Alexandra Imelda Cecelia Ewen Burke is a British singer-songwriter and voice actor. Burke rose to fame after winning the series of British television series The X Factor in 2008. She has been signed to Epic Records, RCA Records and Syco Music, by January 2009, the single had sold over 1 million copies in the UK alone, a first for a British female soloist. The singles released from the album earned her three BRIT Award nominations, the album saw the release of UK top 10 hit, Broken Heels and The Silence. Elephant was released as Burkes comeback single in February 2012, and Let It Go served as the single and Burkes second album. In June 2014, Burke replaced Beverley Knight in the role of Rachel Marron in the West End musical The Bodyguard, at the Adelphi Theatre. In 2016, Burke commenced a 12-month residency in Sister Act The Musical, alexandria Burke was born in Islington, England on 25 August 1988, and is the daughter of Melissa Bell. Her mother was a soul and R&B singer, and was a member of band Soul II Soul and she is of Dougla and Irish descent.
Although her mother was in a band, she was under investigation of suspicion benefit fraud and her mother said that she had not done a professional gig for years, and had never claimed benefits when she had. Burke has three siblings, Sheneice and Aaron. Burke attracted the names Cecelia Ewen as they are her mothers middle names, her sister, Burkes parents broke up in 1992, while she was still young, but the pair remain close friends for their children. Burke began dance classes at an early age, and began singing when she was as young as five years old. She went on to sing on stage at the Bahrain when she was nine years old, where she sang with her mother. When she was aged twelve, Burke entered the talent show. Throughout the competition, she was the runner-up after she was beaten for the title by Joss Stone. Still at the age of twelve, her mother put her in contact with Stevie Wonder who rang Burke and she sang down the phone to him. Her mother, asked her to sing to Jean Carne who was said to be impressed by Burkes vocals that she asked her to perform with her at one of her shows the next night.
Burke attended Elizabeth Garrett Anderson School in Islington, Angel where she worked for her GCSEs, before Burke was successful on The X Factor she had been working as a singer, gigging at weekends in popular night clubs
Royal Court Theatre
The Royal Court Theatre is a non-commercial theatre on Sloane Square, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, England. It is noted for its contributions to modern theatre, in 1956 it was acquired by and is home to a resident company, the English Stage Company. The first theatre on Lower George Street, off Sloane Square, was the converted Nonconformist Ranelagh Chapel, marie Litton became its manager in 1871, hiring Walter Emden to remodel the interior, and it was renamed the Court Theatre. By 1878, management of the theatre was shared by John Hare, further alterations were made in 1882 by Alexander Peebles, after which its capacity was 728. After that, Arthur Cecil was co-manager of the theatre with John Clayton, among other works, they produced a series of Arthur Wing Pineros farces, including The Rector, The Magistrate, The Schoolmistress, and Dandy Dick, among others. The theatre closed on 22 July 1887 and was demolished, the present building was built on the east side of Sloane Square, replacing the earlier building, and opened on 24 September 1888 as the New Court Theatre.
Designed by Walter Emden and Bertie Crewe, it is constructed of red brick, moulded brick. Originally the theatre had a capacity of 841 in the stalls, dress circle, amphitheatre and Clayton yielded management of the theatre to Mrs. John Wood and Arthur Chudleigh in 1887, although Cecil continued acting in their company until 1895. The first production in the new building was a play by Sydney Grundy titled Mamma, starring Mrs. John Wood and John Hare, with Arthur Cecil and Eric Lewis. Harley Granville-Barker managed the theatre for the first few years of the 20th century and it ceased to be used as a theatre in 1932 but was used as a cinema from 1935 to 1940, until World War II bomb damage closed it. The interior was reconstructed by Robert Cromie, and the number of seats was reduced to under 500, George Devine was appointed artistic director at the suggestion of Oscar Lewenstein, one of the other two co-founders of the English Stage Company. The ESC opened at the Royal Court in 1956 as a subsidised theatre producing new British and foreign plays, Devine aimed to create a writers theatre, seeking to discover new writers and produce serious contemporary works.
Devine produced the new companys production in 1956, John Osbornes Look Back in Anger. Osborne followed Look Back In Anger with The Entertainer, with Laurence Olivier in the lead as Archie Rice, although it was quickly reversed, the artistic board of the ESC initially rejected the play. Two members of the board were in agreement in opposing The Entertainer, in the mid-1960s, the ESC became involved in issues of censorship. The succès de scandale of the two helped to bring about the abolition of theatre censorship in the UK. During the period of Devines directorship, besides Osborne and Bond, early seasons included new international plays by Bertolt Brecht, Eugène Ionesco, Samuel Beckett, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Marguerite Duras. In addition to the 400-seat proscenium arch Theatre Downstairs, the smaller studio Theatre Upstairs was opened in 1969
A penny is a coin or a unit of currency in various countries. Borrowed from the Carolingian denarius, it is usually the smallest denomination within a currency system, presently, it is the formal name of the British penny and the informal name of one American cent as well as the informal Irish designation of 1 cent euro coin. It is the name of the cent unit of account in Canada. The name is used in reference to various historical currencies derived from the Carolingian system, such as the French denier. It may be used to refer to any similar smallest-denomination coin. The Carolingian penny was originally a. 940-fine silver coin weighing 1/240 pound, the British penny remained a silver coin until the expense of the Napoleonic Wars prompted the use of base metals in 1797. Despite the decimalization of currencies in the United States and, throughout the British Commonwealth, no penny is currently formally subdivided, although farthings and half cents have previously been minted and the mill remains in use as a unit of account in some contexts.
Penny is first attested in a 1394 Scots text, a variant of Old English peni, a development of numerous variations including pennig and pending. The etymology of the penny is uncertain, although cognates are common across almost all Germanic languages and suggest a base *pan-, *pann-. Recently, it has proposed that it may represent an early borrowing of Punic PN. Following decimalization, the British and Irish coins were marked new penny until 1982 and 1985, the regular plural pennies fell out of use in England from the 16th century, except in reference to coins considered individually. The informal name for the American cent seems to have spread from New York, in British English, prior to decimalization, values from two to eleven pence and of twenty pence are often written and spoken as a single word, as twopence, threepence, &c. Where a single coin represented a number of pence, it was treated as a single noun, thus, a threepence would be single coin of that value whereas three pence would be its value and three pennies would be three penny coins.
In British English, divisions of a penny were added to such combinations without a conjunction, as sixpence-farthing, adjectival use of such coins used the ending -penny, as sixpenny. The British abbreviation d. derived from the Latin denarius and it followed the amount after a space. It has been replaced since decimalization by p, usually written without a space or period, from this abbreviation, it is common to speak of pennies and values in pence as p. In North America, it is common to abbreviate cents with the currency symbol ¢, elsewhere, it is usually written with a simple c. The medieval silver penny was modeled on similar coins in antiquity, such as the Greek drachma, the Carthaginian shekel, forms of these seem to have reached as far as Norway and Sweden
The Spice Girls are an English pop girl group formed in 1994. The group originally consisted of Melanie Brown, Melanie Chisholm, Emma Bunton, Geri Halliwell and they were signed to Virgin Records and released their debut single Wannabe in 1996, which hit number one in 37 countries and established them as a global phenomenon. Their debut album Spice sold more than 31 million copies worldwide and their follow-up album Spiceworld sold over 20 million copies worldwide. Among the highest profile acts in 1990s British popular culture, Time called them arguably the most recognisable face of Cool Britannia, the mid-1990s celebration of youth culture in the UK. The group became one of the most successful marketing engines ever, earning up to $75 million per year, under the guidance of their mentor and manager Simon Fuller, the Spice Girls embraced merchandising and became a regular feature of the British and global press. In 1996, Top of the Pops magazine gave each member of the group aliases, which were adopted by the group and media.
According to Rolling Stone journalist and biographer David Sinclair, Baby, Ginger and Sporty were the most widely recognised group of individuals since John, George, with the girl power phenomenon, the Spice Girls were popular cultural icons of the 1990s. They are cited as part of the second wave 1990s British Invasion of the US, in 2016, Mel B, Emma Bunton and Geri Halliwell reunited and launched a new website called Spice Girls - GEM. In February 1994, together with financier Chic Murphy, they placed an advertisement in the trade magazine The Stage asking for singers to audition for a pop band at Danceworks studios. A week after the audition, the women were asked to attend a recall at Nomis Studios in Shepherds Bush, performing Signed, Delivered on their own. During the session, Brown, Chisholm and Stephenson were selected to the band, the group moved to a house in Maidenhead and spent most of 1994 training. During the first two months, they worked on demos at South Hill Park Recording Studios in Bracknell with producer/studio owner Michael Sparkes and songwriter/arranger Tim Hawes.
According to Stephenson, the material the group was given was very, very pop, one of the songs they recorded and Spice. They worked on various dance routines at the Trinity Studios in Knaphill, near Woking, a few months into the training period, Stephenson was fired from the group and replaced with Emma Bunton. It was during this time that Halliwell came up with the band name Spice, the group felt insecure about the lack of a contract and was frustrated by the direction in which Heart Management was steering them. In October 1994, armed with a catalogue of demos and dance routines, due to the large interest in the group, the Herberts quickly set about creating a binding contract for them. Encouraged by the reaction they had received at the Nomis showcase, all five members delayed signing contracts on the advice from, among others. In March 1995, the group parted from Heart Management due to their frustration with the unwillingness to listen to their visions
Multi-Coloured Swap Shop
It was ground-breaking in many ways, by being live, sometimes up to three hours in length, and using the phone-in format extensively for the first time on TV. The show was hosted by Noel Edmonds and his associates from the beginning were Keith Chegwin, John Craven and later, in 1978, the shows presenters formed a pop group called Brown Sauce in December 1981 and released a single called I Wanna be a Winner. The song peaked at number 15 in the UK Singles Chart, featured was Posh Paws, a stuffed toy dinosaur. Edmonds once explained that his name was actually spelled Pohs Paws, another person named was Eric, the often-referred to but never seen technician whose job was to lower a plastic globe containing postcards sent in by viewers as answers to competitions. Eric Ilett performed a task on the BBCs Ask The Family when technical assistance was required as part of the programme. The content of the programme included music, visits from celebrities, there was coverage of news and issues relevant to children, presented by John Craven, building on his profile as the presenter of John Cravens Newsround.
The cornerstone, was the Swaporama element, hosted by Chegwin, an outside broadcast unit would travel to different locations throughout the country where children could swap their belongings with others. This proved to be one of the most popular aspects of the show, the primary purpose of the BBC OB unit was to broadcast a sporting event at that Swaporama venue that day. This allowed Swap Shop to use the unit and save programming costs which would otherwise be prohibitive. The telephone number for show was 018118055 spoken in the format of oh one, eight double one. The number was known and remembered by children, and was groundbreaking for the BBC. The graphic on the front of the Swap Shop studio showing the number has made into a T shirt. Swap Shop was a success, attracting substantial ratings not only among its audience of children. It ended in 1982, to allow the presenters to move on to other projects—notably Edmonds and it was replaced by a series of similar programmes, most notably Saturday Superstore, Going Live.
and Live & Kicking. This first ever question for the audience was, Where will the next Olympic games be held. Swap Shop is poorly represented in the BBC archive, for some time it was believed that either the programmes were never routinely recorded in the first place, or they had been wiped on the orders of the BBCs Archive Selector Adam Lee in 1993. These tapes were held by the BBC until the late 1980s, at time the Deputy Head of Childrens Television, Roy Thompson, allowed many of them to be wiped. Amongst the editions wiped were those featuring appearances by Blondie, XTC, Trumpton creator Gordon Murray, on 20 December 2007, the BBC announced that Swap Shop was returning to BBC Two for a 13-week run
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid 1950s. The terms popular music and pop music are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular. Pop and rock were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they were used in opposition from each other. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music. Pop music is eclectic, and often borrows elements from other such as urban, rock, Latin. Identifying factors include generally short to medium-length songs written in a format, as well as the common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, according to Pete Seeger, pop music is professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music. Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music, the music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs.
Pop music, as a genre, is seen as existing and developing separately, pop music continuously evolves along with the terms definition. The term pop song was first recorded as being used in 1926, Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pops earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience. Since the late 1950s, pop has had the meaning of non-classical mus, usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles. Grove Music Online states that, in the early 1960s pop music competed terminologically with beat music, while in the USA its coverage overlapped with that of rock and roll. From about 1967, the term was used in opposition to the term rock music. Whereas rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of music, pop was more commercial, ephemeral. It is not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward, and, in musical terms, it is essentially conservative.
It is, provided from on high rather than being made from below, pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged. The beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment, the lyrics of modern pop songs typically focus on simple themes – often love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital on 31 March 2010, before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services, BBC1, BBC2, and ITV. The Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, after some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982. Indeed, television sets throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare channel called ITV/IBA2. It was most likely politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of almost three decades before the commercial channel became a reality. The campaign was taken so seriously by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, the result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, since then, carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available.
The first programme to air on the channel was the game show Countdown. The first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second, the first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Carol Vorderman and was a lexicographer only ever identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words, On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashleys ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984. The channel often did not receive mass audiences for much of period, however. Channel 4 for many years had a poorer quality signal compared to other channels, Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in the documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Drivers Wife.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Company to the Channel Four Television Corporation in 1993, instead of aiming for the fringes of society, it began to focus on the edges of the mainstream, and the centre of the mass market itself. It began to show many US programmes in peak viewing time and it gave such shows as Friends and ER their UK premières. In the early 2000s, Channel 4 began broadcasting reality formats such as Big Brother and obtained the rights to broadcast mass appeal sporting events like cricket and this new direction increased ratings and revenues. In addition, the corporation launched a number of new channels through its new 4Ventures offshoot, including Film4, At the Races, E4
Sandra Birgitte Sandi Toksvig OBE is a Danish-British comedian, actor and producer on British radio and television, and political activist. On 21 October 2016, Toksvig took over from Stephen Fry as host of the BBC television quiz show QI and she was the host of The News Quiz on BBC Radio 4 from 2006 until June 2015. She presented the quiz show 1001 Things You Should Know on Channel 4 television in 2012–13, and began hosting a revived series of the same channels game show Fifteen to One on 5 April 2014. She is joint founder of the Womens Equality Party, was installed as Chancellor of the University of Portsmouth in October 2012, on 16 March 2017, Toksvig was announced as the new co-presenter of The Great British Bake Off, alongside comedian Noel Fielding. Her father, Claus Toksvig, was a Danish journalist and broadcaster and foreign correspondent, so Toksvig spent most of her youth outside Denmark and her mother, Julie Anne Toksvig is British. She attended Tormead School, an independent girls school near Guildford and her first job was a position as a follow spot operator for the musical Jesus Christ Superstar at the age of 18.
She read law and anthropology at Girton College, graduating with a first-class degree, One of her law tutors was Lord Denning. Toksvig began her career at Girton College, Cambridge University. She was there at the time as fellow members Stephen Fry, Hugh Laurie, Tony Slattery and Emma Thompson. She was a member of the universitys Light Entertainment Society and she started her television career on childrens series, presenting No. 73, the Sandwich Quiz, The Saturday Starship, Gilberts Fridge and on programmes such as Island Race and The Talking Show. Toksvig said the allegations of inappropriate behaviour at the BBC did not surprise me at all, in the comedy circuit, Toksvig performed at the first night of the Comedy Store in London and was once part of their Players, an improvisational comedy team. In television, she appeared as a panellist in comedy shows such as Call My Bluff, mock the Week, QI and Have I Got News for You, where she appeared on the very first episode in 1990. She was the host of What the Dickens, a Sky Arts quiz show and her final show was first broadcast on 26 June.
She presented Radio 4s travel programme Excess Baggage until it was axed in 2012, in 1993 Toksvig wrote a musical, Big Night Out at the Little Sands Picture Palace, for Nottingham Playhouse, co-starring with Anita Dobson and Una Stubbs. In 2002, it was re-written, with Dilly Keane, for the Watford Palace Theatre and Elly Brewer wrote a Shakespeare deconstruction, The Pocket Dream, which Toksvig performed at the Nottingham Playhouse and which transferred to the West End for a short run. The pair wrote the 1992 TV series The Big One and she has appeared in a number of stage plays, including Androcles and the Lion, Much Ado About Nothing and The Comedy of Errors. In 1996, she narrated the Dragons, interactive CD-ROM published by Oxford University Press and developed by Inner Workings, along with Harry Enfield
A newspaper is a serial publication containing news about current events, other informative articles about politics, arts, and so on, and advertising. A newspaper is usually, but not exclusively, printed on relatively inexpensive, the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers. As of 2017, most newspapers are now published online as well as in print, the online versions are called online newspapers or news websites. Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly, News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news, typically the paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Papers include articles which have no byline, these articles are written by staff writers, a wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. As of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies, most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising revenue.
Some newspapers are government-run or at least government-funded, their reliance on advertising revenue, the editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high quality. This is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world, circa 2005, there were approximately 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day. Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7, plunged during the financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more specifically, journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles from online newspapers.
Increasing paywalling of online newspapers may be counteracting those effects, the oldest newspaper still published is the Gazzetta di Mantova, which was established in Mantua in 1664. While online newspapers have increased access to newspapers by people with Internet access, literacy is a factor which prevents people who cannot read from being able to benefit from reading newspapers. Periodicity, They are published at intervals, typically daily or weekly. This ensures that newspapers can provide information on newly-emerging news stories or events, Its information is as up to date as its publication schedule allows
Idrissa Akuna Idris Elba, OBE is an English actor, and DJ. He has been nominated four times for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Miniseries or Television Film, winning one, and was nominated five times for a Primetime Emmy Award. Elba has appeared in such as Ridley Scotts American Gangster, Thor, Pacific Rim, The Dark World and Beasts of No Nation. In 2016, he voiced Chief Bogo in Zootopia, Shere Khan in The Jungle Book and he will make his directorial debut with an adaptation of 1992 novel Yardie by Victor Headley. In addition to his work, Elba is a DJ under the moniker DJ Big Driis. In 2016, he was named in the Time 100 list of the Most Influential People in the World, an only child, Idrissa Akuna Elba was born on 6 September 1972 in Hackney. His father, was a Sierra Leonean and worked in the Ford motor factory at Dagenham, while his mother, Elbas parents were married in Sierra Leone and moved to London. Elba himself was brought up in Hackney and East Ham, and shortened his first name from Idrissa to Idris at school in Canning Town, where he first became involved in acting.
He credits The Stage with giving him his first big break, having seen an advertisement for a play in the newspaper, Elba auditioned and met his first agent while performing in the role. In 1986, he began helping an uncle with his wedding DJ business, within a year, Elba left school in 1988 and won a place in the National Youth Music Theatre, thanks to a £1,500 Princes Trust grant. His first roles were in Crimewatch murder reconstructions, to support himself between roles in Crimewatch reconstructions, he worked in jobs such as tyre-fitting, cold call advertising sales, and the night shift at Ford Dagenham. He was working in nightclubs, under the DJ nickname Big Driis, at age 19, in 1995, Elba landed his first significant role on a series called Bramwell, a medical drama set in 1890s England. He played a character in an episode of Season 1, an African petty thief named Charlie Carter. His first named role arrived earlier in 1995, cast as a gigolo on the Sex episode of Absolutely Fabulous, many supporting roles on British television followed, including series such as The Bill and The Ruth Rendell Mysteries.
He joined the cast of the soap opera Family Affairs and went on to appear on the television serial Ultraviolet and he decided to move to New York City soon after. He returned to England occasionally for a role, such as a part in one of the Inspector Lynley Mysteries. In 2001, Elba played Achilles in a production of Troilus. After a supporting turn on a 2001 episode of Law & Order, from 2002 to 2004, Elba portrayed Russell Stringer Bell in the series, perhaps his best-known role in the United States
Edinburgh Festival Fringe
The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is the worlds largest arts festival, which in 2016, spanned 25 days and featured 50,266 performances of 3,269 shows in 294 venues. Established in 1947 as an alternative to the Edinburgh International Festival, it takes place annually in Edinburgh, Scotlands capital and it is an open access performing arts festival, meaning there is no selection committee, and anyone may participate, with any type of performance. The Fringe has often showcased experimental, challenging or controversial works that might not be invited to a more conservative arts festival, the Fringe board of directors is drawn from members of the Festival Fringe Society, who are often Fringe participants themselves – performers or administrators. Elections are held once a year, in August, and Board members serve a term of four years, the Board appoints the Fringe Chief Executive, who is currently Shona McCarthy and assumed the role in March 2016. The Chief Executive operates under the chair, currently Professor Sir Timothy OShea, the Fringe started life when eight theatre companies turned up uninvited to the inaugural Edinburgh International Festival in 1947.
With the official festival using the major venues, these companies took over smaller. Seven performed in Edinburgh, and one undertook a version of the morality play Everyman in Dunfermline Abbey, about 20 miles north. These groups aimed to take advantage of the large assembled theatre crowds to showcase their own alternative theatre, although at the time it was not recognised as such, this was the first Edinburgh Festival Fringe. This meant that two defining features of the future Fringe were established at the very beginning – the lack of invitations to perform. I am afraid some of us are not going to be at home during the evenings. The word fringe had in fact used in a review of Everyman in 1947. Late night revues, which would become a feature of Fringes, the first one was the New Drama Groups After The Show, a series of sketches taking place after Donald Pleasences Ebb Tide, in 1952. Among the talent to appear in early Fringe revues were Ned Sherrin in 1955, due to many reviewers only being able to attend Fringe events late night after the official festival was finished, the Fringe came to be seen as being about revues.
It was a few years before an official programme for the Fringe was created. John Menzies compiled a list of shows under the title Other Events in their omnibus festival brochure and this was funded by participating companies and was entitled Additional Entertainments, since the name Fringe was still not yet in regular usage. It used a strange cover motif, a first attempt was made to provide a central booking service in 1955 by students from the university, although it lost money, which was blamed on those who had not taken part. Formal organisation progressed in 1959, with the formation of the Festival Fringe Society, the push for such an organisation was led by Michael Imison, director of Oxford Theatre Group. A constitution was drawn up, in which the policy of not vetting or censoring shows was set out, nineteen companies participated in the Fringe in that year