Noah George Taylor is an English-Australian actor. He is best known for his roles as teenage David Helfgott in Shine, Locke in HBO series Game of Thrones, Mr. Bucket in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and Danny in the Australian cult film He Died with a Felafel in His Hand. Taylor starred as Adolf Hitler in Max and Preacher. Taylor, elder of two sons, was born in London, the son of Australian parents, Maggie, a journalist and book editor, Paul Taylor, a copywriter and journalist, his parents returned to Australia when he was five, he grew up in Clifton Hill and St Kilda, suburbs of Melbourne. His parents divorced when he was 14. Taylor left both home at 16 with no intention of becoming an actor. After performing in plays at St. Martin's Youth Theatre in South Yarra for a year, he gained the attention of director John Duigan, who cast him in the 1987 film The Year My Voice Broke, the first part of a planned trilogy. Taylor appeared in its sequel, alongside Thandie Newton with Nicole Kidman and Naomi Watts in early supporting roles.
Taylor's early roles included acting the lead in the critically acclaimed The Year My Voice Broke and Flirting and he gained significant international attention playing the tormented young pianist David Helfgott in the 1996 film Shine. Taylor's résumé includes action movies, psychological thrillers and historical dramas Taylor once commented in an interview that he was sick of acting out the nostalgic reminiscences of other people, he has done this in a number of films including The Nostradamus Kid, based on the memories of the Australian author Bob Ellis, a young David Helfgott in Shine, the protagonist in John Birmingham's memoir He Died with a Felafel in His Hand, Almost Famous, based on the memories of the film's writer and director, Cameron Crowe. He appeared in the video of "Fifteen Feet of Pure White Snow", a song by Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, along with the video for "M. O. R." by British alternative rock group Blur. Taylor starred in Simon Rumley's mystery thriller Red White & Blue, which had its world premiere as part of the SXSW Film Festival in March 2010.
In 2011, he released his first EP Live Free or Die!!! with his band Noah Taylor & the Sloppy Boys on Z-Man Records. In 2013, Taylor appeared in both the third and fourth seasons of HBO's epic fantasy series Game of Thrones, based on the A Song of Ice and Fire book series by George R. R. Martin. In the adaptation, Taylor plays the character of Locke, an original character of the television series, who serves as a condensed version of several characters of the books, most notably the ruthless and sadistic mercenary leader Vargo Hoat; when not acting, Taylor draws and paints, is an accomplished musician, playing viola and French horn as a young teenager, guitar from the age of 16. He plays the piano by ear, he has sung and played guitar in several of his own bands, including Honky Tonk Angels, Cardboard Box Man, Flipper & Humphrey, Access Axis, The Thirteens, a country-western rock band described by Taylor as, "three manic depressives playing sad angst and western music for sad people". He names Johnny Cash and Lou Reed as two of the artists he admires.
On 14 November 2012, he married an Australian fashion designer. Taylor lives in East Sussex. Noah Taylor on IMDb
Melbourne International Film Festival
The Melbourne International Film Festival is an annual film festival held over three weeks in Melbourne, Australia. It is one of the oldest film festivals in the world. MIFF is one of Melbourne's four major film festivals, in addition to the Melbourne International Animation Festival, Melbourne Queer Film Festival and Melbourne Underground Film Festival; as of 2017, the festival's Artistic Director is Michelle Carey. Melbourne is a significant city in the history of film: The Story of the Kelly Gang, the world's first full-length feature film, was filmed in the city. Established in 1952, the Melbourne International Film Festival is one of the oldest film festivals in the world and has become the most notable screen event in Australia. An iconic Melbourne event, the festival takes place annually in various theatres in the Melbourne CBD, presenting an acclaimed screening program including films from local and international filmmakers, alongside industry events. MIFF is the largest film festival in both Australia and the southern hemisphere, is Australia's largest showcase of new Australian cinema.
The 2012 festival generated A$8 million for the Victorian economy. As of 2013, the festival is accredited by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the Australian Film Institute and the British Academy of Film and Television Arts; as of 2013, the festival's CEO is Maria Amato, Carey is the Artistic Director and Mark Woods is MIFF's Industry Director/Executive Producer. In 2013, the festival program consisted of the following categories: International Panorama - a handpicked selection of world cinema TeleScope – curated program of 12 new films from 12 European Union countries Australian Showcase – new Australian cinema NextGen - a program of films aimed at younger audiences Accent on Asia - showcase of films from Asia-Pacific region Inside the DPRK - two film exploring life within North Korea Juche Showtime: Films of the DPRK - North Korean cinema Defying the Times: Activism on Film – films on political activism Documentaries A League of Their Own: New Arabic Cinema – films from the pan-Arabic world States of Play: American Independents – independent cinema from the United States Masters and Restorations – documentaries on filmmaking and film restorations Backbeat – music films Animation Shining Violence: Italian Giallo – films of the Italian'giallo' subgenre Night Shift – thriller and gore movies This Sporting Life – sporting films Short Film Packages – short film category that features the Accelerator programs, Best MIFF Shorts Screening and the MIFF Shorts Awards Ceremony Pre-Feature Shorts – short films featured prior to feature film screenings Special Events – includes the opening night feature film and a screening at the Melbourne Planetarium Talking Pictures – discussion and Q&A events with the festival's filmmakers and personalities MIFF Premiere Fund – Australian films supported by the MIFF Premiere Fund 37ºSouth - see: #37ºSouth Market The festival is conducted across various venues located in Melbourne and in 2013 the following venues were used: Australian Centre for the Moving Image, Forum Theatre, Greater Union Cinemas, Mandala Festival Wine Bar, Hoyts Melbourne Central, the Arts Centre Melbourne, Kino Cinemas, Wheeler Centre, Village Roadshow Theatrette, Speakeasy Cinema.
The 37ºSouth Market is the only international film financing marketplace to take place during a film festival in Australia or New Zealand. The event occurs during the opening days of the festival and is a forum for around 45 invited sales agents/distributors to meet with up to 100 pre-selected Australian and NZ producers who are seeking co-financing support; as of 2013, the 37ºSouth Market is the exclusive partner of the London's Production Finance Market for Australia and NZ. As of 2013, the 37ºSouth Market has attracted companies such as: Studio Canal, Wild Bunch, Paramount Pictures, BBC Films, HanWay, Miramax Films, Bankside, The Works, eOne, West End, Level K. Since 1962, MIFF has staged a short film competition, as well as numerous feature film award categories, it presents audience popularity awards for feature film and documentary. The festival's inaugural award was'Best Short Film', but the title was changed to'Grand Prix for Best Short Film' in 1965. From 1985 onwards, the Grand Prix has been presented by the City of Melbourne.
People's Choice Award for Best Feature People's Choice Award for Best Documentary TeleScope Best European Feature Award The Age Critics' Award City of Melbourne Grand Prix for Best Short Film Film Victoria Erwin Rado Award for Best Australian Short Film Swinburne Award for Emerging Australian Filmmaker Cinema Nova Award for Best Fiction Short Film Holmesglen Award for Best Animation Short Film BBC Knowledge Award for Best Documentary Short Film The Astor Theatre Award for Best Experimental Short Film Jury Special MentionAs of 2013, the MIFF short film awards are accredited by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts and the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts, winners in the Best Short, Best Fiction, Best Animation and Best Documentary categories are eligible to submit their films for Academy Award consideration. The judges for the 2013 MIFF short film awards were Lorin Clarke, Michael Matrenza and Ramona Telecican. During the 58th festival in 2009, the controversial film The 10 Conditions of Love, which documents the life of the exiled Uyghur leader Rebiya Kadeer, was screened despite many attempts by the Go
Predestination is a 2014 Australian science fiction thriller film written and directed by Michael and Peter Spierig. The film stars Ethan Hawke, Sarah Snook, Noah Taylor, is based on the short story "—All You Zombies—" by Robert A. Heinlein. A time travelling agent is trying to disarm a bomb that burns his face. Someone approaches and helps him to grasp his time travelling device, which transports him to a hospital in the future. While the agent is recovering from facial reconstruction, it is revealed that he has been trying to prevent the attack of the so-called "Fizzle Bomber" in New York in 1975. After his recovery, he receives his last assignment; the agent moves to 1970s New York. As a bartender, he starts a conversation with one of the customers; the customer, writes true confession articles under the pen name "The Unmarried Mother." This pseudonym is explained by his own life story. Born female, the customer grew up as "Jane" in an orphanage, she had difficulty fitting in. Jane decided any children she had would be raised in a proper family, thus avoided relationships.
As an adult she applied for a program called "Space Corp", which promised women the chance to go to space while providing astronauts with intimate R&R, but she was disqualified because of a medical condition which had never before been revealed to her, but which interested a man named Robertson. Jane bumped into a man who said he was waiting for someone; the two fell in love with each other, but one day, the man disappeared. In time, Robertson approached Jane, revealing that Space Corp was a part of the Temporal Agency, this agency now wanted to recruit her, they broke off contact. While performing a Caesarean section, doctors discovered Jane was intersex, with internalized male sex organs, as well as female sex organs. Complications during the birth forced them to remove her female sex organs, as a result, she had to undergo a gender reassignment and begin living as a man. Furthermore, the baby was stolen by a mysterious man. Since, John has been living a bitter life, writing fiction as "The Unmarried Mother."
The agent offers to take John back in time to the day that Jane met the man who would become her lover and leave her, so John can take revenge and kill the man for ruining his life. In return, John will take over the agent's job; the agent reveals his time-travel device, the two jump to that day in 1963. John intends to kill his past lover prior to the moment. While waiting, John encounters Jane, as they begin talking, John realizes that he is the man who becomes Jane's lover; the baby born from this "self-fertilization" is stolen by the agent, who uses the time machine to take the baby to the orphanage, 18 years earlier in 1945. Therefore, Jane and their baby are the same person, revealing a predestination paradox; the agent goes to 1975 New York. The agent returns to 1963, he convinces John that John must leave Jane behind, he uses the machine to take them both to the Temporal Agency. John now takes over the agent's job, so the agent can retire in 1975 New York, close to the day of the Fizzle Bomber's attack.
Upon arrival, the agent's time-travel device does not decommission itself as planned and can still be used. He has been ordered to check a launderette at the moment; the Fizzle Bomber turns out to be the agent's own future self, now suffering from psychosis as a result of excessive time travel. The Fizzle Bomber insists that his actions have saved and will save more lives than the lives lost, that they lead to the reinforcement of the Temporal Agency, he tries to convince the agent that the only way to end the cycle is for the agent to spare the bomber's life, unlike the Fizzle Bomber did in his past as the agent. The agent denies he will become the Fizzle Bomber and kills his future self; the film reveals that in 1975, John is the man who travelled to New York and was burned while disarming a bomb. His subsequent facial reconstruction changes his appearance, it is now clear that Jane, the agent, the Fizzle Bomber are the same person; this agent's creation was orchestrated by Robertson to create an agent.
This "perfect" temporal agent was responsible for both death. The film is based on the 1959 short story" -- All --" by Robert A. Heinlein. On 14 May 2012, the Spierig brothers—who had written a screenplay—were announced as the directors of Predestination. Peter Spierig explained in August 2014 that they remained close to Robert A. Heinlein's 1959 short story, they did not try to take apart the logic of the more than 50-year-old narrative: "... so we worked on the that if there was a way to pick apart the logic, over that time it would have been done by now. We kind of say,'let's trust the short story and trust that logic', so we stuck closely to it."Hawke was selected for the lead role, while Wolfhound Pictures and Blacklab Entertainment collaborated to produce the film. Hawke explained in November 2014 that he is a longtime fan of the science fiction genre, but prefers its human elements, rather than special effects: Whether it's Robert Heinlein, Kurt Vonnegut, Philip K. Dick, H. G. Wells or whoever... that kind of mind-bendy science-fiction where you can attack the
Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation. It was founded by Sime Silverman in New York in 1905 as a weekly newspaper reporting on theater and vaudeville. In 1933 it added Daily Variety, based in Los Angeles. Variety.com features breaking entertainment news, box office results, cover stories, photo galleries and more, plus a credits database, production charts and calendar, with archive content dating back to 1905. Variety has been published since December 16, 1905, when it was launched by Sime Silverman as a weekly periodical covering theater and vaudeville with its headquarters in New York City. Sime was fired by The Morning Telegraph in 1905 for panning an act which had taken out an advert for $50, said that it looked like he would have to start his own paper in order to be able to tell the truth. With a loan of $1,500 from his father-in-law, he launched Variety as editor. In addition to Sime's former employer The Morning Telegraph, other major competitors on launch were The New York Clipper and the New York Dramatic Mirror.
The original cover design, similar to the current design, was sketched by Edgar M. Miller, a scenic painter, who refused payment; the front cover contained pictures of the original editorial staff, who were Alfred Greason, Epes W Sargeant and Joshua Lowe, as well as Sime. The first issue contained a review by Sime's son Sidne known as Skigie, claimed to be the youngest critic in the world at seven years old. In 1922, Sime acquired The New York Clipper, reporting on the stage and other entertainment since 1853 and folded it two years merging some of its features into Variety. In 1922, Sime launched the Times Square Daily, which he referred to as "the world's worst daily" and soon scrapped. During that period, Variety staffers worked on all three papers. After the launch of The Hollywood Reporter in 1930, which Variety sued for alleged plagiarism in 1932, Sime launched Daily Variety in 1933, based in Hollywood, with Arthur Ungar as the editor, it replaced Variety Bulletin, issued in Hollywood on Fridays.
Daily Variety was published every day other than Sunday but on Monday to Friday. Ungar was editor until 1950, followed by Joe Schoenfeld and Thomas M. Pryor, succeeded by his son Pete; the Daily and the Weekly were run as independent newspapers, with the Daily concentrating on Hollywood news and the Weekly on U. S. and International coverage. Sime Silverman had passed on the editorship of the Weekly Variety to Abel Green as his replacement in 1931. Green remained as editor from 1931 until his death in 1973. Sime's son Sidne succeeded him as publisher of both publications. Following his death from tuberculosis in 1950, his only son Syd Silverman, was the sole heir to what was Variety Inc. Young Syd's legal guardian Harold Erichs oversaw Variety Inc. until 1956. After that date Syd Silverman managed the company as publisher of both the Weekly Variety in New York and the Daily Variety in Hollywood, until the sale of both papers in 1987 to Cahners Publishing for $64 million, he remained as publisher until 1990 when he was succeeded on Weekly Variety by Gerard A. Byrne and on Daily Variety by Sime's great grandson, Michael Silverman.
Syd became chairman of both publications. In 1953, Army Archerd's "Just for Variety" column appeared on page two of Daily Variety and swiftly became popular in Hollywood. Archerd broke countless exclusive stories, reporting from film sets, announcing pending deals, giving news of star-related hospitalizations and births; the column appeared daily for 52 years until September 1, 2005. On December 7, 1988, the editor, Roger Watkins and oversaw the transition to four-color print. Upon its launch, the new-look Variety measured one inch shorter with a washed-out color on the front; the old front-page box advertisement was replaced by a strip advertisement, along with the first photos published in Variety since Sime gave up using them in the old format in 1920: they depicted Sime and Syd. For twenty years from 1989 its editor-in-chief was Peter Bart only of the weekly New York edition, with Michael Silverman running the Daily in Hollywood. Bart had worked at Paramount Pictures and The New York Times.
In April 2009, Bart moved to the position of "vice president and editorial director", characterized online as "Boffo No More: Bart Up and Out at Variety". From mid 2009 to 2013, Timothy M. Gray oversaw the publication as Editor-in-Chief, after over 30 years of various reporter and editor positions in the newsroom. In October 2012, Reed Business Information, the periodical's owner, sold the publication to Penske Media Corporation. PMC is the owner of Deadline Hollywood, which since the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike has been considered Variety's largest competitor in online showbiz news. In October 2012, Jay Penske, Chairman and CEO of PMC, announced that the website's paywall would come down, the print publication would stay, he would invest more into Variety's digital platform in a townhall. In March 2013, Variety owner Jay Penske appointed three co-editors to oversee different parts of the publication's industry coverage; the decision was made to stop printing Daily Variety with the last printed edition published on March 19, 2013 with the headline "Variety A
Isabel Lucas is an Australian actress and model. From 2003–2006 she played Tasha Andrews in Home and Away, in 2009 she made her film debut with the role of "Alice" in the 2009 sequel Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen, in which she won the award for Best Breakout Performance-Female in sci-fi and action at the 2009 Scream Awards, she appeared in the thriller film Careful What You Wish For, beside Nick Jonas. Lucas appeared in Chasing Comets, in 2018, That's Not Me in 2017. Lucas has appeared in the Australian drama-thriller Shooting in Vain, directed by Jared Januscka, which released on 14 June 2018 in Australian and New Zealand theatres, it stars Alexandra Park, Diana Hopper, Sebastian Gregory. Lucas appeared in the 2018 Australian biographical film In Like Flynn. In May 2008, Lucas was approached by Steven Spielberg, the executive producer of the Transformers film series who cast her into the second sequel of the series, Revenge of the Fallen, released on 24 June 2009; this posed as "a major breakthrough" in Lucas's career, in which she would go onto appear in other various Hollywood blockbuster films, such as Immortals and Daybreakers.
Lucas left her role as Samantha Cage in the CBS television series MacGyver in June 2018. Lucas was born in Melbourne, the daughter of Beatrice, a special needs teacher, Andrew, a pilot, her father is Australian and her mother is Swiss, she can speak French and Swiss-German in addition to English. As a child, Lucas lived in Queensland, she lived in Switzerland and Kakadu, in the Northern Territory. Lucas attended St. Monica's College in Cairns. Lucas was involved in drama during her school years and attended courses at Victorian College of Arts and Queensland University of Technology. In 2002, she was discovered by agent Sharron Meissner whilst on a holiday. Lucas auditioned for the role of Kit Hunter in Away. Lucas won a Logie Award for her performance on the series. During 2007 she focused on saving dolphins in Japan; the same year, in October, she appeared on the Today Show following the topic of saving dolphins. In 2008, Lucas moved to Los Angeles to pursue her acting career further. While working with Steven Spielberg on the World War II miniseries The Pacific, Spielberg suggested Lucas for the role of Alice in the sequel 2009 Revenge of the Fallen, where he served as executive producer.
She was cast in the movie, shooting began in May 2008. Lucas went onto work with Michael Bay in the film series for the next year or so, before being cast into other blockbusters, at that time, being filmed and created. In 2009, on October 17, Lucas won the best Breakout Performance-Female at the 2009 Scream Awards, for her performance in Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen, as "Alice". In 2009, she was cast in the vampire science-fiction thriller film Daybreakers; the film was released in November of that year, it grossed $51.4m USD at the box office. The film stars Sam Neill, Willem Dafoe, Michael Dorman. In 2009, she was cast in the remake of the 1984 film Red Dawn, not released until November 2012. In 2011, Lucas played the goddess Athena in the fantasy film Immortals and signed on to appear in the film Knight of Cups. In November 2012, Lucas was featured as the main character in the music video for "Give Me Love" by British singer-songwriter Ed Sheeran. In March 2013, it was announced that Lucas would star in the thriller Careful What You Wish For, not released until June 2016.
Lucas moved back to Australia in November 2016 from Los Angeles, to work on several Australian films at home, in an article released in May 2017, Lucas explained that "I have moved back home to Australia because I feel I am happy here, I want to be around my family more." Lucas stated that she travels back and forth between LA and Australia for acting work, but prefers Australia, her home, as her permanent residence. Isabel has since remained in Australia from November 2016. In 2017, Isabel Lucas appeared in the Australian comedy-drama film, That's Not Me, beside Alice Foulcher, Richard Davies, Rowan Davie, it was released worldwide on 7 September the same year. She began filming the Australian biographical-drama film In Like Flynn in February 2017, with British and Australian actors William Moseley, Clive Standen, Corey William Large, David Wenham and actress Nathalie Kelley; the film was released to Australia and New Zealand on 11 October 2018. The film was released worldwide the following year in February.
In May 2018, Lucas began filming the upcoming Australian-biographical feature film, The Ogilvy Fortune, which still has no known release date. In March 2019, Lucas confirmed, it stars Isabel Lucas. In October 2007, Lucas was part of a group of 30 people from Surfers for Cetaceans, including American actress Hayden Panettiere, surfers David Rastovich and Vaya Phrachanh, who took part in a protest against dolphin culling in Taiji, Japan; the group paddled out on surfboards to the dolphins to attempt to stop the hunt, but they were forced to turn around after being intercepted by one of the fishing boats. They drove straight to Kansai International Airport and left the country to avoid being arrested for trespassing by the Japanese police. There is still an outstanding arrest warrant for Lucas in Japan. In 2004, Lucas served as a spokesperson for the Australian National Breast Cancer Foundation and provided support to many organisations, including World Vision as of 2009, The Humour Foundation as of 2004, Women Against
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Despite the fact that over half of the citizens descend from the peoples of the British Isles, Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Many early settlements were penal colonies and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies. Large-scale immigration did not occur. Further waves of immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Latin America and Africa.
Prior to British settlement, Australia was inhabited by various indigenous peoples – Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders, a Melanesian people. A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples; the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 and various events of the Second World War, most notably the Kokoda Track campaign, are frequently mentioned in association with Australian identity. However, Australian culture predates the federation of the Australian colonies by several decades – Australian literature, most notably the work of the bush poets, dates from colonial times. Modern Australian identity draws on a multicultural and British cultural heritage; the majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the Indigenous population and other outer lying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Immigration from the Middle East and east Asia, Pacific Islands and Latin America has been having an impact; the predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, the popularity of sports originating in the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and "Antipodean". Australians were referred to as "Colonials", "British" and "British subjects"; as a result of many shared linguistic, historical and geographic characteristics, Australians have identified with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the modern Australian culture. Today, Australians of English and other European descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at around 70% of the total population. European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia; the majority of Australians are of British – English, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx – and Irish ancestral origin.
Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. About 20% of Australians are descendants of convicts. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, Ireland. Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Anglo-Celtic Australians have been influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, 6 percent were of European origin from Germany and Scandinavia.
In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of