Retro Gamer is a British magazine, published worldwide, covering retro video games. It was the first commercial magazine to be devoted to the subject. Launched in January 2004 as a quarterly publication, Retro Gamer soon became a monthly. In 2005, a general decline in gaming and computer magazine readership led to the closure of its publishers, Live Publishing, the rights to the magazine were purchased by Imagine Publishing, it was taken over by Future plc on 21 October 2016, following Future's acquisition of Imagine Publishing. The first 18 issues of the magazine came with a coverdisk, it contained freeware remakes of retro video games and emulators, but videos and free commercial PC software such as The Games Factory and The Elder Scrolls: Arena. Some issues had themed CDs containing the entire back catalogue of a publisher such as Durell Llamasoft and Gremlin Graphics. On 27 September 2005, the magazine's original publishing company, Live Publishing, went into bankruptcy; the magazine's official online forums described the magazine as "finished" shortly before issue #19 was due for release.
However, rights to Retro Gamer were purchased by Imagine Publishing in October 2005 and the magazine was re-launched on 8 December 2005. Retro Survival is a commercial CD retro games magazine put together by the freelance writers of Retro Gamer when Live Publishing collapsed; the CD was published in November 2005 and contains articles that would have appeared in Issue 19 of Retro Gamer, as well as several extras including a foreword by celebrity games journalist Mr Biffo. In June 2004, a tribute to Zzap!64 was included, "The DEF Tribute to Zzap!64", celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Commodore 64 focused magazine. Includes interviews with leading 80s and 90s programmers such as David Crane, Matthew Smith and Archer MacLean. Regular columns feature such as Back to the 80s and 90s, Desert Island Disks and From the Archives. The'Making Of's' is a recurring feature in which well-known developers are interviewed about the creation and design process behind their games. Classic titles covered in past issues have included Breakout, Dungeon Master, Smash TV, Rescue on Fractalus!, Prince of Persia, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, Crystal Castles, Sheep in Space Out Run and Splat!.
Issue 48 contained an exclusive interview with Manic Miner creator Matthew Smith, written by freelancer Paul Drury after a visit to Smith's family home in Liverpool. March 2010 saw John Romero collaborating with Retro Gamer, taking on the role of'Guest Editor', taking charge of the magazine's editorial and splashing his own unique style to a number of his favorite articles and subjects throughout the magazine; the magazine celebrated its 150th issue in January 2016 and as of November 2016, the staff consists of Editor Darran Jones, Production Editor Drew Sleep, Senior Staff Writer Nick Thorpe and Designer Sam Ribbits. The magazine posts its own issue preview videos on its YouTube channel, featuring editor Darran Jones and Production Editor Drew Sleep as hosts. Three DVDs with 25 to 30 issues each have been released over the years: Retro Gamer eMag Load 1 Retro Gamer eMag Load 2 Retro Gamer eMag Load 3 Retro Gamer is now available as an iOS app and can be downloaded onto iPhone and iPad. Retro Gamer won Best Magazine at the 2010 Games Media Awards.
Official website List with all the games, machines and features of each issue of the magazine provided by Park Productions
Jetpac is a 1983 shooter video game developed and published by Ultimate Play the Game and released for the ZX Spectrum and VIC-20. It was released for BBC Micro in 1984; the game is the first instalment in the Jetman series, is the first game to be released by the company, who were known as Rare. The game follows Jetman as he must rebuild his rocket in order to explore different planets, whilst defending himself from aliens. Jetpac has since been included in other Rare games such as an unlockable in Donkey Kong 64 and part of the compilation Rare Replay; the game spawned two sequels and a 2007 remake, Jetpac Refuelled, released for the Xbox Live Arcade service. The game was included in a games compilation on the ZX Spectrum Vega released in 2015; the game was written by Chris Stamper and graphics were designed by Tim Stamper. Jetpac was one of the few Spectrum games available in ROM format for use with the Interface 2, allowing "instantaneous" loading of the game when the normal method of cassette loading took minutes.
The game was met with critical acclaim upon release, with reviewers praising the game's presentation and playability. It won the "Game of the Year" title at the Golden Joystick Awards in 1983; the game world is presented in a horizontal wraparound and consists of three platforms which Jetman can manoeuvre onto. Jetman must assemble his rocket, fill it with fuel before taking off to the next planet, where the procedure is broadly repeated. In addition, the player has to defend themselves from the planet's aliens, for bonus points collect valuable resources which fall from above. After the first level, the rocket stays just requires refuelling. However, every four levels, the rocket resets and the replacement has to be built before it can be re-fuelled for take off; each new model has a new design with a higher number written on it, although the gameplay remains unchanged. The enemies change forms each level and each alien has a different pattern of movement which means they can be dealt with in a different manner.
Ultimate Play the Game was founded by brothers Tim and Chris Stamper, along with Tim's wife, from their headquarters in Ashby-de-la-Zouch in 1982. They began producing multiple video games for the ZX Spectrum throughout the early 1980s; the company were known for their reluctance to reveal details about their operations and upcoming projects. Little was known about their development process except that they used to work in "separate teams". Whilst developing Jetpac, the Stamper brothers studied the emerging Japanese video gaming market and had started to practice developing games for their upcoming Famicom console predicting that the ZX Spectrum had a limited lifespan. Jetpac was one of the few Spectrum games available in ROM format for use with the Interface 2, allowing "instantaneous" loading of the game when the normal method of cassette loading took minutes; the game used the common technique of placing planar sprites with image sprites atop another, which created overlapped colours on both ZX Spectrum and BBC Micro versions of the game.
The game was able to run on the 16K version of the Spectrum. The game sold a total of 300,000 units for the ZX Spectrum and generated £1 million in revenue for Ultimate Play the Game, which enabled the Stamper brothers to gain a foothold in the early video gaming market. After the game's release, Jetpac was parodied in a long-running Crash comic strip named Lunar Jetman; the strip, designed by John Richardson, lasted from July 1984 to October 1991 and gained popular reception from readers. To develop the comic, photographs had to be processed manually on a photo-mechanical tone and transferred to paper being colourised in the late 1980s; the game was critically acclaimed upon release. Crash praised the graphics and presentation, citing that they were of "the highest standard" and added that it was "difficult to find any real faults" with the game. CVG praised the graphics, stating that the presentation was "superb" and the gameplay was considered addictive. In a retrospective review, Chris Wilkins of Eurogamer noted that the colourful graphics and sound effects were advanced for the time, but what made for a "faultless" experience was its simple gameplay.
ZX Computing praised the game's playability and replay-value, stating that Jetpac was "a well put together piece of software". The game was number one in the first Spectrum sales chart published by CVG; the ZX Spectrum version was voted number 73 in the Your Sinclair Readers' Top 100 Games of All Time in 1993 and was voted the 14th best game of all time by the readers of Retro Gamer for an article, scheduled to be in a special Your Sinclair tribute issue. The game won the title "Game of the Year" at the 1983 Golden Joystick Awards. Jetpac's popularity further spawned two sequels, Lunar Jetman and Solar Jetman: Hunt for the Golden Warpship; the latter, was not released for the ZX Spectrum due to disappointing sales of the original NES version, although a version for the Commodore 64 was finished but never released. Since its release, Jetpac has been included in other games developed by Rare; the game is playable in Donkey Kong 64, where it could be unlocked to play in Cranky Kong's laboratory after obtaining 15 Banana Medals.
Beating Cranky Kong's high score rewards the player with the Rareware Coin, necessary to beat the game. The game was retained in the April 2015 Virtual Console re-release of Donkey Kong 64 on the Wi
Tranz Am is an action video game developed and published by Ultimate Play the Game, released for the ZX Spectrum in July 1983. The game is set in a post-apocalyptic version of the United States and centres around a racing car driver on his quest to obtain the Eight Great Cups of Ultimate, which are scattered throughout the country; the game was written by Chris Stamper and graphics were designed by Tim Stamper. Tranz Am was one of the few Spectrum games available in ROM format for use with the Interface 2, allowing instant loading of the game; the game received positive reviews upon release: praise was given to the game's graphics and simple controls, while criticism was directed at its confusing interface. The game is set in a post-apocalyptic United States in the year 3472. Eight Great Cups of Ultimate are dispersed around America, the player's mission is to obtain all of them. Petrol is in short supply and the only way to re-fuel vehicles is to find petrol pumps, scattered across the country.
The game is presented in a top-down perspective and involves driving around America to collect the eight trophies whilst avoiding natural hazards and kamikaze cars, which attempt to crash into the player. The player has a limited supply of petrol and must collect fuel at regular intervals by driving over petrol pumps. Obstacles include trees and destroyed buildings; the overworld has an invisible border which causes the player's car to reverse automatically to ensure that they do not cross the game's boundaries. The interface displays a list of comprehensive data: a map showing a list of key cities in the contiguous United States, petrol gauge, remaining lives and engine temperature; every key city in the game contains at least one petrol station. If the player drives too fast for too long, their car will slow down. To save an overheating car the player must drive below a certain speed or stop to allow the engine to cool. Ultimate Play the Game was founded by brothers Tim and Chris Stamper, along with Tim's wife, from their headquarters in Ashby-de-la-Zouch in 1982.
They began producing video games for the ZX Spectrum throughout the early 1980s. Prior to founding Ultimate, the Stamper brothers had backgrounds in designing arcade machines, but no marketing experience in the video game sector; the company were known for their reluctance to reveal details about their operations and upcoming projects. Little was known about their development process except that they used to work in "separate teams": one team would work on development whilst the other would concentrate on other aspects such as sound or graphics. Tranz Am was one of the few Spectrum games available in ROM format for use with the Interface 2, allowing "instantaneous" loading of the game when the normal method of cassette loading could take several minutes; the game used the common technique of placing planar sprites with image sprites atop another, which created graphical errors and overlapped colours on the console. The game was able to run on the 16K version of the Spectrum; the game received a positive reception upon release.
Computer and Video Games praised the game's controls and accessibility, stating that they were "easy to get into" upon the first try. A reviewer writing for Home Computing Weekly found the game to be "compulsive" overall, but noted that the game did not live up to the promises made by the description on the packaging. Simon Lane of Popular Computing Weekly praised the game's graphics and presentation, stating that they were of "a high quality" and that Tranz Am was an "original game" in comparison with the other games released by Ultimate. Lane criticised the game's interface, stating that he found it difficult to "concentrate on everything all at once". Lane added that the game did not reward the player enough for collecting all of the cups, displaying just a short congratulation message before inviting him or her to begin again. A reviewer writing for Your Computer magazine heralded the game as a program of "outstanding achievement", considering that the game's playing area was calculated at "600 times more than the actual screen area".
Tranz Am at SpectrumComputing.co.uk Tranz Am at Ultimate Wurlde
Zzap!64 was a computer games magazine covering games on the Commodore International series of computers the Commodore 64. It was published in the UK by Newsfield Publications Ltd and by Europress Impact; the magazine launched in April, with the cover date May 1985, as the sister magazine to CRASH. It focused on the C64 for much of its shelf life, but incorporated Amiga game news and reviews. Like CRASH for the ZX Spectrum, it had a dedicated cult following amongst C64 owners and was well known for its irreverent sense of humour as well as its extensive, detailed coverage of the C64 scene; the magazine adopted an innovative review system that involved the use of the reviewers' faces, artistically rendered by in-house artists Oli Frey and Mark Kendrick, to express their reaction to the games. These evolved into static cartoons as the magazine began catering for a younger market. By 1992, the magazine had changed so in design and editorial direction that then-publisher Europress decided to relaunch the magazine.
Thus, issue 91 of Zzap!64 became issue 1 of Commodore Force, a magazine that itself lasted until March 1994. The first issue of Zzap!64, dated May 1985, was released on 11 April 1985. Its inaugural editorial team included editor Chris Anderson, Software Editor Bob Wade, freelance writer Steve Cooke, reviewers Gary Penn and Julian Rignall, who won their jobs after having placed as finalists at a video game competition; the editorial headquarters was in Yeovil, more than 120 miles from Newsfield's headquarters in Ludlow. Anderson would found Future Publishing and the TED Conference; as the Amiga gained popularity in the UK, Zzap!64 began to publish occasional reviews of Amiga games. The Amiga coverage became a fixed feature of the magazine in issue 43, when the title was renamed to Zzap!64 Amiga. The magazine experienced controversy in 1989, when three out of four reviewers were fired and replaced during production of issue 50; the only one remaining, Paul Rand, had been employed at Zzap!64 a mere two months.
Issue 50's editorial mentioned nothing of what happened, the issue featured content from the three fired reviewers without discussing their fates. Issue 74 saw the dropping of all Amiga coverage, the magazine became devoted to the C64 once more. Four months the publisher Newsfield declared bankruptcy and publication was suspended for a month. Europress Impact became the new publisher of Zzap!64, beginning with issue 79. Issue 90 was the last official Zzap!64 issue. From the following month, the magazine was replaced by Commodore Force; the Italian edition, authorised by the original publisher, was not limited to Commodore 64 games, but it reviewed games for other 8-bit machines like the ZX Spectrum, MSX, Amstrad CPC and the Atari 8-bit family. Around 80% of the content was translated with the remainder written in Italy. From issue 1 to issue 73 it was released as an actual magazine. From 1996 to 1999, Zzap! became an online magazine, a PC gaming website with a different "cover" each month and a mailbag, which reviewed games with the same style of the original magazine.
In 2002, a special "issue 85", dedicated to recently released games for 8-bit machines, was released in PDF format. In March 2002, a special "Issue 107" of Zzap!64 was published digitally in PDF format receiving a limited print run of 200 copies. Intended as a fan project based on a suggestion by journalist Cameron Davis in a Zzap!64 discussion forum, a number of ex-Newsfield writers volunteered to join the project, including former editors Gordon Houghton, Robin Hogg and Paul Glancey. The special issue reflected the C64's continuing popularity in the 21st Century as a platform for retro gamers and hobbyists, with the majority of reviews focusing on released C64 games; the magazine's design was based on "classic era" Zzap!64, the front cover was based on an illustration by former Newsfield artist Oli Frey revised by designer Craig Grannell. Another special issue of Zzap!64 was created in July 2005 to celebrate the magazine's twentieth anniversary. Dubbed The Def Tribute to Zzap!64, it was professionally printed and given away with issue 18 of Retro Gamer magazine.
Although more celebratory and retrospective in design than issue 107, it featured a great deal of new content, including a foreword and articles by former Newsfield director and Zzap!64 editor Roger Kean and new material from former editors Gary Penn and Chris Anderson. The front cover and centerfold featured rare illustrations by Oli Frey from his pre-Newsfield days. Jeff Minter - writing a diary of the production of Iridis Alpha, he left early. Andrew Braybrook - doing the same for his game Morpheus, titled Mental Procreation Martin Walker - following suit for his game Citadel, titled Walker's Way Apex Computer Productions - the Rowlands Brothers, John & Steve, doing the same for their game Creatures
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order. In many states, the aristocracy included the upper class of people with hereditary rank and titles. In some—such as ancient Greece and India—aristocratic status came from belonging to a military caste, although it has been common, notably in African societies, for aristocrats to belong to priestly dynasties. Aristocratic status can involve legal privileges, they are below only the monarch of a country or nation in its social hierarchy. In modern European societies, the aristocracy has coincided with the nobility, a specific class that arose in the Middle Ages, but the term "aristocracy" is sometimes applied to other elites, is used as a more generic term when describing earlier and non-European societies; the term aristocracy derives from the Greek ἀριστοκρατία (aristokratia from ἄριστος "excellent," and κράτος "power." In most cases, aristocratic titles are hereditary. The term "aristokratia" was first used in Athens with reference to young citizens who led armies at the front line.
Due to martial bravery being regarded as a virtue in ancient Greece, it was assumed that the armies were being led by "the best." This virtue was called arete. Etymologically, as the word developed, it produced a more political term: aristoi; the term aristocracy is a compound word stemming from the singular of aristoi and the Greek word for power, kratos. From the ancient Greeks, the term passed to the European Middle Ages for a similar hereditary class of military leaders referred to as the nobility; as in Greece, this was a class of privileged men and women whose familial connections to the regional armies allowed them to present themselves as the most "noble" or "best" of society. The status and privileges of the aristocracy in Europe were below royalty and above all non-aristocrats; the French Revolution attacked aristocrats as people who had achieved their status by having been born in a wealthy family rather than by merit, this was considered unjust. In the United Kingdom and other European countries, such as Spain and Denmark, in which hereditary titles are still recognised, aristocrat still refers to the descendant of one of 7,000 families with hereditary titles, many still in possession of considerable wealth.
In the United Kingdom, members of the highest echelon of the aristocracy, the hereditary peers were, until 1999, members of the House of Lords—the upper house of the legislature, the Parliament of the United Kingdom. In 1999, most ceased to be members. However, the Duke of Norfolk, who always serves as Earl Marshal, the hereditary peer who serves as Lord Great Chamberlain, a further 90 Representative Hereditary Peers elected by the Hereditary Peers retained membership. Since 1958, non-hereditary "life peers" have been created, who are automatically members of the House of Lords for life with the right to be known by their title. For example, John Gummer became Lord Deben. However, life peers are not considered part of the aristocracy, nor are knights, unless born into an aristocratic or landed gentry family. Examples include James Douglas-Hamilton, Baron Selkirk of Douglas, Sir Winston Churchill—all born into aristocratic families. Besides the hereditary peers, the gentry are considered part of the aristocracy.
Unlike the Continental untitled nobility, British untitled families that belong to the gentry have no legal recognition of their aristocratic position. Under the rule of the Mughal Empire, the titles for those under a king were borrowed from Persia; these titles of landed aristocracy include jagirdar, thikanadar and zamindar. Many landholding families either held legal or administrative offices, were sometimes considered the Indian version of the Nobility of the Robe; the princes appointed officers, such as dewan and other state level ministers, to run their administrations, who were considered members of the regional nobility. Most of these officers were either relatives of the princes who appointed them, or were themselves substantial landlords under the sovereignty of the Princely States, most held hereditary titles. Sometimes, educated men belonging to the British Imperial Services were appointed to the high offices of the Princely States, but their positions were not hereditary and they were seen as career bureaucrats rather than noblemen by their employers.
Today, aristocratic titles like Taluqdar, Rao, Naidu, Thevar, Zaildar, Tarafdar, Nair, [[Madampi |Madampi, Chettiar of are still used in the Indian Subcontinent. Deriving from the pre-colonial states of the region that would become known as Nigeria, the recognised titles of the Nigerian aristocracy range from king to the ubiquitous chief, they give their bearers no political authority in theory, but in practice allow them to serve as immensely powerful patrons of the country's political leaders due to their control of popular opinion within its various tribes. Along with those of their titled relatives and courtiers, they serve as the guiding forces behind Nigerian cultural and religious ceremonies. Titles such as Oba, Mai, Sarki and Obi are used by the dynastic heads, while prince and princess are either used in their English forms or in their native ones by the dynasts of their houses, their privy counsellors, tend to be called either chiefs or elders depending on what their monarch
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. The MOD states that its principal objectives are to defend the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its interests and to strengthen international peace and stability. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the MOD does not foresee any short-term conventional military threat; the MOD manages day-to-day running of the armed forces, contingency planning and defence procurement. During the 1920s and 1930s, British civil servants and politicians, looking back at the performance of the state during the First World War, concluded that there was a need for greater co-ordination between the three services that made up the armed forces of the United Kingdom—the Royal Navy, the British Army and the Royal Air Force; the formation of a united ministry of defence was rejected by David Lloyd George's coalition government in 1921.
As rearmament became a concern during the 1930s, Stanley Baldwin created the position of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence. Lord Chatfield held the post until the fall of Neville Chamberlain's government in 1940. Winston Churchill, on forming his government in 1940, created the office of Minister of Defence to exercise ministerial control over the Chiefs of Staff Committee and to co-ordinate defence matters; the post was held by the Prime Minister of the day until Clement Attlee's government introduced the Ministry of Defence Act of 1946. The new ministry was headed by a Minister of Defence; the three existing service Ministers—the First Lord of the Admiralty, the Secretary of State for War and the Secretary of State for Air—remained in direct operational control of their respective services, but ceased to attend Cabinet. From 1946 to 1964 five Departments of State did the work of the modern Ministry of Defence: the Admiralty, the War Office, the Air Ministry, the Ministry of Aviation, an earlier form of the Ministry of Defence.
These departments merged in 1964. The Ministers in the Ministry of Defence are as follows: The Chief of the Defence Staff is the professional head of the British Armed Forces and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Secretary of State for Defence and the Prime Minister; the CDS is supported by the Vice Chief of the Defence Staff who deputises and is responsible for the day-to-day running of the armed services aspect of the MOD through the Central Staff, working alongside the Permanent Secretary. They are joined by the professional heads of the three British armed services and the Commander of Joint Forces Command. All personnel sit at OF-9 rank in the NATO rank system. Together the Chiefs of Staff form the Chiefs of Staff Committee with responsibility for providing advice on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations; the current Chiefs of Staff are as follows. Chief of the Defence Staff – General Sir Nick Carter Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff – General Sir Gordon Messenger First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff – Admiral Sir Philip Jones Chief of the General Staff – General Mark Carleton-Smith Chief of the Air Staff – Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier Commander of Joint Forces Command – General Sir Christopher Deverell The Chief of Staff is supported by several other senior military personnel at OF-8 rank.
Chief of Defence People – Lieutenant General Richard Nugee Deputy Chief of Defence Staff – Lieutenant-General Douglas Chalmers Deputy Chief of Defence Staff – Lieutenant-General Mark Poffley Chief of Joint Operations - Vice-Admiral Timothy Fraser Defence Senior Adviser Middle East - Lieutenant-General John LorimerAdditionally, there are a number of Assistant Chiefs of Defence Staff, including the Assistant Chief of the Defence Staff and the Defence Services Secretary in the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, the Assistant Chief of Defence Staff. Permanent Secretary and other senior officials The Ministers and Chiefs of the Defence Staff are supported by several civilian and professional military advisors; the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Defence is the senior civil servant at the MOD. Their role is to ensure that it operates as a government department and has responsibility for the strategy, reform and the finances of the MOD; the role works with the Chief of the Defence Staff in leading the organisation and supporting Ministers in the conduct of business in the Department across the full range of responsibilities.
Permanent Under-Secretary of State – Stephen Lovegrove Director General Finance – Cat Little Director General Head Office and Commissioning Services – Julie Taylor Director General Nuclear – Julian Kelly Director General Security Policy – Peter Watkins MOD Chief Scientific Adviser – Professor Hugh Durrant-Whyte MOD Chief Scientific Adviser – Professor Robin Grimes Lead Non-Executive Board Member – Sir Gerry Gri