Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects. Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Fantasy elements occur throughout the ancient Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh; the ancient Babylonian creation epic, the Enûma Eliš, in which the god Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, contains the theme of a cosmic battle between good and evil, characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu, preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature.
The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra, for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, dwarves, elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us
Jim Burns, is a Welsh artist born in Cardiff, Wales. He has been called one of the Grand Masters of the science fiction art world. In 1966 he joined the Royal Air Force, but soon thereafter he left and signed up at the Newport School of Art for a year's foundation course. After that, he went on to complete a 3-year Diploma in Art and Design at Saint Martin's School of Art in London; when he left Saint Martin's in 1972 he had joined the established illustration agency Young Artists. He has been with this agency renamed Arena since, he is today a contemporary British science fiction illustrator. His work deals with science fiction with erotic overtones, his paintings are intricate photo-realistic works of beautiful women set against advanced machines and spaceships. While his preparatory sketches are more erotically focused, his final works and published book covers have a more academic tone portraying far off and imaginary worlds. Apart from book and game covers, Burns worked with Ridley Scott on Blade Runner, his illustrations and paintings comprise much of the book Mechanismo by Harry Harrison.
He has had books of his own works published, including Lightship, Planet Story and Imago. Burns won the Hugo award for best professional artist three times and has been awarded 12 BSFA awards. Well regarded in fandom, he was artist guest of honour at the 1987 Worldcon. Work by the artist includes cover art for: The Fury of Dracula a boardgame by Stephen Hand Two books by Daniel Keys Moran Armageddon Blues The Long Run Artificial Things for Karen Joy Fowler Over thirty books by Robert Silverberg including The Face of the Waters Aristoi by Walter Jon Williams Upland Outlaws by Dave Duncan Infinity's Shore by David Brin The Stone Dance of the Chameleon series by Ricardo Pinto The Chosen The Standing Dead The Third God The Greg Mandel Trilogy by Peter F. Hamilton Mindstar Rising A Quantum Murder The Nano Flower The Night's Dawn Trilogy by Peter F. Hamilton The Reality Dysfunction The Neutronium Alchemist The Naked God A Second Chance at Eden by Peter F. Hamilton The Confederation Handbook by Peter F. Hamilton Fallen Dragon by Peter F. Hamilton The Commonwealth Saga by Peter F. Hamilton Pandora's Star Judas Unchained The Void trilogy by Peter F. Hamilton The Dreaming Void The Temporal Void In 2014, Titan Books published a collection of Burns's art throughout his career, The Art of Jim Burns: Hyperluminal.
Official website Jim Burns at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Artwork from Lightship on a science fiction blog
The Third God
The Third God is a 2009 fantasy novel by Ricardo Pinto. It is the third book in The Stone Dance of the Chameleon trilogy, which concerns the harrowing experiences of the young and inexperienced heir to a ruling dynasty, taken from his protected childhood and thrust into a cruel society where he must fight for his family honour, his position and his life; the Third God continues the story of Chameleon and the would-be God Emperor Osidian, who has raised a barbarian army and now seeks revenge on those who stripped him of his rightful inheritance and left him for dead. Pinto said that though the novel had been published in the United Kingdom and Portugal, he had been "bitterly disappointed" when both his US and German publishers had decided not to publish it, he noted, "When it came out, it was reviewed, it felt to me as if, after spending years creating a ship, it had slid down the slipway, sank with a trace. I had hoped for more." This is the final book in a series of three. Some series become formulaic with the same characters going over the same ground on the way to a final victory, but not this one.
It is one story in three parts. The first in the series is the most nearly a traditional fantasy epic, with the unsuspecting hero growing into his role as a master of the Guarded Land and taking part in the election of the new god-emperor...before everything comes apart. The second recounts time in exile in the Earthsky where our heroes forge an army out of the barbarian tribes; this book recounts their return to final battle to recover their birthright. The book could just about be read as a complete story, but much relies upon a knowledge of the previous books to be appreciated, yet this is not a conventional fantasy. It is set in a wholly barbaric land, where the ruling Masters are masters of their art of inflicting suffering; the whole story is told from the perspective of Carnelian, who in the first book has to come to terms with violence and death being visited on his family and those he has grown up with, having been raised by his father in exile and thus been sheltered from the casual violence of the society he has inherited to rule.
In the second, he experiences the lot of a slave, being cast out together with Osidian before building a following amongst the plains people, leaving a growing wake of death as they go. In the third the massed armies of the guarded land, together with all the weapons of destruction the Masters could devise are brought together with predictable results of death on an greater scale than before. All this death and violence will be off-putting for some readers, yet it is used through Carnelian's reaction against it as a cry against the horrors of war; the rising tide of destruction is an object lesson in unforeseen consequences and the risks of carelssly destroying all you hold dear through the singleminded pursuit of some goal. Carnelian is not an uncertain hero but has to make hard choices as he tries to support yet restrain Osidian's determination to return to power at the heart of the empire; the plot is a good fantasy epic with plenty of twists and turns, despite all the devastation manages to maintain a thread of hope for the final resolution to the conflict.
Yet it keeps you guessing, for with so many losses along the way it is never certain which central character will be next to depart for another life. There is a love story woven through it, which once again is an assertion of the triumph of fundamental humanity against impossible obstacles
The Chosen (Pinto novel)
The Chosen is a 1999 fantasy novel by Ricardo Pinto. It is the first book in The Stone Dance of the Chameleon trilogy, which concerns the harrowing experiences of the young and inexperienced heir to a ruling dynasty, taken from his protected childhood and thrust into a cruel society where he must fight for his family honour, his position and his life. A 2000 Locus poll ranked The Chosen 14th in the Best First Novel category. Pinto has reported that he first wrote a 600 page draft of the series during the summer holiday while at university in the early 1980s. Ten years he produced rewritten drafts for the second and third books of the series, before creating a 100 page synopsis of the first book, submitted to a publisher, Transworld; the book took a further two years to complete. Pinto reports that his writing style has changed through the writing of the series, so that while the final volume has been driven by its characters, the first was driven by its setting, his writing process is to create successive draft outlines for a book, each developing the actions and interaction of the characters and themes in the story in greater detail.
The wildlife and setting of the books derived from an idea in the original draft that it would be set in late Cretaceous Antarctica. This accounted for the day length of 23.6 hours and 396-day years used in the series, which would have been correct for the earth at that time. The book has been criticised for being overly long, which in part is conceded by Pinto and put down by him to inexperience. However, he says that the relevance of some information will become apparent in the final volume, upon re-reading; the story concerns the move from boy to man of its hero, son of the Lord Suth. Powerful and influential, Lord Suth is in exile far from Osrakum, capital of the Three Lands, his son has been brought up with only his father and immediate household, which though extensive is only a pale shadow of the extravagance and excesses of the court life experienced by a ruling Lord. A delegation of lords comes to their island, asking that Suth will return to the capital and oversee the election of a new emperor, since the current one is dying.
The emperor has two sons, a choice must be made between them. Suth agrees, Carnelian is thrown into a world of cruelty and indifference to the suffering of others, his home is torn apart to make repairs to the ship. Most of the household are left behind, without the stores they would have needed to survive the winter, it is death for a common man to look upon the face of such a lord, Carnelian has several sharp lessons in the laws of caste which govern this society. The journey to Osrakum is experienced by the reader through the impressions of Carnelian, as a stranger to the three lands. Once at court, Carnelian again experiences the contrasts between the rich and powerful, their inconsequential slaves, he becomes involved in the affairs of the two brothers contending for the throne. His position as an outsider and his fathers position as regent and as arbiter of the election, makes him well placed to see the inner workings of the palace and to become a natural rulebreaker and explorer of secret places.
He becomes allied to prince Osidian, who in a tight and vicious contest gains the greatest number of votes to become Emperor. Molochite, the other prince, is not the sort to accept such a loss. Carnelian and Osidian are abducted, making it impossible for Osidian to attend his own coronation and causing him to lose the election by default; the Chosen Unpublished background material on the author's website Ricardo Pinto Publishers website
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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Ricardo Pinto may refer to: Ricardo Pinto, Portuguese novelist and computer scientist Ricardo Pinto, Brazilian footballer Ricardo Pinto, Portuguese footballer Ricardo Pinto, Venezuelan baseball pitcher