Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust, known as Marcel Proust, was a French novelist and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu, published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927. He is considered by critics and writers to be one of the most influential authors of the 20th century. Proust was born in the Paris Borough of Auteuil at the home of his great-uncle on 10 July 1871, two months after the Treaty of Frankfurt formally ended the Franco-Prussian War, he was born during the violence that surrounded the suppression of the Paris Commune, his childhood corresponded with the consolidation of the French Third Republic. Much of In Search of Lost Time concerns the vast changes, most the decline of the aristocracy and the rise of the middle classes, that occurred in France during the Third Republic and the fin de siècle. Proust's father, Adrien Proust, was a prominent pathologist and epidemiologist, studying cholera in Europe and Asia, he wrote numerous books on medicine and hygiene.
Proust's mother, Jeanne Clémence, was the daughter of a wealthy Jewish family from Alsace. Literate and well-read, she demonstrated a well-developed sense of humour in her letters, her command of English was sufficient to help with her son's translations of John Ruskin. Proust was raised in his father's Catholic faith, he was baptized and confirmed as a Catholic, but he never formally practiced that faith. He became an atheist and was something of a mystic. By the age of nine, Proust had had his first serious asthma attack, thereafter he was considered a sickly child. Proust spent long holidays in the village of Illiers; this village, combined with recollections of his great-uncle's house in Auteuil, became the model for the fictional town of Combray, where some of the most important scenes of In Search of Lost Time take place. In 1882, at the age of eleven, Proust became a pupil at the Lycée Condorcet, but his education was disrupted by his illness. Despite this he excelled in literature. Thanks to his classmates, he was able to gain access to some of the salons of the upper bourgeoisie, providing him with copious material for In Search of Lost Time.
Despite his poor health, Proust served a year in the French army, stationed at Coligny Barracks in Orléans, an experience that provided a lengthy episode in The Guermantes' Way, part three of his novel. As a young man, Proust was a dilettante and a social climber whose aspirations as a writer were hampered by his lack of self-discipline, his reputation from this period, as a snob and an amateur, contributed to his troubles with getting Swann's Way, the first part of his large-scale novel, published in 1913. At this time, he attended the salons of Mme Straus, widow of Georges Bizet and mother of Proust's childhood friend Jacques Bizet, of Madeleine Lemaire and of Mme Arman de Caillavet, one of the models for Madame Verdurin, mother of his friend Gaston Arman de Caillavet, with whose fiancée he was in love, it is through Mme Arman de Caillavet, he made the acquaintance of her lover. Proust had a close relationship with his mother. To appease his father, who insisted that he pursue a career, Proust obtained a volunteer position at Bibliothèque Mazarine in the summer of 1896.
After exerting considerable effort, he obtained a sick leave that extended for several years until he was considered to have resigned. He never worked at his job, he did not move from his parents' apartment until after both were dead, his life and family circle changed markedly between 1900 and 1905. In February 1903, Proust's brother, Robert Proust and left the family home, his father died in November of the same year. And most crushingly, Proust's beloved mother died in September 1905, she left him a considerable inheritance. His health throughout this period continued to deteriorate. Proust spent the last three years of his life confined to his bedroom, sleeping during the day and working at night to complete his novel, he died of pneumonia and a pulmonary abscess in 1922. He was buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. Proust was involved in publishing from an early age. In addition to the literary magazines with which he was associated, in which he published while at school, from 1890 to 1891 he published a regular society column in the journal Le Mensuel.
In 1892, he was involved in founding a literary review called Le Banquet, throughout the next several years Proust published small pieces in this journal and in the prestigious La Revue Blanche. In 1896 Les plaisirs et les jours, a compendium of many of these early pieces, was published; the book included a foreword by Anatole France, drawings by Mme Lemaire in whose salon Proust was a frequent guest, who inspired Proust's Mme Verdurin. She invited him and Reynaldo Hahn to her château de Réveillon in summer 1894, for three weeks in 1895; this book was so sumptuously produced that it cost twice the normal price of a book its size. That year Proust began working on a novel, published in 1952 and titled Jean Santeuil by his posthumous editors. Many of the themes developed in In Search of Lost Time find their first articulation in this unfinished work, including the enigma of me
Willa Muir aka Agnes Neill Scott born Willa Anderson was a Scottish novelist and translator. She was the major part of a translation partnership with Edwin Muir, she and her husband translated the works of many notable German authors including Franz Kafka. They were given an award in 1958 in their joint names, however Willa recorded in her journal that her husband "only helped". Willa Muir was born Wilhelmina Johnston Anderson in 1890 in Montrose, she was one of the first Scottish women to attend university, she studied classics at the University of St Andrews, graduating in 1910 with a first class degree. In 1919 she married the poet Edwin Muir and gave up her job in London as assistant principal of Gipsy Hill teacher training college. In the 1920s the couple lived in continental Europe for two periods, living in Montrose at other times. During their first period, she supported them by teaching at the Internationalschule in Hellerau, run by her friend A. S. Neill. Willa and her husband worked together on many translations, most notable the major works of Franz Kafka.
They had translated The Castle within six years of Kafka's death. In her memoir of Edwin Muir, Willa describes the method of translation that she and her husband adopted in their Kafka translations: "We divided the book in two, Edwin translated one half and I the other we went over each other's translations as with a fine-tooth comb." Willa was the more able linguist and she was the major contributor. She recorded in her journal that her husband "only helped". Between 1924 and the start of the Second World War her translation financed their life together. In addition she translated on her own account under the name of Agnes Neill Scott; the couple spent considerable time touring in Europe and she expressed some regret that she had lost a home. A satirical portrait of Willa and Edwin appears in Wyndham Lewis's The Apes of God; when Willa and her husband met Lewis in the mid-1920s, she recorded her sense that he was "one of those Englishmen who do not have the habit of talking to women."Her book Women: An Inquiry is a book-length feminist essay.
Her 1936 book Mrs Grundy in Scotland is an investigation of the anxieties and pressure to conform to respectability norms in Scottish life. In 1949 she was painted by Nigel McIsaac, the painting is in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. In 1958, Willa and Edwin Muir were granted the first Johann-Heinrich-Voss Translation Award, her husband died in 1959 and she wrote a memoir Belonging about their life together. She died at Dunoon in 1970. Imagined Corners Mrs Ritchie Boyhood and Youth by Hans Carossa A Roumanian Diary by Hans Carossa Doctor Gion, etc. by Hans Carossa Life Begins by Christa Winsloe The Child Manuela by Christa Winsloe Power by Lion Feuchtwanger, New York, Viking Press, 1926. The Ugly Duchess: A Historical Romance by Lion Feuchtwanger, Martin Secker, 1927. Two Anglo-Saxon Plays: The Oil Islands and Warren Hastings, by Lion Feuchtwanger, Martin Secker, 1929. Success: A Novel by Lion Feuchtwanger, New York, Viking Press, 1930; the Castle by Franz Kafka, Martin Secker, 1930. The Sleepwalkers: A Trilogy by Hermann Broch, Boston, MA, Brown & Company, 1932.
Josephus by Lion Feuchtwanger, New York, Viking Press, 1932. Salvation by Sholem Asch, New York, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1934; the Hill of Lies by Heinrich Mann, Jarrolds, 1934. Mottke, the Thief by Sholem Asch, New York, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1935; the Unknown Quantity by Hermann Broch, New York, Viking Press, 1935. The Jew of Rome: A Historical Romance by Lion Feuchtwanger, Hutchinson, 1935; the Loom of Justice by Ernst Lothar, New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1935. Night over the East by Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Sheed & Ward, 1936. Amerika by Franz Kafka, New York, Doubleday/New Directions, 1946 The Trial by Franz Kafka, Martin Secker, 1937, reissued New York, The Modern Library, 1957. Metamorphosis and Other Stories by Franz Kafka, Penguin Books, 1961. Women: An Inquiry Mrs Grundy in Scotland Women in Scotland Living with Ballads Belonging: a memoir "Elizabeth" and "A Portrait of Emily Stobo", Chapman 71 "Clock-a-doodle-do", M. Burgess ed; the Other Voice, "Mrs Muttoe and the Top Storey", Aileen Christianson, Moving in Circles: Willa Muir's Writings, Word Power Books, 2007.
Michelle Woods, Kafka Translated: How Translators Have Shaped Our Reading of Kafka, New York: Bloomsbury, 2014. Aileen Christianson, Moving in Circles: Willa Muir's Writings, Word Power Books, 2007. Patricia R. Mudge, Catriona Soukup, Lumir Soukup, essays in Chapman 71 P. H. Butler, Willa Muir: Writer, Edwin Muir: Centenary Assessments ed. by C. J. M. MacLachlan and D. S. Robb pp. 58–74. Margaret Elphinstone, Willa Muir: Crossing the Genres, A History of Scottish Women’s Writing, ed. Gifford and McMillan, Dorothy pp. 400–15. Willa Muir, Belonging: A Memoir, London: Hogarth Press, 1968
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde and is regarded as one of the most influential and important authors of the 20th century. Joyce is best known for Ulysses, a landmark work in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in a variety of literary styles, most famously stream of consciousness. Other well-known works are the short-story collection Dubliners, the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Finnegans Wake, his other writings include three books of poetry, a play, his published letters and occasional journalism. Joyce was born in Dublin into a middle-class family. A brilliant student, he attended the Christian Brothers-run O'Connell School before excelling at the Jesuit schools Clongowes and Belvedere, despite the chaotic family life imposed by his father's alcoholism and unpredictable finances, he went on to attend University College Dublin. In 1904, in his early twenties, Joyce emigrated to continental Europe with his partner Nora Barnacle.
They lived in Trieste and Zurich. Although most of his adult life was spent abroad, Joyce's fictional universe centres on Dublin and is populated by characters who resemble family members and friends from his time there. Ulysses in particular is set with precision in the alleyways of the city. Shortly after the publication of Ulysses, he elucidated this preoccupation somewhat, saying, "For myself, I always write about Dublin, because if I can get to the heart of Dublin I can get to the heart of all the cities of the world. In the particular is contained the universal." On 2 February 1882, Joyce was born at 41 Brighton Square, Dublin, Ireland. Joyce's father was John Stanislaus Joyce and his mother was Mary Jane "May" Murray, he was the eldest of ten surviving siblings. James was baptised according to the Rites of the Catholic Church in the nearby St Joseph's Church in Terenure on 5 February 1882 by Rev. John O'Mulloy. Joyce's godparents were Ellen McCann. John Stanislaus Joyce's family came from Fermoy in County Cork, had owned a small salt and lime works.
Joyce's paternal grandfather, James Augustine Joyce, married Ellen O'Connell, daughter of John O'Connell, a Cork Alderman who owned a drapery business and other properties in Cork City. Ellen's family claimed kinship with Daniel O'Connell, "The Liberator"; the Joyce family's purported ancestor, Seán Mór Seoighe was a stonemason from Connemara. In 1887, his father was appointed rate collector by Dublin Corporation. Around this time Joyce was attacked by leading to his lifelong cynophobia, he suffered from astraphobia. In 1891 Joyce wrote a poem on the death of Charles Stewart Parnell, his father was angry at the treatment of Parnell by the Catholic Church, the Irish Home Rule Party and the British Liberal Party and the resulting collaborative failure to secure Home Rule for Ireland. The Irish Party had dropped Parnell from leadership, but the Vatican's role in allying with the British Conservative Party to prevent Home Rule left a lasting impression on the young Joyce. The elder Joyce had the poem printed and sent a part to the Vatican Library.
In November, John Joyce was suspended from work. In 1893, John Joyce was dismissed with a pension, beginning the family's slide into poverty caused by his drinking and financial mismanagement. Joyce had begun his education at Clongowes Wood College, a Jesuit boarding school near Clane, County Kildare, in 1888 but had to leave in 1892 when his father could no longer pay the fees. Joyce studied at home and at the Christian Brothers O'Connell School on North Richmond Street, before he was offered a place in the Jesuits' Dublin school, Belvedere College, in 1893; this came about because of a chance meeting his father had with a Jesuit priest called John Conmee who knew the family and Joyce was given a reduction in fees to attend Belvedere. In 1895, now aged 13, was elected to join the Sodality of Our Lady by his peers at Belvedere; the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas continued to have a strong influence on him for most of his life. Joyce enrolled at the established University College Dublin in 1898, studying English and Italian.
He became active in literary circles in the city. In 1900 his laudatory review of Henrik Ibsen's When We Dead Awaken was published in The Fortnightly Review. Joyce wrote a number of at least two plays during this period. Many of the friends he made at University College Dublin appeared as characters in Joyce's works, his closest colleagues included leading figures of the generation, most notably, Tom Kettle, Francis Sheehy-Skeffington and Oliver St. John Gogarty. Joyce was first introduced to the Irish public by Arthur Griffith in his newspaper, United Irishman, in November 1901. Joyce had written an article on the Irish Literary Theatre and his college magazine refused to print it. Joyce had it distributed locally. Griffith himself wrote a piece decrying the censorship of the student James Joyce. In 1901, the National Census of Ireland lists James Joyce as an English- and Irish-speaking scholar living with his mother and father, six sisters and three brothers at Royal Terrace (now Inverness Ro
Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce. It was first serialised in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 and published in its entirety in Paris by Sylvia Beach on 2 February 1922, Joyce's 40th birthday, it is considered to be one of the most important works of modernist literature and has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire movement." According to Declan Kiberd, "Before Joyce, no writer of fiction had so foregrounded the process of thinking". Ulysses chronicles the peripatetic appointments and encounters of Leopold Bloom in Dublin in the course of an ordinary day, 16 June 1904. Ulysses is the Latinised name of Odysseus, the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey, the novel establishes a series of parallels between the poem and the novel, with structural correspondences between the characters and experiences of Leopold Bloom and Odysseus, Molly Bloom and Penelope, Stephen Dedalus and Telemachus, in addition to events and themes of the early 20th-century context of modernism and Ireland's relationship to Britain.
The novel is allusive and imitates the styles of different periods of English literature. Since its publication, the book has attracted controversy and scrutiny, ranging from an obscenity trial in the United States in 1921, to protracted textual "Joyce Wars"; the novel's stream-of-consciousness technique, careful structuring, experimental prose—replete with puns and allusions—as well as its rich characterisation and broad humour, have led it to be regarded as one of the greatest literary works in history. Joyce first encountered the figure of Odysseus/Ulysses in Charles Lamb's Adventures of Ulysses, an adaptation of the Odyssey for children, which seems to have established the Latin name in Joyce's mind. At school he wrote an essay on the character, entitled "My Favourite Hero". Joyce told Frank Budgen, he thought about calling his short-story collection Dubliners by the name Ulysses in Dublin, but the idea grew from a story written in 1906 to a "short book" in 1907, to the vast novel that he began in 1914.
Leopold Bloom's home at 7 Eccles Street - Episode 4, Episode 17, Episode 18, Penelope Post office, Westland Row - Episode 5, Lotus Eaters. Sweny’s pharmacy, Lombard Street, Lincoln Place. Episode 5, Lotus Eaters the Freeman's Journal, Prince's Street, off of O'Connell Street Episode 7, Aeolus And - not far away - Graham Lemon's candy shop, 49 Lower O'Connell Street, it starts Episode 8, Lestrygonians Davy Byrne's pub - Episode 8, Lestrygonians National Library of Ireland - Episode 9, Scylla and Charybdis Ormond Hotel - on the banks of the Liffey - Episode 11, Sirens Barney Kiernan's pub, Episode 12, Cyclops Maternity hospital, Episode 14, Oxen of the Sun Bella Cohen's brothel. Episode 15, Circe Cabman’s shelter, Butt Bridge. - Episode 16, EumaeusThe action of the novel takes place from one side of Dublin Bay to the other, opening in Sandycove to the South of the city and closing on Howth Head to the North. Ulysses is divided into the three books, 18 episodes; the episodes do not have chapter headings or titles, are numbered only in Gabler's edition.
In the various editions the breaks between episodes are indicated in different ways. At first glance, much of the book may appear chaotic; the two schemata which Stuart Gilbert and Herbert Gorman released after publication to help defend Joyce from the obscenity accusations made the links to The Odyssey clearer, helped explain the work's internal structure. Joyce divides Ulysses into 18 episodes that "roughly correspond to the episodes in Homer's Odyssey". Homer's Odyssey is divided into 24 books, it has been suggested by scholars that every episode of Ulysses has a theme and correspondence between its characters and those of the Odyssey. The text of the published novel does not include the episode titles that are used below, nor the correspondences, which originate from explanatory outlines Joyce sent to friends, known as the Linati and Gilbert schemata. Joyce referred to the episodes by their Homeric titles in his letters, he took the idiosyncratic rendering of some of the titles, e.g. "Nausikaa" and the "Telemachiad" from Victor Bérard's two-volume Les Phéniciens et l'Odyssée which he consulted in 1918 in the Zentralbibliothek Zürich.
While the action of Joyce's novel takes place during one ordinary day in early twentieth-century Dublin, Ireland, in Homer's epic, Odysseus, "a Greek hero of the Trojan War... took ten years to find his way from Troy to his home on the island of Ithaca". Furthermore, Homer's poem includes violent storms and a shipwreck and monsters, gods and goddesses, a different world from Joyce's. Joyce's character Leopold Bloom, "a Jewish advertisement canvasser", corresponds to Odysseus in Homer's epic, it is 8 a.m. Buck Mulligan, a boisterous medical student, calls Stephen Dedalus up to the roof of the Sandycove Martello tower where they both live. There is tension between Stephen and M
Paul Thomas Mann was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate. His symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas are noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and the intellectual, his analysis and critique of the European and German soul used modernized versions of German and Biblical stories, as well as the ideas of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Nietzsche and Arthur Schopenhauer. Mann was a member of the Hanseatic Mann family and portrayed his family and class in his first novel, Buddenbrooks, his older brother was the radical writer Heinrich Mann and three of Mann's six children, Erika Mann, Klaus Mann and Golo Mann became significant German writers. When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, Mann fled to Switzerland; when World War II broke out in 1939, he moved to the United States returned to Switzerland in 1952. Mann is one of the best-known exponents of the so-called Exilliteratur, German literature written in exile by those who opposed the Hitler regime.
Mann's work influenced many authors, including Heinrich Böll, Joseph Heller, Yukio Mishima, Orhan Pamuk. Paul Thomas Mann was born to a bourgeois family in Lübeck, the second son of Thomas Johann Heinrich Mann and his wife Júlia da Silva Bruhns, a Brazilian woman of German and Portuguese ancestry, who emigrated to Germany with her family when she was seven years old, his mother was Roman Mann was baptised into his father's Lutheran religion. Mann's father died in 1891, his trading firm was liquidated; the family subsequently moved to Munich. Mann first studied science at a Lübeck gymnasium attended the Ludwig Maximillians University of Munich as well as the Technical University of Munich, where, in preparation for a journalism career, he studied history, art history and literature. Mann lived in Munich from 1891 until 1933, with the exception of a year spent in Palestrina, with his elder brother, the novelist Heinrich. Thomas worked at the South German Fire Insurance Company in 1894–95, his career as a writer began.
Mann's first short story, "Little Mr Friedemann", was published in 1898. In 1905, Mann married Katia Pringsheim, who came from a wealthy, secular Jewish industrialist family, she joined the Lutheran church. The couple had six children. In 1912, he and his wife moved to a sanatorium in Davos, to inspire his 1924 novel The Magic Mountain, he was appalled by the risk of international confrontation between Germany and France, following the Agadir Crisis in Morocco, by the outbreak of the First World War. In 1929, Mann had a cottage built in the fishing village of Nidden, Memel Territory on the Curonian Spit, where there was a German art colony and where he spent the summers of 1930–1932 working on Joseph and His Brothers. Today the cottage is a cultural center dedicated with a small memorial exhibition. In 1933, while travelling in the South of France, Mann heard from his eldest children Klaus and Erika in Munich, that it would not be safe for him to return to Germany; the family emigrated to Küsnacht, near Zurich, Switzerland but received Czechoslovak citizenship and a passport in 1936.
In 1939, following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he emigrated to the United States. He moved to Princeton, New Jersey where he lived on 65 Stockton Road and began to teach at Princeton University. In 1942, the Mann family moved to 1550 San Remo Drive in the Pacific Palisades neighborhood of Los Angeles, California; the Manns were prominent members of the German expatriate community of Los Angeles, would meet other emigres at the house of Salka and Bertold Viertel in Santa Monica, at the Villa Aurora, the home of fellow German exile Lion Feuchtwanger. On 23 June 1944 Thomas Mann was naturalized as a citizen of the United States; the Manns lived in Los Angeles until 1952. The outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, prompted Mann to offer anti-Nazi speeches to the German people via the BBC. In October 1940 he began monthly broadcasts, recorded in the U. S. and flown to London, where the BBC broadcast them to Germany on the longwave band. In these eight-minute addresses, Mann condemned Hitler and his "paladins" as crude philistines out of touch with European culture.
In one noted speech he said, "The war is horrible, but it has the advantage of keeping Hitler from making speeches about culture."Mann was one of the few publicly active opponents of Nazism among German expatriates in the U. S. While some Germans claimed after the war that in his speeches he had endorsed the notion of collective guilt, others felt he had been critical of the politically unstable Weimar Republic that preceded the Third Reich. With the start of the Cold War he was frustrated by rising McCarthyism; as a'suspected communist', he was required to testify to the House Un-American Activities Committee, where he was termed "one of the world's foremost apologists for Stalin and company." He was listed by HUAC as being "affiliated with various peace organizations or Communist fronts." Being in his own words a non-communist rather than an anti-communist, Mann opposed the allegations: "As an American citizen of German birth I testify that I am painfully familiar with certain political trends.
Spiritual intolerance, political inquisitions, declining legal security, all this in the name of an alleged'state of emergency.'... That is how it started in Germany." As Mann joined protests against the jailing of the
Mannheim is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of 305,000 inhabitants. The city is at the centre of the larger densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region which has a population of 2,400,000 and is Germany's eighth-largest metropolitan region. Mannheim is located at the confluence of the Rhine and the Neckar in the northwestern corner of Baden-Württemberg; the Rhine separates Mannheim from the city of Ludwigshafen, just to the west of it in Rhineland-Palatinate, the border of Baden-Württemberg with Hesse is just to the north. Mannheim is downstream along the Neckar from the city of Heidelberg. Mannheim is unusual among German cities in that its streets and avenues are laid out in a grid pattern, leading to its nickname "die Quadratestadt"; the eighteenth century Mannheim Palace, former home of the Prince-elector of the Palatinate, now houses the University of Mannheim.
The city is home to major corporations including Daimler, John Deere, Caterpillar, ABB, Fuchs Petrolub, IBM, Reckitt Benckiser, Phoenix Group and several other well-known companies. In addition, Mannheim's SAP Arena is not only the home of the German ice hockey record champions the Adler Mannheim, but the well-known handball team, the Rhein-Neckar Löwen. According to the Forbes magazine, Mannheim is known for its exceptional inventive power and was ranked 11th among the Top 15 of the most inventive cities worldwide; the New Economy Magazine elected Mannheim under the 20 cities that best represent the world of tomorrow emphasizing Mannheim's positive economic and innovative environment. Since 2014, Mannheim has been a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network and holds the title of "UNESCO City of Music". Mannheim is a Smart City; the city's tourism slogan is "Leben. Im Quadrat.". The civic symbol of Mannheim is der Wasserturm, a Romanesque water tower completed in 1886 that rises to 60 metres above the highest point of the art nouveau area Friedrichsplatz.
Mannheim is the finishing point of the Bertha Benz Memorial Route. The name of the city was first recorded as Mannenheim in a legal transaction in 766, surviving in a twelfth-century copy in the Codex Laureshamensis from Lorsch Abbey; the name is interpreted as "the home of Manno", a short form of a Germanic name such as Hartmann or Hermann. Mannheim remained a mere village throughout the Middle Ages. In 1606, Frederick IV, Elector Palatine started building the fortress of Friedrichsburg and the adjacent city centre with its grid of streets and avenues. On January 24, 1607, Frederick IV gave Mannheim the status of a "city", whether it was one by or not. Mannheim was levelled during the Thirty Years War around 1622 by the forces of Johan Tilly. After being rebuilt, it was again damaged by the French Army in 1689 during the Nine Years' War. After the rebuilding of Mannheim that began in 1698, the capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate was moved from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720 when Karl III Philip, Elector Palatine began construction of Mannheim Palace and the Jesuit Church.
During the eighteenth century, Mannheim was the home of the "Mannheim School" of classical music composers. Mannheim was said to have one of the best court orchestras in Europe under the leadership of the conductor Carlo Grua; the royal court of the Palatinate left Mannheim in 1778. Two decades in 1802, Mannheim was removed from the Palatinate and given to the Grand Duchy of Baden. In 1819, Norwich Duff wrote of Mannheim: In 1819, August von Kotzebue was assassinated in Mannheim; the climate crisis of 1816-17 caused the death of many horses in Mannheim. That year Karl Drais invented the first bicycle. Infrastructure improvements included the establishment of Rhine Harbour in 1828 and construction of the first Baden railway, which opened from Mannheim to Heidelberg in 1840. Influenced by the economic rise of the middle class, another golden age of Mannheim began. In the March Revolution of 1848, the city was a centre for revolutionary activity. In 1865, Friedrich Engelhorn founded the Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik in Mannheim, but the factory was constructed across the Rhine in Ludwigshafen because Mannheim residents feared air pollution from its operations.
From this dye factory, BASF has developed into the largest chemical company in the world. After opening a workshop in Mannheim in 1871 and patenting engines from 1878, Karl Benz patented the first motor car in 1886, he was born in Mühlburg. The Schütte-Lanz company, founded by Karl Lanz and Johann Schütte in 1909, built 22 airships; the company's main competitor was the Zeppelin works. When World War I broke out in 1914, Mannheim's industrial plants played a key role in Germany's war economy; this contributed to the fact that, on 27 May 1915, Ludwigshafen was the world's first civilian settlement behind the battle lines to be bombed from the air. French aircraft attacked the BASF plants; the precedent was set for this attack by Germany's repeated air raids against British civilian populations throughout southeastern Britain during the first half of 1915. When Germany lost the war in 1918, according to the peace terms, the left bank of the Rhine was occupied by French troops; the French occupation lasted until 1930, some of Ludwigshafen's most elegant houses were erected for the officers of the French garrison.
After the First World War, the Heinric
The Wilhelmine Period comprises the period of German history between 1890 and 1918, embracing the reign of Emperor Wilhelm II in the German Empire from the resignation of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck until the end of World War I and Wilhelm's abdication during the November Revolution. It coincided with the Belle Époque era of Western Europe. By Wilhelminism is not meant a conception of society associated with the name Wilhelm, traceable to an intellectual initiative of the German Emperor. Rather, it relates to the image presented by Wilhelm II, his demeanour, manifested by the public presentation of grandiose military parades, self-aggrandisement on his part, this latter tendency having been noticed by his grandfather Emperor Wilhelm I during the period that Wilhelm’s father Frederick was Crown Prince; the term Wilhelminism characterizes the social and cultural climate of the reign of Wilhelm II, which found expression in rigidly conservative attitudes relying on the Prussian Junker landowners and associated in the German Agrarian League.
Thereby resembling the Victorian era in the United Kingdom, at the same time, the period was distinguished by an extraordinary belief in progress, while contributing to the enormous prosperity of the industrialised German Empire, was at odds with its social conservatism. Though Bismarcks's Anti-Socialist Laws were not renewed, Wilhelm's government continued to implement measures against Socialist ideas; the Social Democratic Party continued to grow in strength and became the largest faction in the Reichstag parliament upon the 1912 elections. With stronger influence, the internal developments were characterised by an increasing loyalty of the party establishment towards Emperor and Reich. Foreign policies were founded on Wilhelm's imperialist ambitions and directed towards the establishment of Germany as a world power. German nationalism achieved a short-lived high point, following the acquisition of some colonial possessions on the African continent and in the South Seas, while external relations deteriorated: in 1890, Germany had refused to prolong the secret Reinsurance Treaty with Russia, concluded by Bismarck in 1887, had to witness the forming of the Franco-Russian Alliance presenting a new two-front war scenario.
The relations with the British were not only strained by the "Scramble for Africa" but by the Anglo-German naval arms race. Wilhelm’s fascination for the German Navy, his ambition to see it established as an instrument for the projection of world power, were reflected in everyday German life. Still until the middle of the twentieth century, boys were dressed in sailor suits, in this way were impressed at an early age with the Navy’s aura and prestige; the distinctive spiked helmet, the so-called Pickelhaube, although it had existed and not only in the German Empire, was symbolic for the Wilhelmine period, for the Imperial Army, German militarism in general. The term is applied to the distinctive styles prevailing in the visual arts and architecture of the period, for example the ornate Germania postage stamps, numerous government buildings as well as the Wilhelmine Ring housing areas of Berlin and many other German cities, it is used to describe, among other things, an Neo-Baroque, extraordinarily prestige-oriented style calculated to give expression to the German state’s claim to imperial power.
This style was exemplified by the grandiose Siegesallee, a boulevard of sculptures lampooned by Berliners as Puppenallee, was given official status by Wilhelm’s so-called “Rinnsteinrede“ on what he considered modernist degenerate art at the inauguration of the extravagant boulevard on December 18, 1901. Der Untertan National Kaiser Wilhelm Monument Index of Germany-related articles Geoff Eley and James Retallack: Wilhelminism and its Legacies. German Modernities and the Meanings of Reform, 1890-1930. Essays for Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann. Berghahn Books, New York and Oxford, 2003 R. J. Evans and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann: The Coming of the First World War. Clarendon Press, 1990. John C. G. Röhl: The Kaiser and his court: Wilhelm II and the government of Germany. Cambridge University Press, 1966. John C. G. Röhl: Wilhelm II: The Kaiser's Personal Monarchy, 1888-1900 - August 2004. John C. G. Röhl: Kaiser, Hof und Staat. Wilhelm II. Und die deutsche Politik. C. H. Beck, Munich ³1988, ISBN 978-3-406-49405-5.
John C. G. Röhl: Wilhelm II. C. H. Beck, Munich 1993–2008: Volume 1: Die Jugend des Kaisers, 1859–1888. Munich 1993, ²2001, ISBN 3-406-37668-1. Volume 2: Der Aufbau der Persönlichen Monarchie, 1888–1900. Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-48229-5. Volume 3: Der Weg in den Abgrund, 1900–1941. Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57779-6. Fritz Fischer: Griff nach der Weltmacht. Die Kriegszielpolitik des kaiserlichen Deutschland 1914/18, Droste 2000, ISBN 3-7700-0902-9. Zeitreise – exhibition in Nordrhein-Westfalen Preußen – Chronik eines deutschen Staates Warum der Wilhelminismus als politischer Kampfbegriff nichts taugt - Die Zeit, February 1999