The Deutsche Post AG, operating under the trade name Deutsche Post DHL Group, is a German postal service and international courier service company, the world's largest. With its headquarters in Bonn, the corporation has 510,000 employees; the postal division delivers 61 million letters each day in Germany, making it Europe's largest such company. The Express division claims to be present in over territories; the Deutsche Post is the successor to the German mail authority Deutsche Bundespost, privatized in 1995 and became a independent company in 2000. DHL Express is a wholly owned subsidiary. Since its privatization, Deutsche Post has expanded its business area through acquisitions. In late 2014, the Group acquired a small manufacturer of electric vehicles. Two years the Group acquired UK Mail, a business-focused postal service in the UK for US$315.5 million. The former company became a division of the Deutsche Post European parcel network; the Deutsche Post DHL Group 2016 earnings before interest and taxes was €3.491 billion, with a net profit of €2.64 billion on revenue of €57.334 billion.
Return on equity, before taxes, was 27.7 percent. The Group's long term credit rating, in November 2016, was BBB+ with a Stable outlook per Fitch's. Deutsche Post AG is listed on the Börse Frankfurt as DPW and is in the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. In 2016, 20.5% of the Group's shares were held by the state-owned KfW bank. The Deutsche Post DHL Group has become a world-wide company in about two decades; the following are significant dates in the development into its current form. 2 January 1995: Deutsche Bundespost Postdienst becomes Deutsche Post AG. The government of Germany still owns a large share of the company. 1998: Deutsche Post begins acquiring shares in DHL International. 1999: Deutsche Post World Net acquires the Dutch distribution company Van Gend & Loos from Nedlloyd and in 2000 the Swiss distribution company Danzas. 20 November 2000: Deutsche Post AG becomes a private company, with a new Board of Directors, in an IPO listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. The government of Germany sells one third of its shares and KfW bank sells some of its shares.
December 2002: Deutsche Post AG acquires the remaining shares in DHL International. August 2003: The company acquires the Seattle-based Airborne Express; the company integrates Van Gend & Loos, Airborne Express, its own EuroExpress into DHL to form DHL Express. December 2005: The Group acquires the logistics company Exel in the UK, a£3.7 billion takeover. 2006: DHL GlobalMail UK merges with Mercury International. December 2014: The Group acquires StreetScooter GmbH, a small manufacturer of electric vehicles in Aachen, Germany. December 2016: The Group completes the purchase of UK Mail, a business-focused postal service - with "one of the largest integrated parcels and mail operations in the U. K." - for US$315.5 million. The former company becomes a division of the Deutsche Post European parcel network, although its web site reveals only a relationship with DHL Express; the postal division delivers 59 million letters every working day in Germany, provides services across the entire mail value chain, including production facilities at central hubs, sales offices and production centers on four continents.
This division inherited most of the traditional mail services offered by the state-owned monopoly, for which it uses the Deutsche Post brand. Its exclusive right to deliver letters under 50 grams in Germany expired on 1 January 2008, following the implementation of European legislation. A number of companies are vying to challenge Deutsche Post's near monopolistic hold on letter deliveries, including Luxembourg-based PIN Group and Dutch-owned TNT Post. In 2002, Deutsche Post was granted a license to deliver mail in the United Kingdom, breaking Royal Mail's long-standing monopoly. In 2016, in Germany alone, the Post – eCommerce – Parcel division delivered over 1.2 billion parcels, an increase of 9.3% over 2015, much of it as result of shipping products purchased by customers on-line. The e-commerce aspect helped to generate a great deal of revenue; this division's revenue increased by 4.1 percent to €16.8 billion while earnings before interest and taxes increased by 30.8 percent to over €1.4 billion.
The Express division offers worldwide courier and parcel shipment service, combining air and ground transport, under the DHL brand. It owns five airlines: European Air Transport Leipzig, DHL Air UK, DHL Aero Expreso, SNAS/DHL and Blue Dart Aviation. In 2016, this division's revenue increased by 2.7 per cent to €14 billion. The operating profit before interest and taxes increased by 11.3% over 2015 to €1.5 billion. Express is divided into business units along regions: Europe Asia Pacific Americas Europe, the Middle East and Africa DHL Global Forwarding this division carries goods by rail, road and sea under the DHL brand and includes the DHL Freight operation which runs a ground-based freight network covering Europe and traffic into the Middle East. In 2016, this division's revenue declined by 7.7 percent to €13.7 billion but operating profit before interest and taxes improved from -€181 million in 2015 to +€287 million. The DHL Supply Chain division provides contract logistics and corporate information solutions tailor-made for customers.
In 2016, this division's revenue decreased by 11.6% to €14.0 billion versus 201
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh
Select committee (United Kingdom)
In British politics, parliamentary select committees can be appointed from the House of Commons, like the Foreign Affairs Select Committee, from the House of Lords, like the Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee, or as a "Joint Committee of Parliament" drawn from both, such as the Joint Committee on Human Rights. Committees may exist as "sessional" committees – i.e. be near-permanent – or as "ad-hoc" committees with a specific deadline by which to complete their work, after which they cease to exist, such as the Lords Committee on Public Service and Demographic Change. The Commons select committees are responsible for overseeing the work of government departments and agencies, whereas those of the Lords look at general issues, such as the constitution, considered by the Constitution Committee, or the economy, considered by the Economic Affairs Committee. Both houses have their own committees to review drafts of European Union directives: the European Union Committee in the House of Lords, the European Scrutiny Committee in the House of Commons.
The Intelligence and Security Committee is not a select committee, though it contains members from both houses. It is a unique committee of parliamentarians nominated by the Prime Minister and reporting to him or her, not Parliament. In the United Kingdom, departmental select committees came into being in 1979, following the recommendations of a Procedure Select Committee, set up in 1976, which reported in 1978, it recommended the appointment of a series of select committees covering all the main departments of state, with wide terms of reference, with power to appoint specialist advisers as the committees deemed appropriate. It suggested that committee members should be selected independently of the party whips, as chosen by the Select Committee of Selection; the fourteen new committees began working in 1980. The chairs of select committees have been elected by the house as a whole since June 2010: before that members were appointed by their parties and chairs voted on by those members. There are select committees of the Commons that are tasked with the detailed analysis of individual Bills.
Most Bills are referred, since the 2006–7 session, to public bill committees, before that, there were Standing Committees. In July 2005, the Administration Select Committee was instituted, replacing the five Domestic Committees, responsible for the consideration of services provided for the House in the Palace of Westminster from 1991 to 2005, it deals with issues as diverse as catering services, the House of Commons Library, computer provision, visitor services. The House of Lords has a set of five major select committees: The European Union Committee, which has six sub-committees The Constitution Committee The Economic Affairs Committee The Science and Technology Committee The Communications Select CommitteeThese committees run inquiries into topics within their remit, issuing reports from time to time; the European Union Committee scrutinises EU legislation and other EU proposals, as well as conducting inquiries. Some English local authorities have a select committee system, as part of their Overview and Scrutiny arrangements.
The Osmotherly Rules set out guidance on how civil servants should respond to parliamentary select committees. Parliamentary Committees of the United Kingdom Committees UK Parliament Select Committee of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong Democracywiki Unlock Democracy
Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or existing activity, or could be done internally, sometimes involves transferring employees and assets from one firm to another. The term outsourcing, which came from the phrase outside resourcing, originated no than 1981; the concept, which The Economist says "made its presence felt since the time of the Second World War," involves the contracting of a business process, and/or non-core functions, such as manufacturing, facility management, call center support). Outsourcing is the practice of handing over control of public services to private enterprises. Outsourcing includes both foreign and domestic contracting, sometimes includes offshoring or nearshoring. Offshoring and outsourcing are not mutually inclusive: there can be one without the other, they can be intertwined, can be individually or jointly or reversed, involving terms such as reshoring and insourcing. Offshoring is moving the work to a distant country.
If the distant workplace is a foreign subsidiary/owned by the company the offshore operation is a captive, sometimes referred to as in-house offshore. Insourcing entails bringing processes handled by third-party firms in-house, is sometimes accomplished via vertical integration. Offshore outsourcing is the practice of hiring an external organization to perform some business functions in a country other than the one where the products or services are performed, developed or manufactured. An Intermediary is when a business provides a contract service to another organization while contracting out that same service; some of the acronyms related to BPO (Business Process Outsourcing are: Global labor arbitrage can provide major financial savings from lower international labor rates can provide a major motivation for offshoring. Cost savings from Economies of scale and specialization can motivate outsourcing. Another motivation is speed to market. Details of managing DuPont's CIO Cinda Hallman's $4 billion 10-year ourtsourcing contract with Computer Sciences Corporation and Anderson Consulting were outsourced, thus avoiding "inventing a process if we'd done it in-house."
A subsequently developed term to describe. Outsourcing can offer greater budget flexibility and control by allowing organizations to pay for the services and business functions they need, when they need them, it reduces the need to hire and train specialized staff, makes available specialized expertise, can reduce capital, operating expenses, risk. "Do what you do best and outsource the rest" has become an internationally recognized business tagline first "coined and developed" in the 1990s by the "legendary management consultant" Peter Drucker. The slogan was used to advocate outsourcing as a viable business strategy. Drucker began explaining the concept of "Outsourcing" as early as 1989 in his Wall Street Journal article entitled "Sell the Mailroom." Two organizations may enter into a contractual agreement involving an exchange of services and payments. Outsourcing is said to help firms to perform well in their core competencies, fuel innovation, mitigate a shortage of skill or expertise in the areas where they want to outsource.
Following the adding of management layers in the 1950s and 1960 to support expansion for the sake of economy of scale, corporations found that agility and added profits could be obtained by focusing on core strengths. Kodak's 1989 "outsourcing most of its information technology systems" was followed by others during the 1990s. In the early 21st century, businesses outsourced to suppliers outside their own country, sometimes referred to as offshoring or offshore outsourcing. Other options subsequently emerged: nearshoring, multisourcing, strategic alliances/strategic partnerships, strategic outsourcing. and vested outsourcing. From Drucker's perspective, a company should only seek to subcontract in those areas in which it demonstrated no special ability; the business strategy outlined by his slogan recommended that companies should take advantage of a specialist provider's knowledge and economies of scale to improve performance and achieve the service needed. In 2009, by way of recognition, Peter Drucker posthumously received a significant honor when he was inducted into the Outsourcing Hall of Fame for his outstanding work in the field.
Although offshoring focused on manufacturing, white-collar offshoring/outsourcing has grown since the early 21st century. The digital workforce of countries like India and China are only paid a fraction of what would be minimum wage in the US. On average, software engineers are getting paid between 250,000 and 1,500,000 rupees in India as opposed to $40,000–$100,000 in countries such as the US and Canada. Closer to the USA, Costa Rica has become a big source for the advantages of a educated labor force, a large bilingual population, stable democratic government, similar time zones with the United States, it takes only a few hours to travel between Costa Rica and the US. Companies such as Intel, Procter & Gamble, HP, Gensler and Bank of America have big operations in Costa Rica. Unlike outsourced manufacturing, outsourced white collar workers can choose their working hours, for which companies to work. Clients benefit from telecommuting, reduce
Government of the United Kingdom
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is commonly referred to as the UK Government or the British Government; the government is led by the Prime Minister. The prime minister and the other most senior ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet; the government ministers all sit in Parliament, are accountable to it. The government is dependent on Parliament to make primary legislation, since the Fixed-terms Parliaments Act 2011, general elections are held every five years to elect a new House of Commons, unless there is a successful vote of no confidence in the government or a two-thirds vote for a snap election in the House of Commons, in which case an election may be held sooner. After an election, the monarch selects as prime minister the leader of the party most to command the confidence of the House of Commons by possessing a majority of MPs.
Under the uncodified British constitution, executive authority lies with the monarch, although this authority is exercised only by, or on the advice of, the prime minister and the cabinet. The Cabinet members advise the monarch as members of the Privy Council. In most cases they exercise power directly as leaders of the Government Departments, though some Cabinet positions are sinecures to a greater or lesser degree; the current prime minister is Theresa May, who took office on 13 July 2016. She is the leader of the Conservative Party, which won a majority of seats in the House of Commons in the general election on 7 May 2015, when David Cameron was the party leader. Prior to this and the Conservatives led a coalition from 2010 to 2015 with the Liberal Democrats, in which Cameron was prime minister; the Government is referred to with the metonym Westminster, due to that being where many of the offices of the government are situated by members in the Government of Scotland, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive in order to differentiate it from their own.
A key principle of the British Constitution is. This is called responsible government; the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy in which the reigning monarch does not make any open political decisions. All political decisions are taken by Parliament; this constitutional state of affairs is the result of a long history of constraining and reducing the political power of the monarch, beginning with Magna Carta in 1215. Parliament is split into the House of Commons; the House of Commons is the more powerful. The House of Lords is the upper house and although it can vote to amend proposed laws, the House of Commons can vote to overrule its amendments. Although the House of Lords can introduce bills, most important laws are introduced in the House of Commons – and most of those are introduced by the government, which schedules the vast majority of parliamentary time in the Commons. Parliamentary time is essential for bills to be passed into law, because they must pass through a number of readings before becoming law.
Prior to introducing a bill, the government may run a public consultation to solicit feedback from the public and businesses, may have introduced and discussed the policy in the Queen's Speech, or in an election manifesto or party platform. Ministers of the Crown are responsible to the House. For most senior ministers this is the elected House of Commons rather than the House of Lords. There have been some recent exceptions to this: for example, cabinet ministers Lord Mandelson and Lord Adonis sat in the Lords and were responsible to that House during the government of Gordon Brown. Since the start of Edward VII's reign in 1901, the prime minister has always been an elected member of Parliament and therefore directly accountable to the House of Commons. A similar convention applies to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, it would be politically unacceptable for the budget speech to be given in the Lords, with MPs unable to directly question the Chancellor now that the Lords have limited powers in relation to money bills.
The last Chancellor of the Exchequer to be a member of the House of Lords was Lord Denman, who served as interim Chancellor of the Exchequer for one month in 1834. Under the British system, the government is required by convention and for practical reasons to maintain the confidence of the House of Commons, it requires the support of the House of Commons for the maintenance of supply and to pass primary legislation. By convention, if a government loses the confidence of the House of Commons it must either resign or a General Election is held; the support of the Lords, while useful to the government in getting its legislation passed without delay, is not vital. A government is not required to resign if it loses the confidence of the Lords and is defeated in key votes in that House; the House of Commons is thus the Responsible house. The prime minister is held to account during Prime Minister's Questions which provides an opportunity for MPs from all parties to question the PM on any subject
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Croydon London Borough Council
Croydon London Borough Council is the local authority for the London Borough of Croydon in Greater London, England. It is one of 32 in the United Kingdom capital of London. Croydon is divided into 28 wards. There have been a number of local authorities responsible for the Croydon area; the current local authority was first elected in 1964, a year before formally coming into its powers and prior to the creation of the London Borough of Croydon on 1 April 1965. Croydon replaced Purley Urban District Council. Croydon was a county borough from 1889, which meant that its council had the functions of both a county and a borough, it was envisaged through the London Government Act 1963 that Croydon as a London local authority would share power with the Greater London Council. The split of powers and functions meant that the Greater London Council was responsible for "wide area" services such as fire, flood prevention, refuse disposal; as an outer London borough council it has been an education authority since 1965.
This arrangement lasted until 1986 when Croydon London Borough Council gained responsibility for some services, provided by the Greater London Council, such as waste disposal. Since 2000 the Greater London Authority has taken some responsibility for highways and planning control from the council, but within the English local government system the council remains a "most purpose" authority in terms of the available range of powers and functions. Croydon London Borough Council is the billing authority for Council Tax, collects a precepts on behalf of the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime, the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority the Greater London Authority and Transport for London. Croydon local elections London Borough of Croydon website