39 Steps and The Lady Vanishes, are ranked among the greatest British films of the 20th century. By 1939 Hitchcock was a filmmaker of international importance, film producer David O. Selznick persuaded him to move to Hollywood.
A string of successful films followed, including Rebecca, Foreign Correspondent, Shadow of a Doubt, The Paradine Case. His 53 films have grossed over US$223.3 million worldwide and garnered a total of 46 Oscar nominations and six wins. The "Hitchcockian" style includes the use of camera movement to mimic a person's gaze, thereby turning viewers into voyeurs, framing shots to maximise anxiety and fear; the film critic Robin Wood wrote that the meaning of a Hitchcock film "is there in the method, in the progression from shot to shot. A Hitchcock film is an organism, with the whole implied in every detail and every detail related to the whole." By 1960 Hitchcock had directed four films ranked among the greatest of all time: Rear Window, North by Northwest, Psycho. In 2012 Vertigo replaced Orson Welles's Citizen Kane as the British Film Institute's greatest film made. By 2018 eight of his films had been selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, including his personal favourite, Shadow of a Doubt.
He received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1979 and was knighted in December that year, four months before he died. Hitchcock was born on 13 August 1899 in the flat above his parents' leased grocer's shop at 517 High Road, Leytonstone, on the outskirts of east London, the youngest of three children: William, Ellen Kathleen, Alfred Joseph, his parents, Emma Jane Hitchcock, née Whelan, William Hitchcock, were both Roman Catholics, with partial roots in Ireland. There was a large extended family, including Uncle John Hitchcock with his five-bedroom Victorian house on Campion Road, complete with maid, cook and gardener; every summer John rented a seaside house for the family in Kent. Hitchcock said that he first became class-conscious there, noticing the differences between tourists and locals. Describing himself as a well-behaved boy—his father called him his "little lamb without a spot"—Hitchcock said he could not remember having had a playmate. One of his favourite stories for interviewers was about his father sending him to the local police station with a note when he was five.
The experience left him, with a lifelong fear of policemen. When he was six, the family moved to Limehouse and leased two stores at 130 and 175 Salmon Lane, which they ran as a fish-and-chips shop and fishmongers' respectively, it seems that Hitchcock was seven when he attended his first school, the Howrah House Convent in Poplar, which he entered in 1907. According to Patrick McGilligan, he stayed at Howrah House for at most two years, he attended a convent school, the Wode Street School "for the daughters of gentlemen and little boys", run by the Faithful Companions of Jesus. The family moved again when he was 11, this time to Stepney, on 5 October 1910 Hitchcock was sent to St Ignatius College in Stamford Hill, Tottenham, a Jesuit grammar school with a reputation for discipline; the priests used a hard rubber cane on the boys, always at the end of the day, so the boys had to sit through classes anticipating the punishment once they knew they'd been written up for it. He said; the school register lists his year of birth as 1900 rather than 1899.
While biographer Gene Adair reports that Hitchcock was "an average, or above-average, pupil", Hitchcock said he was "usually among the four or five at the top of the class". His favourite subject was geography, he became interested in maps, railway and bus timetables, he told Peter Bogdanovich: "The Jesuits taught me organization, control and, to some
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation; the term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects.
Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data. The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall; these slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used. Thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years; the next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision."
Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface. The three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.
The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.
This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era". The height of the silent era was a fruitful period, full of artistic innovation; the film movements of Classical Hollywood as well as French Impressionism, German Expressionism, Soviet Montage began in this period. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that every style and genre of film-making of the 20th and 21st centuries has its artistic roots in the silent era; the silent era was a pioneering one from a technical point of view. Three-point lighting, the close-up, long shot and continuity editing all became prevalent long before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" or "talkies" in the late 1920s; some scholars claim that the artistic quality of cinema decreased for several years, during the early 1930s, until film directors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies" around the late 1930s.
Helen Haye was a British stage and film actress. Hay debuted in London in 1911 as Gertrude in Hamlet, her film career began in 1917. She worked with director Alexander Korda, she made her final film appearance as the Duchess of York. Helen Haye died four days after her 83rd birthday in London. Helen Haye on IMDb Helen Haye at the Internet Broadway Database Helen Haye at AllMovie
Malcolm Keen was an English actor of stage and television. He was sometimes credited as Malcolm Keane. Born in Bristol, he made his stage debut in 1902 and his first film in 1916. Keen was an early collaborator with the director Alfred Hitchcock, starring in his silent films The Mountain Eagle, The Lodger and The Manxman. In April 1927, Keen appeared in Packing Up, a short film made in the DeForest Phonofilm sound-on-film process; the film featured Mary Clare and was directed by Miles Mander. Keen was the father of actor Geoffrey Keen, the two both played Iachimo in Cymbeline opposite Peggy Ashcroft: Malcolm at the Old Vic in 1932, Geoffrey at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in 1957. Keen played the Caliph in a production of James Elroy Flecker's Hassan at His Majesty's Theatre in London in 1923. Incidental music for the play was by Frederick Delius, the ballet in the House-of-the-Moving Walls was created by Fokine. In the cast, Henry Ainley as Hassan, Isabel Jeans as Yasmin. Keen's U. S. theatre credits include Man and Superman in 1947 at the Alvin Theatre in New York, The Enchanted at the Lyceum Theatre in New York in 1950, Romeo and Juliet at the Broadhurst Theatre in New York in 1951, Much Ado About Nothing at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre in New York.
Malcolm Keen on IMDb Malcolm Keen at the Internet Broadway Database
Jack Hobbs (actor)
Jack Hobbs was a British stage and film actor who appeared in more than forty films. After making his debut in the 1915 silent The Yoke Hobbs appeared in a mixture of leading and supporting roles in both the silent and sound eras, he played the hero including All That Glitters. He was cast as an glib, smooth-talking antagonist in two George Formby films No Limit and It's in the Air. Chibnall, Steve. Quota Quickies: The British of the British'B' Film. British Film Institute, 2007. Low, Rachael. Filmmaking in 1930s Britain. George Allen & Unwin, 1985. Jack Hobbs on IMDb
Cinema of the Netherlands
Cinema of the Netherlands refers to the film industry based in the Netherlands. Because the Dutch film industry is small, there is little or no international market for Dutch films all films rely on state funding; this funding can be achieved through several sources, for instance through the Netherlands Film Fund or the public broadcast networks. In recent years the Dutch Government has established several tax shelters for private investments in Dutch films. In 2000 the total revenue coming from box office results in the Netherlands was €128.5 million. In 2006 the total revenue was €155.9 million. The Netherlands Film Festival and the Netherlands Film Fund are the initiators of four awards recognising box office achievements in the Netherlands; the awards are intended to generate positive publicity for a film when the media attention for the film's release has stopped. The Golden Film is awarded to films once they have sold 100,000 cinema tickets, the Platinum Film at 400,000 tickets, the Diamond Film at 1,000,000 tickets.
The Crystal Film is for documentary films from the Netherlands and is awarded once the film has sold 10,000 cinema tickets. The most visited film in Dutch cinema history is Titanic. Proportionately the most visited Dutch film is Turkish Delight which had 3,328,804 visitors in 1973 a quarter of the entire population at the time. Titanic, by comparison, drew one fifth of the population of the Netherlands in the late nineties; the first Dutch film was the slapstick comedy Gestoorde hengelaar by M. H. Laddé. Willy Mullens was one of the influential pioneers of Dutch cinema in the early 1900s, his slapstick comedy film The Misadventure of a French Gentleman Without Pants at the Zandvoort Beach is the oldest surviving Dutch film. Although the Dutch film industry is small, there have been several active periods in which Dutch filmmaking thrived; the first boom came during the First World War. Studios like Hollandia produced an impressive cycle of feature films. A second wave followed in the 1930s, as talking pictures led to a call for Dutch-spoken films, which resulted in a boom in production: between 1934 and 1940, 37 feature films were released.
To accommodate the rapid growth, the Dutch film industry looked to foreign personnel experienced with sound film technology. These were Germans who had fled their country as Hitler took power. Several renowned German directors who would go on to work in Hollywood directed films in the Netherlands in this period, most notably Douglas Sirk. During World War II, the private Dutch film industry came to a near halt. However, the German-led occupation government supported many small propaganda films in support of the Third Reich; the most well-known were De nieuwe tijd breekt baan, Met Duitschland tegen het Bolsjewisme and Werkt in Duitschland. After 1943, this funding came to an end, due to internal struggles within the Dutch Kultuurkamer and the lack of money of the occupational government; the Documentary film of the Netherlands has long been renowned worldwide. The most prominent Dutch directors those who started their careers before World War II, came from a documentary background, for instance Joris Ivens and Bert Haanstra.
Since the early 1970s, documentary production aimed at a theatrical release has declined due to a shift towards television documentary. In the years directly following the war, most effort was given to the reconstruction of the country. In the late 1950s the Dutch film industry professionalized; the Nederlands Filmfonds was established in 1957, the Nederlandse Filmacademie in 1958. Documentary filmer Bert Haanstra made his first fiction film, Fanfare, in 1958. Though the film was a big success, this success was only incidental. Dutch cinema did temporarily provide a sound of its own in this period, in the form of what is now considered to be the "Dutch documentary tradition" or "Dutch documentary school". Headed by Haanstra, who won an Academy Award for Documentary Short Subject with 1959's Glass and won prizes in Berlin and Cannes, the movement included Herman van der Horst, who won a Golden Bear for Best Documentary and John Fernhout, whose Sky Over Holland won a Golden Palm at the Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for an Academy Award for Documentary Short Subject in 1968.
Documentaries still play an important part in Dutch film industry. The International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam, held annually in November, is considered one of the largest documentary film festivals in the world. Famous documentary directors pre- and postdating the unofficial Documentary School include Joris Ivens, Johan van der Keuken and Jos de Putter. Ivens won a César Award and a Golden Lion, as well as a career achievement award at the Venice Film Festival. Jos de Putter is now head of the Documentary film department of the VPRO, one of the main Dutch public television stations. Although Haanstra continued to make internationally acclaimed documentaries, the "school" more or less faded out by the late sixties. By this time, the first generation of Dutch filmmakers who graduated from the Dutch Film Academy began to make a name for themselves; the most famous director of this era is undoubtedly Fons Rademakers, who received domestic and international critical claim with a number of films between 1959 and 1963.
Rademakers learned the business from Vittorio De Sica and Jean Renoir and brought his newfound knowledge of foreign art film
Maurits Binger was a Dutch film director and screenwriter of the silent era. He directed 39 films between 1913 and 1922 and is considered one of the pioneers of fictional films in the Netherlands. Binger's studio and base of operations was in North Holland. Between 1919 and 1923 he was managing director of Anglo-Hollandia an attempt to break into the larger British market. There is a film institute in the Netherlands in his name, he is sometimes referred to as Maurice Binger. Maurits Binger on IMDb