Brainwashing is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques. Brainwashing is said to reduce its subject’s ability to think critically or independently, to allow the introduction of new, unwanted thoughts and ideas into the subject’s mind, as well as to change his or her attitudes and beliefs; the concept of brainwashing was developed in the 1950s to explain how the Chinese government appeared to make people cooperate with them. Advocates of the concept looked at Nazi Germany, at some criminal cases in the United States, at the actions of human traffickers, it was applied by Margaret Singer, Philip Zimbardo, some others in the anti-cult movement to explain conversions to some new religious movements and other groups. This resulted in scientific and legal debate with Eileen Barker, James Richardson, other scholars, as well as legal experts, rejecting at least the popular understanding of brainwashing; the concept of brainwashing is sometimes involved in legal cases regarding child custody.
Although the term appears in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association brainwashing is not accepted as scientific fact. The Chinese term xǐnăo was used to describe the coercive persuasion used under the Maoist government in China, which aimed to transform "reactionary" people into "right-thinking" members of the new Chinese social system; the term punned on the Taoist custom of "cleansing / washing the heart / mind" before conducting ceremonies or entering holy places. The Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest known English-language usage of the word "brainwashing" in an article by newspaperman Edward Hunter, in Miami News, published on 24 September 1950. Hunter was an outspoken anticommunist and was alleged to be a CIA agent working undercover as a journalist. Hunter and others used the Chinese term to explain why, during the Korean War, some American prisoners of war cooperated with their Chinese captors in a few cases defected to their side.
British radio operator Robert W. Ford and British army Colonel James Carne claimed that the Chinese subjected them to brainwashing techniques during their war-era imprisonment; the U. S. military and government laid charges of brainwashing in an effort to undermine confessions made by POWs to war crimes, including biological warfare. After Chinese radio broadcasts claimed to quote Frank Schwable, Chief of Staff of the First Marine Air Wing admitting to participating in germ warfare, United Nations commander Gen. Mark W. Clark asserted: Whether these statements passed the lips of these unfortunate men is doubtful. If they did, too familiar are the mind-annihilating methods of these Communists in extorting whatever words they want.... The men themselves are not to blame, they have my deepest sympathy for having been used in this abominable way. Beginning in 1953, Robert Jay Lifton interviewed American servicemen, POWs during the Korean War as well as priests and teachers, held in prison in China after 1951.
In addition to interviews with 25 Americans and Europeans, Lifton interviewed 15 Chinese citizens who had fled after having been subjected to indoctrination in Chinese universities. Lifton found that when the POWs returned to the United States their thinking soon returned to normal, contrary to the popular image of "brainwashing."In 1956, after reexamining the concept of brainwashing following the Korean War, the U. S. Army published a report entitled Communist Interrogation and Exploitation of Prisoners of War, which called brainwashing a "popular misconception"; the report concludes that "exhaustive research of several government agencies failed to reveal one conclusively documented case of'brainwashing' of an American prisoner of war in Korea." In George Orwell's 1949 dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four the main character is subjected to imprisonment and torture in order to conform his thoughts and emotions to the wishes of the rulers of Orwell's fictional future totalitarian society. Orwell's vision influenced Hunter and is still reflected in the popular understanding of the concept of brainwashing.
In the 1950s many American films were filmed that featured brainwashing of POWs, including The Rack, The Bamboo Prison, Toward the Unknown, The Fearmakers. The film Forbidden Area told the story of Soviet secret agents, brainwashed through classical conditioning by their own government so they wouldn't reveal their identities. In 1962 The Manchurian Candidate "put brainwashing front and center" by featuring a plot by the Soviet government to take over the United States by use of a brainwashed presidential candidate; the concept of brainwashing became popularly associated with the research of Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, which involved dogs, not humans, as subjects. In The Manchurian Candidate the head brainwasher is Dr. Yen Lo, of the Pavlov Institute; the science fiction stories of Cordwainer Smith depict brainwashing to remove memories of traumatic events as a normal and benign part of future medical practice. Mind control remains an important theme in science fiction. Terry O'Brien comments: "Mind control is such a powerful image that if hypnoti
The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (And the Crusades)
The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam is a book by Robert Spencer, the director of Jihad Watch. It is part of The Politically Incorrect Guide series by Regnery Publishing. Spencer claims Islam as militant and oppressive, argues that the Crusades were a late response of European civilization to centuries of invasion and occupation which had begun at the turn of the 8th century in the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and the majority of Eastern Europe, he attributes the perceived civilizational clash between Islam and the West in the 21st century to a continuation of a 14 century long jihad began at the inception of Islam and discusses the what he claims are difficulties of treating this topic in the current political climate. The book spent 15 weeks on the New York Times Bestseller list page, although it stayed in the "Also Selling" section for most of the time, made it to the list proper only once. Political correctness Google Books
Library of Congress Classification
The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U. S. and several other countries. LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books, which defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074". The Classification is distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically; the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982"; the classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System.
It was designed for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is enumerative in nature; that is, it provides a guide to the books in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system; the National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC. Others include Medicine R. Subclass AC -- Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums.
Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs. Directories Subclass AZ – History of scholarship and learning; the humanities Subclass B – Philosophy Subclass BC – Logic Subclass BD – Speculative philosophy Subclass BF – Psychology Subclass BH – Aesthetics Subclass BJ – Ethics Subclass BL – Religions. Mythology. Rationalism Subclass BM – Judaism Subclass BP – Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc. Subclass BQ – Buddhism Subclass BR – Christianity Subclass BS – The Bible Subclass BT – Doctrinal theology Subclass BV – Practical Theology Subclass BX – Christian Denominations Subclass C – Auxiliary Sciences of History Subclass CB – History of Civilization Subclass CC – Archaeology Subclass CD – Diplomatics. Archives. Seals Subclass CE – Technical Chronology. Calendar Subclass CJ – Numismatics Subclass CN – Inscriptions. Epigraphy Subclass CR – Heraldry Subclass CS – Genealogy Subclass CT – Biography Subclass D – History Subclass DA – Great Britain Subclass DAW – Central Europe Subclass DB – Austria – Liechtenstein – Hungary – Czechoslovakia Subclass DC – France – Andorra – Monaco Subclass DD – Germany Subclass DE – Greco-Roman World Subclass DF – Greece Subclass DG – Italy – Malta Subclass DH – Low Countries – Benelux Countries Subclass DJ – Netherlands Subclass DJK – Eastern Europe Subclass DK – Russia.
Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics – Poland Subclass DL – Northern Europe. Scandinavia Subclass DP – Spain – Portugal Subclass DQ – Switzerland Subclass DR – Balkan Peninsula Subclass DS – Asia Subclass DT – Africa Subclass DU – Oceania Subclass DX – Romanies Class E does not have any subclasses. Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything else Subclass G – Geography. Atlases. Maps Subclass GA – Mathematical geography. Cartography Subclass GB – Physical geography Subclass GC – Oceanography Subclass GE – Environmental Sciences Subclass GF – Human ecology. Anthropogeography Subclass GN – Anthropology Subclass GR – Folklore Subclass GT – Manners and customs Subclass GV – Recreation. Leisure Subclass H – Social sciences Subclass HA – Statistics Subclass HB – Economic theory. Demography Subclass HC – Economic history and conditions Subclass HD – Industries.
Land use. Labor Subclass HE – Transportation and communications Subclass HF – Commerce Subclass HG – Finance Subclass HJ – Public finance Subclass HM – Sociology Subclass HN – Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform Subclass HQ – The family. Marriage and Sexuality Subclass HS – Societies: secret, etc. Subclass HT – Communities. Classes. Races Subclass HV – Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology Subclass HX – Socialism. Communism. Anarchism Subclass J – General legislative and executive papers Subclass JA – Political science Subclass JC – Political theory Subclass JF – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JL – Political instit
The Calcutta Quran Petition
The Calcutta Quran Petition is a book by Sita Ram Goel and Chandmal Chopra published by Goel under his Voice of India imprint. The first edition was published in 1986, the second in 1987 and the third in 1999; the subject matter of this book is the banning of books and the Quran. On July 20, 1984, H. K. Chakraborty wrote to the Secretary, Department of Home Government of West Bengal, demanding the ban of the Quran, he received no response. Chakraborty lived in Bangladesh before moving to Kolkata, witnessed the behaviour of the Muslims towards the Hindu minority in Bangladesh during and after Partition of India. Chakraborty thereafter met Chandmal Chopra, who wrote to the Department of Home Government of West Bengal on March 16, 1985, but Chopra's letter, went unanswered. Chopra therefore filed a writ Petition in the High Court. Chandmal Chopra tried to obtain an order banning the Koran, by filing a Writ Petition at the Calcutta High Court on 29 March 1985; the petition claimed that Sections 153A and 295A of the Indian Penal Code, Section 95 of the Criminal Procedure Code were used by Muslims to ban or proscribe publications critical of Islam, stated that "so far it had been the privilege of the Peoples of the Book to ban and burn the sacred literature of the Pagans."
Chandmal Chopra thought that the Koran "on grounds of religion promotes disharmony, feeling of enmity and ill-will between different religious communities and incite people to commit violence and disturb public tranquility..." Chandmal Chopra included a list of several dozens of Quran verses that "promote disharmony" in his petition. The book claims that these Quran verses embody one of the main themes of the book: "Nor have these passages been culled at random from different chapters of the Quran with a view to making the book sound sinister. On the contrary, they provide an exhaustive list of Allah’s sayings on a subject of great significance, what the believers should believe about and do to the unbelievers..." The Telegraph of May 9, 1985 reported that the Union Government would make itself a party in the case, the Union law minister Ashoke Sen and the attorney-general of the Government of India were going to take action against the case. Muslim lawyers after a meeting condemned the case.
According to The Telegraph of May 10, the Chief Minister of West Bengal called the petition "a despicable act". Other politicians in the Lok Sabha at New Delhi, the Minister of State for Law condemned the Petition. Pakistan’s minister of state for religious and minority affairs claimed that the petition was the ‘worst example of religious intolerance’, he urged the Indian government to ‘follow the example of Pakistan’ in ensuring freedom of religion; the petition was however dismissed in May 1985. The text of the judgment is included in the book; the Attorney-General of the Government of India and the Advocate-General of West Bengal appeared in the case and argued against Chopra's petition. On June 18, 1985 Chandmal Chopra filed a review petition, dismissed on June 21; the petition by Chandmal Chopra led to many riots in Bangladesh. The Statesman reported that "at least 12 people were killed and 100 wounded all are poor Hindus" in a border town of Bangladesh during a demonstration of 1000 people.
In Dhaka, at least 20,000 Jamaat-i-Islami supporters demonstrated against the petition. The demonstrators were trying to storm the office of India's High Commission. Other riots followed in Bihar. After the case was closed, the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, during a mass rally in Srinagar, demanded action against Justice Padma Khastgir who permitted the petition to be filed. During this mass rally, one person was killed and others injured. A "hartal" against the interference in Muslim personal law was observed during which all shops and colleges were closed. On August 31, 1987 Chandmal Chopra was arrested by the police and kept in police custody until September 8 for publishing with Goel this book on the petition. Sita Ram Goel had to abscond to avoid getting arrested; the authors write in this book. We take this opportunity to state unambiguously that we regard banning of books, religious or otherwise, as counterproductive. In the case of the Quran, we believe and advocate that more and more non-Muslims should read it so that they know first hand the quality of its teachings."The book was received with great interest in India and abroad, according to Goel.
Goel read primary Islamic sources like the Urdu translations of six Hadis during his research for this book. In one chapter, Goel compares Genghis Khan, the Mongols and Tengiri with Islam; the Times of India published three articles. Goel claims. Goel claims that the chief editor, Girilal Jain, regretted his inability to do so for reasons he could not reveal; the book gives an account of the banning of a poster that contained 24 citations from the Koran. In 1986, after the first edition of the "Calcutta Quran Petition" was published, a Hindi poster by Indra Sain Sharma and Rajkumar Arya was published by the Hindu Raksha Dal, Delhi. Indra Sain Sharma was the president of the Hindu Raksha Dal and the Vice-President of the All India Hindu Mahasabha; the poster cited 24 ayats from the Quran in Hindi. The poster with the 24 Ayats stated that: "Some Ayats of the Quran Majid command the believers to fight against followers of other faiths.... There are numerous Ayats of the same sort. Here we have cited only twenty-four Ayats.
These Ayats carry commandments
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb or by his regnal title Alamgir, was the sixth Mughal emperor, who reigned for a period of 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. Considered to be the last effective Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb was one of the most influential rulers of the 17th century; as a memorizer of the Quran, he was one of the few powerful rulers who established Sharia law and Islamic ethics in India. Described as a military paragon,although Aurangzeb has never claimed to be a caliph of the Muslim community, he has been variously called as a Caliph of The Merciful, Monarch of Islam, Living Custodian of God, he was an Islamic economist. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to 4 million square kilometres, he ruled over a population estimated to be over 158 million subjects, with an annual yearly revenue of $450 million, or £38,624,680 in 1690. Under his reign, India surpassed China to become the world's largest economy and manufacturing power, worth over $90 billion, nearly a quarter of global GDP and more than the entirety of Western Europe.
Unlike his predecessors, including his father Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb considered the royal treasury to be held in trust for the citizens of his empire. He did not enjoy a luxurious life and his personal expenses and constructions of small mosques were covered by his own earnings, which included the sewing of caps and trade of his written copies of the Quran. Aurangzeb has been subject to controversy and criticism for his policies that abandoned his predecessors' legacy of pluralism and religious tolerance, citing his introduction of the Jizya tax, destruction of Hindu temples, the executions of Maratha Kingdom ruler Sambhaji and the ninth Sikh guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur. Various historians question the historicity of the claims of his critics, arguing that his destruction of temples has been exaggerated, noting that he built temples, paid for the maintenance of temples, employed more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy than his predecessors did, opposed bigotry against Hindus and Shia Muslims. Aurangzeb's other criticisms include the prohibition and supervision of behaviour and activities that are forbidden in Islam, such as the bowing to the king, drinking of alcohol, sexual immorality, human drawings, servitude, music and the use of narcotic and addictive substances,which have been argued to have violated rights to freedom of enjoyment.
The downfall of the Mughal Empire is sometimes thought to have begun after his due to his political and religious intolerance. Aurangzeb died by natural causes at his military camp in 1707, his funeral was ascetically decent and his personal earnings that were left was given to charity as per his instructions, his death marks the end of Medieval India, the start of modern Indian history and the domination of European powers in India. Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Gujarat, he was the third son and sixth child of Mumtaz Mahal. In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father and his brother Dara Shukoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' Lahore court. On 26 February 1628, Shah Jahan was declared the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb returned to live with his parents at Agra Fort, where Aurangzeb received his formal education in Arabic and Persian, his daily allowance was fixed at Rs. 500, which he spent on religious education and the study of history. On 28 May 1633, Aurangzeb escaped death when a powerful war elephant stampeded through the Mughal Imperial encampment.
He rode against the elephant and struck its trunk with a lance, defended himself from being crushed. Aurangzeb's valour was appreciated by his father who conferred him the title of Bahadur and had him weighed in gold and presented gifts worth Rs. 200,000. This event was celebrated in Persian and Urdu verses, Aurangzeb said: If the fight had ended fatally for me, it would not have been a matter of shame. Death drops the curtain on Emperors; the shame lay in what my brothers did! Aurangzeb was nominally in charge of the force sent to Bundelkhand with the intent of subduing the rebellious ruler of Orchha, Jhujhar Singh, who had attacked another territory in defiance of Shah Jahan's policy and was refusing to atone for his actions. By arrangement, Aurangzeb stayed in the rear, away from the fighting, took the advice of his generals as the Mughal Army gathered and commenced the Siege of Orchha in 1635; the campaign was successful and Singh was removed from power. Aurangzeb was appointed viceroy of the Deccan in 1636.
After Shah Jahan's vassals had been devastated by the alarming expansion of Ahmednagar during the reign of the Nizam Shahi boy-prince Murtaza Shah III, the emperor dispatched Aurangzeb, who in 1636 brought the Nizam Shahi dynasty to an end. In 1637, Aurangzeb married the Safavid princess Dilras Banu Begum, posthumously known as Rabia-ud-Daurani, she was his first chief consort as well as his favourite. He had an infatuation with a slave girl, Hira Bai, whose death at a young age affected him. In his old age, he was under the charms of Udaipuri Bai; the latter had been a companion to Dara Shukoh. In the same year, 1637, Aurangzeb was placed in charge of annexing the small Rajput kingdom of Baglana
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive". In an old controversy, rationalism was opposed to empiricism, where the rationalists believed that reality has an intrinsically logical structure; because of this, the rationalists argued that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists asserted that certain rational principles exist in logic, mathematics and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction; the rationalists had such a high confidence in reason that empirical proof and physical evidence were regarded as unnecessary to ascertain certain truths – in other words, "there are significant ways in which our concepts and knowledge are gained independently of sense experience".
Different degrees of emphasis on this method or theory lead to a range of rationalist standpoints, from the moderate position "that reason has precedence over other ways of acquiring knowledge" to the more extreme position that reason is "the unique path to knowledge". Given a pre-modern understanding of reason, rationalism is identical to philosophy, the Socratic life of inquiry, or the zetetic clear interpretation of authority. In recent decades, Leo Strauss sought to revive "Classical Political Rationalism" as a discipline that understands the task of reasoning, not as foundational, but as maieutic. In the 17th-century Dutch Republic, the rise of early modern-period rationalism — as a systematic school of philosophy in its own right for the first time in history — exerted an immense and profound influence on modern Western thought in general, with the birth of two influential rationalistic philosophical systems of Descartes and Spinoza — namely Cartesianism and Spinozism, it was the 17th-century arch-rationalists like Descartes and Leibniz who have given the "Age of Reason" its name and place in history.
In politics, since the Enlightenment emphasized a "politics of reason" centered upon rational choice, utilitarianism and irreligion – the latter aspect's antitheism was softened by the adoption of pluralistic methods practicable regardless of religious or irreligious ideology. In this regard, the philosopher John Cottingham noted how rationalism, a methodology, became conflated with atheism, a worldview: In the past in the 17th and 18th centuries, the term'rationalist' was used to refer to free thinkers of an anti-clerical and anti-religious outlook, for a time the word acquired a distinctly pejorative force; the use of the label'rationalist' to characterize a world outlook which has no place for the supernatural is becoming less popular today. But the old usage still survives. Rationalism is contrasted with empiricism. Taken broadly, these views are not mutually exclusive, since a philosopher can be both rationalist and empiricist. Taken to extremes, the empiricist view holds that all ideas come to us a posteriori, to say, through experience.
The empiricist believes that knowledge is based on or derived directly from experience. The rationalist believes we come to knowledge a priori – through the use of logic – and is thus independent of sensory experience. In other words, as Galen Strawson once wrote, "you can see. You don't have to get up off your couch and go outside and examine the way things are in the physical world. You don't have to do any science." Between both philosophies, the issue at hand is the fundamental source of human knowledge and the proper techniques for verifying what we think we know. Whereas both philosophies are under the umbrella of epistemology, their argument lies in the understanding of the warrant, under the wider epistemic umbrella of the theory of justification; the theory of justification is the part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs. Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief, which include the ideas of justification, warrant and probability.
Of these four terms, the term, most used and discussed by the early 21st century is "warrant". Loosely speaking, justification is the reason. If "A" makes a claim, "B" casts doubt on it, "A"'s next move would be to provide justification; the precise method one uses to provide justification is where the lines are drawn between rationalism and empiricism. Much of the debate in these fields are focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth and justification. At its core, rationalism consists of three basic claims. For one to consider themselves a rationalist, they must adopt at least one of these three claims: The Intuition/Deduction Thesis, The Innate Knowledge Thesis, or The Innate Concept Thesis. In addition, rationalists can choose to adopt the claims of Indispensability of Reason and or the