A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books, newspapers, films, prints, microform, CDs, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē: derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque; the first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria.
A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries provide quiet areas for studying, they often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources, they are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing large amounts of information with a variety of digital resources.
Libraries are becoming community hubs where programs are delivered and people engage in lifelong learning. As community centers, libraries are becoming important in helping communities mobilize and organize for their rights; the relationship between librarianship and human rights works to ensure that the rights of cultural minorities, the homeless, the disabled, LGBTQ community, as well as other marginalized groups are not infringed upon as protected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC; these archives, which consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory and the start of history. Things were much the same in the temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt; the earliest discovered. There is evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC and those at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system.
Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh, providing modern scholars with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary and administrative work. Among the findings were the Enuma Elish known as the Epic of Creation, which depicts a traditional Babylonian view of creation; the tablets were stored in a variety of containers such as wooden boxes, woven baskets of reeds, or clay shelves. The "libraries" were cataloged using colophons, which are a publisher's imprint on the spine of a book, or in this case a tablet; the colophons stated the series name, the title of the tablet, any extra information the scribe needed to indicate. The clay tablets were organized by subject and size. Due to limited to bookshelf space, once more tablets were added to the library, older ones were removed, why some tablets are missing from the excavated cities in Mesopotamia. According to legend, mythical philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty.
Evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians. Persia at the time of the Achaemenid Empire was home to some outstanding libraries; those libraries within the kingdom had two major functions: the first came from the need to keep the records of administrative documents including transactions, governmental orders, budget allocation within and between the Satrapies and the central ruling State. The second function was to collect precious resources on different subjects of science and set of principles e.g. medical science, histor
High Places is a band originating from Brooklyn, New York relocated to Los Angeles, California. The band is a duo comprising vocalist Mary Pearson. Pearson and Barber met while Mary was completing a music degree in bassoon performance at Western Michigan University and Rob was working in visual art, teaching lithography and etching in New York. Both were performing as solo musicians at the time, Mary as Transformation Surprise, Rob as the Urxed; the two began collaborating under the name High Places in May 2006, after Mary relocated to New York. High Places, has performed at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Whitney Museum of American Art the New Museum and the Kitchen in New York City, they have performed at the Smithsonian Institution's Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden as part of Doug Aitken's SONG 1 in Washington DC. In Berlin they have performed via Berghain's main room. With Lucky Dragons they have performed collaboratively in the group's 2008 Whitney Biennial performance, as well as at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, REDCAT.
Rob has played drums in the Boredoms' 88 Boadrum Los Angeles LACMA performance, performed as part of the Doug Aitken-curated Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles 2010 benefit. High Places is constantly touring, have toured with such notable bands such as Toro Y Moi, Liars, No Age, Lucky Dragons, Dan Deacon and Xiu Xiu High Places' overall sound consists of bass-heavy yet crisp beats, lilting vocal melodies, syncopated rhythmic lines performed on folk percussion instruments, guitar duets turned into treated samples, percussive lines created from the manipulation of household objects; the duo has an “exquisite corpse” style of songwriting where they exchange ideas back and forth, challenging each other's ideas in an organic way. In a live setting, the band creates their layered recordings with Mary singing and manipulating her vocals with various delay and reverb pedals, while playing some hand percussion and creating and controlling various loops. Rob handles the music, triggering a variety of percussive sounds with sampling drum pads and traditional samplers, as well as various percussion, wooden blocks with contact mics, singing some ambient vocals.
High Places’ self-titled debut was recorded by Rob and Mary in their apartment in Brooklyn’s Bedford Stuyvesant neighborhood between January and May 2008. In making the album they employed a wide variety of instruments, including 12 string guitar, banjo and rattles, bass and Kalimba, as well as plastic bags, mixing bowls, wood blocks and other common household objects. Rob created the High Places artwork by using photos taken by both band members. 03/07–09/07 on Thrill Jockey High Places on Thrill Jockey High Places vs. Mankind Original Colors on Thrill Jockey High Places Picture Disc Vision's the First... b/w Namer Can't Feel Born 12" with Aa Wedding 7" with Xiu Xiu Polaroid 7" with Soft Circle 12" on PPM Records Grown Zone on States Rights Records Mistletonia on Mistletone Records Love And Circuits on Cardboard Records 6 song demo CD-R Can't Feel Born 12" High Places at MySpace High Places blog Thrill Jockey's High Places site High Places Album Review at Pitchfork High Places 03/07-09/07 Review at Pitchfork High Places 7" Review at Pitchfork High Places at NPR Music
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found, it is part of Central Los Angeles. A heritage of the city's founding in 1781, Downtown Los Angeles today is composed of different areas ranging from a fashion district to Skid Row, it is the hub for the city's urban rail transit system and the Metrolink commuter rail system for Southern California. Banks, department stores, movie palaces at one time drew residents and visitors into the area, but the district declined economically and suffered a downturn for decades until its recent renaissance starting in the early 2000s. Old buildings are being modified for new uses, skyscrapers have been built. Downtown Los Angeles is known for its government buildings, parks and other public places; the earliest known settlements in the area of what is now Downtown Los Angeles was by the Tongva, a Native American people. European settlement arrived after Father Juan Crespí, a Spanish missionary charged with exploring sites for Catholic missions in California, noted in 1769 that the region had "all the requisites for a large settlement".
On September 4, 1781, the city was founded by a group of settlers who trekked north from present-day Mexico. Land speculation increased in the 1880s, which saw the population of the city explode from 11,000 in 1880 to nearly 100,000 by 1896. Infrastructure enhancements and the laying of a street grid brought development south of the original settlement into what is today the Civic Center and Historic Core neighborhoods. By 1920, the city's private and municipal rail lines were the most far-flung and most comprehensive in the world in mileage besting that of New York City. By this time, a steady influx of residents and aggressive land developers had transformed the city into a large metropolitan area, with DTLA at its center. Rail lines connected four counties with over 1,100 miles of track. During the early part of the 20th century, banking institutions clustered around South Spring Street, forming the Spring Street Financial District. Sometimes referred to as the "Wall Street of the West," the district held corporate headquarters for financial institutions including Bank of America and Merchants Bank, the Crocker National Bank, California Bank & Trust, International Savings & Exchange Bank.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange was located on the corridor from 1929 until 1986 before moving into a new building across the Harbor Freeway. Commercial growth brought with it hotel construction—during this time period several grand hotels, the Alexandria, the Rosslyn, the Biltmore, were erected — and the need for venues to entertain the growing population of Los Angeles. Broadway became the nightlife and entertainment district of the city, with over a dozen theater and movie palaces built before 1932. Department stores opened flagship stores downtown, including The Broadway, Hamburger & Sons, May Company, JW Robinson's, Bullock's, serving a wealthy residential population in the Bunker Hill neighborhood. Numerous specialty stores flourished including those in the jewelry business which gave rise to the Downtown Jewelry District. Among these early jewelers included the Laykin Diamond Company and Harry Winston & Co. both of which found their beginnings in the Hotel Alexandria at Fifth and Spring streets.
The Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal opened in May 1939, unifying passenger service among various local and long-distance passenger trains. It was built on a grand scale and would be one of the "last of the great railway stations" built in the United States. Following World War II, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Many corporate headquarters dispersed to new suburbs or fell to mergers and acquisitions; the once-wealthy Bunker Hill neighborhood became a haven for low-income renters, its stately Victorian mansions turned into flophouses. From about 1930 onward, numerous old and historic buildings in the plaza area were demolished to make way for street-level parking lots, the high demand for parking making this more profitable than any other option that might have allowed preservation; the drastic reduction in the number of residents in the area further reduced the viability of streetfront businesses that would be able to attract pedestrians.
For most Angelenos, downtown became a drive-out destination. In an effort to combat blight and lure businesses back downtown, the city's Community Redevelopment Agency undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project in 1955, a massive clearance project that leveled homes and cleared land for future commercial skyscraper development; this period saw the clearing and upzoning of the entire neighborhood, as well as the shuttering of the Angels Flight funicular railway in 1969. Angels Flight resumed operation in 1996 for a period of five years, shutting down once again after a fatal accident in 2001. On March 15, 2010, the railway once again opened for passenger service following extensive upgrades to brake and safety systems. With Class A office space becoming available on Bunker Hill, many of DTLA's remaining financial corporations moved to the newer buildings, leaving the former Spring Street Financial District devoid of tenants above ground floor. Following the corporate headquarters' moving six blocks west, the large department stores on Broadway shuttered, culminating in the 1980s.
However, the Broadway theaters saw much use as Spanish-language movie houses during this time, beginning with the conve
Noise is unwanted sound judged to be unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing. From a physics standpoint, noise is indistinguishable from sound, as both are vibrations through a medium, such as air or water; the difference arises when the brain perceives a sound. Acoustic noise is any deliberate or unintended. In contrast, noise in electronics may not be audible to the human ear and may require instruments for detection. In audio engineering, noise can refer to the unwanted residual electronic noise signal that gives rise to acoustic noise heard as a hiss; this signal noise is measured using A-weighting or ITU-R 468 weighting. In experimental sciences, noise can refer to any random fluctuations of data that hinders perception of a signal. Sound is measured based on the frequency of a sound wave. Amplitude measures; the energy in a sound wave is measured in decibels, the measure of loudness, or intensity of a sound. Decibels are expressed in a logarithmic scale. On the other hand, pitch is measured in hertz.
The main instrument to measure sounds in the air is the Sound Level Meter. There are many different varieties of instruments that are used to measure noise - Noise Dosimeters are used in occupational environments, noise monitors are used to measure environmental noise and noise pollution, smartphone-based sound level meter applications are being used to crowdsource and map recreational and community noise. A-weighting is applied to a sound spectrum to represent the sound that humans are capable of hearing at each frequency. Sound pressure is thus expressed in terms of dBA. 0 dBA is the softest level that a person can hear. Normal speaking voices are around 65 dBA. A rock concert can be about 120 dBA. In audio and broadcast systems, audio noise refers to the residual low-level sound, heard in quiet periods of program; this variation from the expected pure sound or silence can be caused by the audio recording equipment, the instrument, or ambient noise in the recording room. In audio engineering it can refer either to the acoustic noise from loudspeakers or to the unwanted residual electronic noise signal that gives rise to acoustic noise heard as'hiss'.
This signal noise is measured using A-weighting or ITU-R 468 weighting Noise is generated deliberately and used as a test signal for audio recording and reproduction equipment. White noise is energy randomly spread across a wide frequency band containing all notes from high to low, it is called "white" noise as it is analogous to "white" light which contains all the colors of the visible spectrum. Environmental noise is the accumulation of all noise present in a specified environment; the principal sources of environmental noise are surface motor vehicles, aircraft and industrial sources. These noise sources expose millions of people to noise pollution that creates not only annoyance, but significant health consequences such as elevated incidence of hearing loss and cardiovascular disease. There are a variety of mitigation strategies and controls available to reduce sound levels including source intensity reduction, land-use planning strategies, noise barriers and sound baffles, time of day use regimens, vehicle operational controls and architectural acoustics design measures.
Certain geographic areas or specific occupations may be at a higher risk of being exposed to high levels of noise. Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. Environmental noise is governed by laws and standards which set maximum recommended levels of noise for specific land uses, such as residential areas, areas of outstanding natural beauty, or schools; these standards specify measurement using a weighting filter, most A-weighting. In 1972, the Noise Control Act was passed to promote a healthy living environment for all Americans, where noise does not pose a threat to human health; this policy's main objectives were: establish coordination of research in the area of noise control, establish federal standards on noise emission for commercial products, promote public awareness about noise emission and reduction. The Quiet Communities Act of 1978 promotes noise control programs at the state and local level and developed a research program on noise control.
Both laws authorized the Environmental Protection Agency to study the effects of noise and evaluate regulations regarding noise control. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health provides recommendation on noise exposure in the workplace. In 1972, NIOSH published a document outlining recommended standards relating to the occupational exposure to noise, with the purpose of reducing the risk of developing permanent hearing loss related to exposure at work; this publication set the recommended exposure limit of noise in an occupation setting to 85 dBA for 8 hours using a 3-dB exchange rate. However, in 1973 the Occupational Safety and Health Administration maintained the requirement of an 8-hour average of 90 dBA; the following year, OSHA required employers to provide a hearing conservation program to workers exposed to 85 dBA average 8-hour workdays. The European Environment Agency regulates noise control and surveillance within the European Union
Ponytail was a 4-piece art rock band formed in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The group featured vocalist Willy Siegel, guitarists Dustin Wong and Ken Seeno, drummer Jeremy Hyman; the band has toured internationally, with bands such as Battles, Don Caballero, High Places and others. They have released three albums, Ice Cream Spiritual, Do Whatever You Want All The Time, they were named "Best Live Band" by Baltimore City Paper in September 2007 and "Best Band" in September 2008 In January 2005, the band came together as a 5-piece, incorporating Wong, Seeno and Petruzzo. The group was assembled by their professor for an assignment to start a band. Seeno recalls, he put Dustin with us. And he put this guy Michael Petruzzo with us, he was wearing a Destiny's Child t-shirt, I remember that, and Willy was the last one to get picked." After talking about their favorite music, the group started playing together, with the experienced musicians Hyman and Seeno playing off the freeform noise made by Petruzzo and Siegel.
Petruzzo left the band, which led to them focusing more on melody with Siegel as their frontman. Kamehameha was released in vinyl on Friday, April 17, 2006, on Portland, Oregon-based label Gaarden Records. In mid-June 2008, Ponytail released their second full-length, Ice Cream Spiritual to positive reviews; the band has been praised for their energetic,'sugar-rush type' performances by BBC as well as Pitchfork Media. Wong left Ecstatic Sunshine in 2009 to focus on Ponytail; the band toured internationally throughout Europe, USA, New Zealand in promotion of their latest record. The band was chosen by Matt Groening to perform at the edition of the All Tomorrow's Parties festival which he curated in May 2010 in Minehead, England. Ponytail went on hiatus in August 2010. Wong published a solo-album Infinite Love in October 2010. A 40-minute piece cut into 15 tracks and re-done on a 2nd CD; this instrumental release appeared on Thrill Jockey. Although Dustin Wong had announced that Whartscape 2010 in Baltimore, Maryland would be their last show, a new album was announced.
The band released their third full-length album, titled Do Whatever You Want All The Time, in April 2011. The cover art, designed by Yamantaka Eye of the Japanese rock band Boredoms; the band broke up on September 22, 2011. Kamehameha Ice Cream Spiritual Do Whatever You Want All The Time Celebrate the Body Electric Seasons, LP Let it Go, cassette, WTRCL Infinite Love Dreams Say, Create, Shadow Leads Ponytail Homepage Allmusic Biography Cool Hunting Video on Ponytail bio of Dustin Wong on allmusic
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Abe Vigoda (band)
Abe Vigoda is a punk rock band based in Los Angeles, California from Chino, California. They perform at the Smell; the band formed right after the members finished high school.. The name is a reference to Abe Vigoda. Skeleton, Abe Vigoda's third full-length album, was released on July 8, 2008. In 2009, the EP Reviver followed, they finished recording their fourth full-length album titled Crush on February 24, 2010 and it was released on September 20, 2010 and was ranked 40th on Pitchfork Media's list The Top 50 Albums of 2010. Their album, Crush was a full transition for the band from their earlier sounds; some critics compared their music to another band, Vampire Weekend Sky Route/Star Roof Kid City Skeleton Crush Reviver Abe Vigoda / Child Pornography Abe Vigoda / Mikaela's Fiend Animal Ghosts bio on Allmusic Abe Vigoda on Myspace Abe Vigoda makes a guest appearance on Radio Happy Hour and plays a song