An emperor is a monarch, the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe; the Emperor of Japan is the only reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor. Both emperors and kings are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Inasmuch as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler and rules over more than one nation, therefore a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, but an emperor should in theory be free of such restraints.
However, monarchs heading empires have not always used the title in all contexts—the British sovereign did not assume the title Empress of the British Empire during the incorporation of India, though she was declared Empress of India. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor was used by the Holy Roman Emperor, whose imperial authority was derived from the concept of translatio imperii, i.e. they claimed succession to the authority of the Western Roman Emperors, thus linking themselves to Roman institutions and traditions as part of state ideology. Although ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German-speaking states. Although technically an elective title, by the late 16th century the imperial title had in practice come to be inherited by the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and following the Thirty Years' War their control over the states had become nearly non-existent. However, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French in 1804 and was shortly followed by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who declared himself Emperor of Austria in the same year.
The position of Holy Roman Emperor nonetheless continued until Francis II abdicated that position in 1806. In Eastern Europe, the monarchs of Russia used translatio imperii to wield imperial authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire, their status was recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, although not used by the Russian monarchs until 1547. However, the Russian emperors are better known by their Russian-language title of Tsar after Peter the Great adopted the title of Emperor of All Russia in 1721. Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state from the past or the present; such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia and others, are considered as the equivalent. Sometimes this reference has extended to non-monarchically ruled states and their spheres of influence such as the Athenian Empire of the late 5th century BC, the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenets and the Soviet and American "empires" of the Cold War era.
However, such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century. For purposes of protocol, emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations, but precedence amongst heads of state who are sovereigns—whether they be kings, emperors, princes, princesses and to a lesser degree presidents—is determined by the duration of time that each one has been continuously in office. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. In the Roman tradition a large variety in the meaning and importance of the imperial form of monarchy developed: in intention it was always the highest office, but it could as well fall down to a redundant title for nobility that had never been near to the "Empire" they were supposed to be reigning.
The name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. The importance and meaning of coronation ceremonies and regalia varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the Pope, which meant the coronation ceremony took place in Rome several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne in their home country; the first Latin Emperors of Constantinople on the other hand had to be present in the newly conquered capital of their empire, because, the only place where they could be granted to become emperor. Early Roman Emperors avoided any type of ceremony or regalia different from what was usual for republican offices in the Roman Republic: the most intrusive change had been changing the color of their robe to purple. New symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, became an essential part of the imperial accessories. Rules for indicating successors varied: there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme o
Japanese folklore encompasses the folk traditions of Japan and the Japanese people. In Japanese, the term minkan denshō is used to describe folklore. Folklorists employ the term minzoku shiryō or "folklore material" to refer to objects and arts they study. Men dressed as namahage, wearing ogre-like masks and traditional straw capes make rounds of homes, in an annual ritual of the Oga Peninsula area of the Northeast region; these ogre-men masquerade as kami looking to instill fear in the children who are lazily idling around the fire. This is a colorful example of folk practice still kept alive. A parallel custom is the secretive Akamata-Kuromata ritual of the Yaeyama Islands, Okinawa which does not allow itself to be photographed. Many, though fewer households maintain a kamidana or a small Shinto altar shelf; the Shinto version of the kitchen god is the Kamado kami, the syncretic Buddhist version is the Kōjin, a deity of the hearth enshrined in the kitchen. Japanese popular cults or kō are sometimes devoted to particular deities and buddhas, e.g. the angry Fudō Myōō or the healer Yakushi Nyorai.
But many cults centered around paying respects to sacred sites such as the Ise Mount Fuji. Pilgrimage to these meccas declined after the Edo period, but the Shikoku Pilgrimage of the eighty-eight temple sites has become fashionable. Popular media and cottage industries now extoll a number of shrines and sacred natural sites as power spots. There is a long list of practices performed to expel evil, e.g. sounding the drums. In some areas it is common to place a small mound of salt outside the house. Salt-scattering is considered purifying. A stock routine in period or contemporary drama involves a master of the house telling his wife to scatter salt after an undesirable visitor has just left. Contrarily, lighting sparks with flint. No one now engages in the silent vigil required by the Kōshin cult, but it might be noted that this cult has been associated with the iconic three See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil monkeys. There are certain vestiges of geomancy introduced into Japan from China through Onmyōdō.
The word kimon, "ogre's gate", colloquially refers to anything that a person may have constant ill luck with, but in the original sense designates the northeasterly direction, considered to be unlucky or dangerously inviting of ill-intended spirits. There is a Japanese version of Feng Shui known as kasō or "house physiognomy". Connected is the Yin-yang path or Onmyōdō, its concepts such as katatagae known as kataimi, practiced by nobles in the Heian period. A known taboo advises against sleeping with your head faced north, though it is doubtful if anyone now heeds this prohibition; as in most developed nations, it is difficult to find living storytellers of oral tradition. But there is a wealth of folktales collected through the ages; the name mukashi-banashi has been applied to the common folktale, since they open with the formula "Mukashi...". They close with some set phrase like "dotto harai"; these tales had been told in their local dialects, which may be difficult to understand to outsiders, both because of intonation and pronunciation differences and vocabulary.
Many folktales collected from the field are "translations" into standard Japanese. Classic folktales such as Momotarō, which most Japanese today are familiarized through pictured children's storybooks, manga, or other popularizations, can be traced to picture-books printed in the Edo period, though their prototypical stories may go back much further; the versions retold by children's story author Sazanami Iwaya had a strong hand in establishing the forms known today. Two creatures are known for their abilities to transform into humans or other beings and objects, the kitsune and tanuki, they occur in folktales of humorous nature. Marriages between humans and non-humans comprise a major motif in Japanese folklore. Japanese heterotype examples such as the crane story describes a sustained period of married life between the interspecies couple, in contrast to Western examples like Frog Prince or the Leda myth where the supernatural encounter is brief. An unusual pairing occurs in the story of the Hamaguri nyōbo, which exist in both a politer written version and in a more rustic and vulgar oral tale.
The gender is reversed in the tale of Tanishi chōja. A number of folktales were adapted for stage performance by playwright Junji Kinoshita, notably Yūzuru, based on the folktale Tsuru no Ongaeshi or "a crane who repaid its gratitude". In the American television series called The Yokai King, starring by Shin Koyamada, the characters are based on the Japanese folklore creatures. A great deal of interest gravitates towards Japanese monsters taken from traditional Japanese sources; some of the yōkai or strange beings are the stuff of folklore, orally
Morality is the differentiation of intentions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper. Morality can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy, religion or culture, or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal. Morality may be synonymous with "goodness" or "rightness". Moral philosophy includes metaethics, which studies abstract issues such as moral ontology and moral epistemology, normative ethics, which studies more concrete systems of moral decision-making such as deontological ethics and consequentialism. An example of normative ethical philosophy is the Golden Rule, which states that: "One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself."Immorality is the active opposition to morality, while amorality is variously defined as an unawareness of, indifference toward, or disbelief in any particular set of moral standards or principles. Ethics is the branch of philosophy.
The word "ethics" is "commonly used interchangeably with'morality,' and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group, or individual." Certain types of ethical theories deontological ethics, sometimes distinguish between ethics and morals: "Although the morality of people and their ethics amounts to the same thing, there is a usage that restricts morality to systems such as that of Immanuel Kant, based on notions such as duty and principles of conduct, reserving ethics for the more Aristotelian approach to practical reasoning, based on the notion of a virtue, avoiding the separation of'moral' considerations from other practical considerations." In its descriptive sense, "morality" refers to personal or cultural values, codes of conduct or social mores from a society that provides these codes of conduct in which it applies and is accepted by an individual. It does not connote objective claims of right or wrong, but only refers to that, considered right or wrong.
Descriptive ethics is the branch of philosophy. In its normative sense, "morality" refers to whatever is right or wrong, which may be independent of the values or mores held by any particular peoples or cultures. Normative ethics is the branch of philosophy. Philosophical theories on the nature and origins of morality are broadly divided into two classes: Moral realism is the class of theories which hold that there are true moral statements that report objective moral facts. For example, while they might concede that forces of social conformity shape individuals' "moral" decisions, they deny that those cultural norms and customs define morally right behavior; this may be the philosophical view propounded by ethical naturalists, however not all moral realists accept that position. Moral anti-realism, on the other hand, holds that moral statements either fail or do not attempt to report objective moral facts. Instead, they hold that moral sentences are either categorically false claims of objective moral facts.
Some forms of non-cognitivism and ethical subjectivism, while considered anti-realist in the robust sense used here, are considered realist in the sense synonymous with moral universalism. For example, universal prescriptivism is a universalist form of non-cognitivism which claims that morality is derived from reasoning about implied imperatives, divine command theory and ideal observer theory are universalist forms of ethical subjectivism which claim that morality is derived from the edicts of a god or the hypothetical decrees of a rational being, respectively. Celia Green made a distinction between territorial morality, she characterizes the latter as predominantly negative and proscriptive: it defines a person's territory, including his or her property and dependents, not to be damaged or interfered with. Apart from these proscriptions, territorial morality is permissive, allowing the individual whatever behaviour does not interfere with the territory of another. By contrast, tribal morality is prescriptive, imposing the norms of the collective on the individual.
These norms will be arbitrary, culturally dependent and'flexible', whereas territorial morality aims at rules which are universal and absolute, such as Kant's'categorical imperative' and Geisler's graded absolutism. Green relates the development of territorial morality to the rise of the concept of private property, the ascendancy of contract over status; some observers hold that individuals apply distinct sets of moral rules to people depending on their membership of an "in-group" or an "out-group". Some biologists and evolutionary psychologists believe this in-group/out-group discrimination has evolved because it enhances group survival; this belief has been confirmed by simple computational models of evolution. In simulations this discrimination can result in both unexpected cooperation towards the in-group and irrational hostility towards the out-group. Gary R. Johnson and V. S. Falger have argued that nationalism an
Andrew Lang was a Scottish poet, literary critic, contributor to the field of anthropology. He is best known as a collector of fairy tales; the Andrew Lang lectures at the University of St Andrews are named after him. Lang was born on 31 March 1844 in Selkirk, he was the eldest of the eight children born to John Lang, the town clerk of Selkirk, his wife Jane Plenderleath Sellar, the daughter of Patrick Sellar, factor to the first duke of Sutherland. On 17 April 1875, he married Leonora Blanche Alleyne, youngest daughter of C. T. Alleyne of Clifton and Barbados, she was variously credited as author, collaborator, or translator of Lang's Color/Rainbow Fairy Books which he edited. He was educated at Selkirk Grammar School, Loretto School, the Edinburgh Academy, as well as the University of St Andrews and Balliol College, where he took a first class in the final classical schools in 1868, becoming a fellow and subsequently honorary fellow of Merton College, he soon made a reputation as one of the most able and versatile writers of the day as a journalist, poet and historian.
In 1906, he was elected FBA. He died of angina pectoris on 20 July 1912 at the Tor-na-Coille Hotel in Banchory, survived by his wife, he was buried in the cathedral precincts at St Andrews, where a monument can be visited in the south-east corner of the 19th century section. Lang is now chiefly known for his publications on folklore and religion; the interest in folklore was from early life. Tylor; the earliest of his publications is Myth. In Myth and Religion he explained the "irrational" elements of mythology as survivals from more primitive forms. Lang's Making of Religion was influenced by the 18th century idea of the "noble savage": in it, he maintained the existence of high spiritual ideas among so-called "savage" races, drawing parallels with the contemporary interest in occult phenomena in England, his Blue Fairy Book was a beautifully produced and illustrated edition of fairy tales that has become a classic. This was followed by many other collections of fairy tales, collectively known as Andrew Lang's Fairy Books.
In the preface of the Lilac Fairy Book he credits his wife with translating and transcribing most of the stories in the collections. Lang examined the origins of totemism in Social Origins. Lang was one of the founders of "psychical research" and his other writings on anthropology include The Book of Dreams and Ghosts and Religion and The Secret of the Totem, he served as President of the Society for Psychical Research in 1911. Lang extensively cited nineteenth- and twentieth-century European spiritualism to challenge the idea of his teacher, that belief in spirits and animism were inherently irrational. Lang used Tyler's work and his own psychical research in an effort to posit an anthropological critique of materialism, he collaborated with S. H. Butcher in a prose translation of Homer's Odyssey, with E. Myers and Walter Leaf in a prose version of the Iliad, both still noted for their archaic but attractive style, he was a Homeric scholar of conservative views. Other works include Homer and the Study of Greek found in Essays in Little and the Epic.
Lang's writings on Scottish history are characterised by a scholarly care for detail, a piquant literary style, a gift for disentangling complicated questions. The Mystery of Mary Stuart was a consideration of the fresh light thrown on Mary, Queen of Scots, by the Lennox manuscripts in the University Library, approving of her and criticising her accusers, he wrote monographs on The Portraits and Jewels of Mary Stuart and James VI and the Gowrie Mystery. The somewhat unfavourable view of John Knox presented in his book John Knox and the Reformation aroused considerable controversy, he gave new information about the continental career of the Young Pretender in Pickle the Spy, an account of Alestair Ruadh MacDonnell, whom he identified with Pickle, a notorious Hanoverian spy. This was followed by a monograph on Prince Charles Edward. In 1900 he began a History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation; the Valet's Tragedy, which takes its title from an essay on Dumas's Man in the Iron Mask, collects twelve papers on historical mysteries, A Monk of Fife is a fictitious narrative purporting to be written by a young Scot in France in 1429–1431.
Lang's earliest publication was a volume of metrical experiments, The Ballads and Lyrics of Old France, this was followed at intervals by other volumes of dainty verse, Ballades in Blue China and Verses Vain, selected by Mr Austin Dobson. Lang was active as a journalist in various ways, ranging from sparkling "leaders" for the Daily News to miscellaneous articles for the Morning Post, for many years he was literary editor of Longman's Magazine, he edited The Poems and Songs of Robert Burns, was responsible for the Life and Letters of JG Lockhart, The Life and Diaries of Sir Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh. Lang discussed lite
Andrew Lang's Fairy Books
The Langs' Fairy Books are a series of 25 collections of true and fictional stories for children published between 1889 and 1913. The best known books of the series are the 12 collections of fairy tales known as Andrew Lang's "Coloured" Fairy Books or Andrew Lang's Fairy Books of Many Colors. In all, the volumes feature 798 stories, besides the 153 poems in The Blue Poetry Book. Andrew Lang was a Scots poet and literary critic, he edited the series and wrote prefaces for its entire run, while his wife, the translator and author Leonora Blanche Alleyne, known to friends and family as Nora, assumed editorial control of the series in the 1890s. She and other translators did a large portion of the translating and retelling of the actual stories, as acknowledged in the prefaces. Four of the volumes from 1908 to 1912 were published by "Mrs. Lang". According to Anita Silvey, "The irony of Lang's life and work is that although he wrote for a profession—literary criticism. A. Wallis Mills contributed some illustrations.
The best-known volumes of the series are the 12 Fairy Books, each of, distinguished by its own color. The Langs did not collect any fairy tales from oral primary sources, yet only they and Madame d'Aulnoy have collected tales from such a large variety of sources; these collections have been immensely influential. Andrew selected the tales for the first four books, she and other translators did a large portion of the translating and retelling of the actual stories. Lang's urge to gather and publish fairy tales was rooted in his own experience with the folk and fairy tales of his home territory along the Anglo-Scottish border. British fairy tale collections were rare at the time. According to Roger Lancelyn Green, Lang "was fighting against the critics and educationists of the day" who judged the traditional tales' "unreality and escapism to be harmful for young readers, while holding that such stories were beneath the serious consideration of those of mature age". Over a generation, Lang's books worked a revolution in this public perception.
The series was immensely popular, helped by Lang's reputation as a folklorist and by the packaging device of the uniform books. The series proved of great influence in children's literature, increasing the popularity of fairy tales over tales of real life, it inspired such imitators as More English Fairy Tales by Joseph Jacobs. Other followers included the American The Oak-Tree Fairy Book, The Elm-Tree Fairy Book, The Fir-Tree Fairy Book series edited by Clifton Johnson, the collections of Kate Douglas Wiggin and Nora Archibald Smith; some of Lang's collected stories were included without any attribution at all, the rest are listed with brief notes. The sources can be tracked down when given as "Grimm" or "Madame d'Aulnoy" or attributed to a specific collection, but other notes are less helpful. For instance, "The Wonderful Birch" is listed only as "from the Russo-Karelian". Lang explained in the prefaces that the tales which he told were all old and not his, that he found new fairy tales no match for them: The collections were intended for children and were bowdlerised, as Lang explained in his prefaces.
J. R. R. Tolkien stated in his essay "On Fairy-Stories" that he appreciated the collections but objected to his editing the stories for children, he criticized Lang for including stories without magical elements in them, with "The Heart of a Monkey" given as an example, where the monkey claims that his heart is outside his body, unlike "The Giant Who Had No Heart in His Body" or other similar stories. However, many fairy tale collectors include tales with no marvelous elements; the first edition consisted of 5000 copies. The book assembled a wide range of tales, with seven from the Brothers Grimm, five from Madame d'Aulnoy, three from the Arabian Nights, four Norwegian fairytales, among other sources; the Blue Fairy Book was the first volume in the series, so it contains some of the best known tales, taken from a variety of sources. Media related to Blue Fairy Book at Wikimedia Commons It appeared at Christmas 1890 in a first printing of 10,000 copies. Sources include French, Russian and Romanian tales as well as Norse mythology.
Media related to The Red Fairy Book at Wikimedia Commons Contains 153 poems by great British and American poets. In his Preface to this volume, Lang expressed the view that it would be "probably the last" of the collection, their continuing popularity, demanded subsequent collections. In The Green Fairy Book, the third in the series, Lang has assembled stories from Spanish and Chinese traditions. Media related to Green Fairy Book at Wikimedia Commons Contains twenty-four true stories drawn from European history. Media related to The true story book at Wikimedia Commons Its initial printing was 15,000 copies; the Yellow Fairy Book is a collection of tales from all over the world. It features many tales from Hans Christian Andersen. Media related to The yellow fairy book at Wikimedia Commons Contains thirty true stories drawn from European history. Includes the life of Joan of Arc and the Jacobite uprising of 1745
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms and ending at apex predator species, detritivores, or decomposer species. A food chain shows how the organisms are related with each other by the food they eat; each level of a food chain represents a different trophic level. A food chain differs from a food web, because the complex network of different animals' feeding relations are aggregated and the chain only follows a direct, linear pathway of one animal at a time. Natural interconnections between food chains make it a food web. A common metric used to the quantify food web trophic structure is food chain length. In its simplest form, the length of a chain is the number of links between a trophic consumer and the base of the web and the mean chain length of an entire web is the arithmetic average of the lengths of all chains in a food web. Food chains were first introduced by the Arab scientist and philosopher Al-Jahiz in the 9th century and popularized in a book published in 1927 by Charles Elton, which introduced the food web concept.
The food chain's length is a continuous variable that provides a measure of the passage of energy and an index of ecological structure that increases in value counting progressively through the linkages in a linear fashion from the lowest to the highest trophic levels. Food chains are used in ecological modeling, they are simplified abstractions of real food webs, but complex in their dynamics and mathematical implications. Ecologists have formulated and tested hypotheses regarding the nature of ecological patterns associated with food chain length, such as increasing length increasing with ecosystem size, reduction of energy at each successive level, or the proposition that long food chain lengths are unstable. Food chain studies have an important role in ecotoxicology studies tracing the pathways and biomagnification of environmental contaminants. Producers, such as plants, are organisms. All food chains must start with a producer. In the deep sea, food chains centered on hydrothermal vents and cold seeps exist in the absence of sunlight.
Chemosynthetic bacteria and archaea use hydrogen sulfide and methane from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps as an energy source to produce carbohydrates. Consumers are organisms. All organisms in a food chain, except the first organism, are consumers. In a food chain, there is reliable energy transfer through each stage. However, all the energy at one stage of the chain is not absorbed by the organism at the next stage; the amount of energy from one stage to another decreases. Heterotroph Lithotroph Trophic pyramid Predator-prey interaction
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script