History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory and it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians and their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In Asia, a chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries, the modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the word history comes ultimately from Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning inquiry, knowledge from inquiry, or judge.
It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι, the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions. History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, and it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, and this time the loan stuck. In Middle English, the meaning of history was story in general, the restriction to the meaning the branch of knowledge that deals with past events, the formal record or study of past events, esp. human affairs arose in the mid-fifteenth century. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, and it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the sixteenth century. For him, historia was the knowledge of objects determined by space and time, in an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general.
In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are synthetic and highly inflected. The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669, Historian in the sense of a researcher of history is attested from 1531. Historians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, in the words of Benedetto Croce, All history is contemporary history. History is facilitated by the formation of a discourse of past through the production of narrative. The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record, the task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents
MythBusters is a science entertainment television program created by Peter Rees and produced by Australias Beyond Television Productions. The series premiered on the Discovery Channel on January 23,2003, the series was transmitted by numerous international broadcasters, including SBS Australia, and other Discovery channels worldwide. The show was one of the oldest—and the most popular—on Discovery Channel, being preceded only by How Its Made and Daily Planet, from 2006 to 2016, the show was overseen by British show-runner Dan Tapster, working out of Sydney, San Francisco and Manchester. Filmed in San Francisco and edited in Artarmon, New South Wales, during the second season, members of Savage and Hynemans behind-the-scenes team were organized into a second team of MythBusters. They generally tested myths separately from the duo and operated from another workshop. On October 21,2015, it was announced that MythBusters would air its 14th, the show aired its final episode on March 6,2016. On March 25, Discoverys sister network, announced its intention of continuing the series with new hosts, the show, currently airing, is titled Mythbusters, The Search.
Adam Savage has confirmed that he and his former cohosts have no intentions of reuniting for future team projects, MythBusters refers both to the name of the documentary and the cast members who test the experiments. The series concept was created for the Discovery Channel as Tall Tales or True by Australian writer and producer Peter Rees of Beyond Productions in 2002, Discovery rejected the proposal initially because they had just commissioned a series on the same topic. Rees refined the pitch to focus on testing key elements of the rather than just retelling them. Discovery agreed to develop and co-produce a three-episode series pilot, Jamie Hyneman was one of a number of special effects artists who were asked to prepare a casting video for network consideration. Rees had interviewed him previously for a segment of the science series Beyond 2000 about the British/American robot combat television series Robot Wars. The highest rated regular episode featured two stories, straw through a tree, and talking to plants.
The highest rated two hour special was Hollywood Myths, the highest rated Shark Week special was Jaws Myths which screened in 2005. During July 2006, an edited version of MythBusters began airing on BBC Two in the UK. The episodes shown on the European Discovery Channel sometimes include extra scenes not shown in the United States version, the 14th season, which premiered in January 2016, was the final season for the series. Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman are the original MythBusters, and initially explored all the myths of the series using their experience with special effects. The two work at Hynemans effects workshop, M5 Industries, they use of his staff
An invention is a unique or novel device, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering and product development process and it may be an improvement upon a machine or product or a new process for creating an object or a result. An invention that achieves a unique function or result may be a radical breakthrough. Such works are novel and not obvious to others skilled in the same field, an inventor may be taking a big step in success or failure. A patent legally protects the property rights of the inventor. The rules and requirements for patenting an invention vary from country to country, another meaning of invention is cultural invention, which is an innovative set of useful social behaviours adopted by people and passed on to others. The Institute for Social Inventions collected many such ideas in magazines, Invention is an important component of artistic and design creativity. Inventions often extend the boundaries of knowledge, experience or capability.
Brainstorming can spark new ideas for an invention, collaborative creative processes are frequently used by engineers, designers and scientists. Co-inventors are frequently named on patents, in addition, many inventors keep records of their working process - notebooks, etc. including Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo Galilei, Evangelista Torricelli, Thomas Jefferson and Albert Einstein. In the process of developing an invention, the idea may change. The invention may become simpler, more practical, it may expand, working on one invention can lead to others too. History shows that turning the concept of an invention into a device is not always swift or direct. Inventions may more useful after time passes and other changes occur. For example, the became more useful once powered flight was a reality. Invention is often a creative process, an open and curious mind allows an inventor to see beyond what is known. Seeing a new possibility, connection, or relationship can spark an invention, inventive thinking frequently involves combining concepts or elements from different realms that would not normally be put together.
Sometimes inventors disregard the boundaries between distinctly separate territories or fields, several concepts may be considered when thinking about invention
The Skeptic's Dictionary
The Skeptics Dictionary is a collection of cross-referenced skeptical essays by Robert Todd Carroll, published on his website skepdic. com and in a printed book. The skepdic. com site was launched in 1994 and the book was published in 2003 with nearly 400 entries, as of January 2011 the website has over 700 entries. According to the cover of the book, the on-line version receives approximately 500,000 hits per month. The Skeptics Dictionary is, according to its foreword, intended to be a counterbalance to the voluminous occult and paranormal literature. Print versions are available in Dutch, Japanese, numerous entries have been translated for the Internet in several other languages. A newsletter keeps interested parties up to date on new entries, norcross et al. state that Carroll has made considerable progress in exposing pseudoscience and quackery. The one group this book is not aimed at is the believer in the occult. If you have no skepticism in you, this book is not for you. ”Carroll defines each of these categories, explaining how and why, in his opinion, his dictionary may be of interest and benefit to each of them
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations, disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may be considered to be applied sciences. However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws, over the course of the 19th century, the word science became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world. It was during this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge.
In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other, for example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense and they were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans. A clear-cut distinction between formal and empirical science was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides, although his work Peri Physeos is a poem, it may be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science. Parmenides ἐὸν may refer to a system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. Physis may be identical to ἐὸν and he criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism.
He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, however. Aristotle created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy which was teleological and he rejected many of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example, in his physics, the sun goes around the earth, each thing has a formal cause and final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, while the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being, they did not argue for any other types of applied science
An idiom is a phrase or a fixed expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning. Categorized as formulaic language, a figurative meaning is different from the literal meaning. There are thousands of idioms, occurring frequently in all languages and it is estimated that there are at least twenty-five thousand idiomatic expressions in the English language. Many idiomatic expressions, in their use, were not figurative but had literal meaning. If the jars were spilled before the counting of votes was complete, anyone would be able to see which jar had more beans, over time, the practice was discontinued and the idiom became figurative. Break a leg, used as a way of wishing good luck in a performance or presentation. By wishing someone bad luck, it is supposed that the opposite will occur, in linguistics, idioms are usually presumed to be figures of speech contradicting the principle of compositionality. That compositionality is the key notion for the analysis of idioms is emphasized in most accounts of idioms and this principle states that the meaning of a whole should be constructed from the meanings of the parts that make up the whole.
In other words, one should be in a position to understand the whole if one understands the meanings of each of the parts that make up the whole, the following example is widely employed to illustrate the point, Fred kicked the bucket. Understood compositionally, Fred has literally kicked an actual, physical bucket, the much more likely idiomatic reading, however, is non-compositional, Fred is understood to have died. Arriving at the reading from the literal reading is unlikely for most speakers. What this means is that the reading is, rather. In phraseology, idioms are defined as a sub-type of phraseme, john Saeed defines an idiom as collocated words that became affixed to each other until metamorphosing into a fossilised term. This collocation of words redefines each component word in the word-group, idioms usually do not translate well, in some cases, when an idiom is translated directly word-for-word into another language, either its meaning is changed or it is meaningless. When two or three words are used together in a particular sequence, the words are said to be irreversible binomials.
Usage will prevent the words from being displaced or rearranged, for example, a person may be left high and dry but never dry and high. This idiom in turn means that the person is left in their condition rather than being assisted so that their condition improves. Not all Siamese twins are idioms, however and dip is an irreversible binomial, but it refers to literal food items, not idiomatic ones
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci