Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Red Dwarf: Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers
Red Dwarf: Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers is a best-selling science fiction comedy novel by Grant Naylor, the collective name for Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, co-creators and writers of the Red Dwarf television series, on which the novel is based. First published in 1989, the novel presents the plotline of the TV series as a cohesive linear narrative, providing expanded backstory of the Red Dwarf world and more developing each of the characters Dave Lister and Arnold Rimmer; the book incorporates elements and scenes from the first and second-season episodes The End, Future Echoes, Kryten, Me² and Better Than Life. In 1990 the book was followed by Better Than Life; the book has been released in a 1992 Omnibus Edition and as an Unabridged Audiobook, read by Chris Barrie who plays Rimmer in the television show. The book begins in 2180. Commercialism is still rife, most of Earth's natural resources have been depleted. Most of the solid planets and moons in the solar system have been colonised. Having ended up in a supply port on Saturn's orbiting moon Mimas after celebrating his 24th birthday by binge drinking on a Monopoly Pub Crawl in London, Dave Lister is trying to earn enough money for a shuttle ticket home by stealing taxis and picking up fares while sleeping in a bus station locker.
But since he always ends up losing the money, either by getting mugged or by getting drunk, it's obvious he won't be getting home any time soon. One night Lister picks up a Space Corps officer calling himself'Christopher Todhunter' asking to be taken to a plasti-droid brothel, only for the droid to malfunction and nearly rip off his private parts; this gives Lister an inspiration, he signs up with the Jupiter Mining Corporation, intending to get himself signed to a ship and going AWOL once it reaches Earth. Despite his lack of qualifications and the admissions officer deciding he had an attitude problem – Lister told him that he wanted to sign up to "explore strange new worlds, seek out new life and new civilizations and to boldly go where no person has gone before" – Lister is assigned to the mining ship Red Dwarf as the lowest ranking crew member. On board he meets the drunken Petersen, who informs Lister that Red Dwarf will indeed be returning to Earth... after a four-and-a-half year round trip, much to Lister's dismay.
Lister is assigned to Z-Shift as a technician, with duties that the service droids are considered too good for, is introduced to his supervisor and roommate Arnold Rimmer, who Lister recognises as the Space Corps officer with the fake moustache. Rimmer is highly neurotic and pretentious, he and Lister develop a mutual dislike. Five months having settled into the dull, monotonous routine of life aboard Red Dwarf, Lister he finds himself falling in love with senior officer Kristine Kochanski; the two embark on a passionate five-week love affair before Kochanski dumps him and returns to her boyfriend, whose name Lister can't remember. Meanwhile, Rimmer has been spending his time trying and failing to pass the Astro-Navigation exam despite his best cheating efforts, as well as using the ship's stasis units to de-age himself. Lister, who has had enough of life on Red Dwarf since being dumped, realises that the stasis units could be his key to an instant arrival back on Earth. After studying the ship's regulations, he finds that smuggling an unquarantined animal aboard the ship is the least serious offence which carries a statutory sentence of time in stasis.
On his next planet leave he brings a pregnant cat back to Red Dwarf and ensures that he gets caught with her. After being hauled before the captain, Lister lies and tells her that the cat was ill when he found her and refuses to reveal where he has hidden her; as a result, Lister is sentenced to stasis for the rest of the trip. He enters the unit expecting to exit and find himself back home. Upon learning of Lister's sentence, Rimmer is furious that his nemesis is going to have all this time in stasis without getting older, prepares to work on an immediate appeal, he never gets the chance, as one of the ship's nuclear reactors fails, letting loose a wave that kills everyone except Lister. Just before he dies, Rimmer finds himself thinking of gazpacho. In the hold, Lister's cat and her kittens are safe from the radiation too. Upon Lister's release from stasis, the ship's super-computer Holly explains to him that he piloted Red Dwarf out of the Solar System to prevent radiation contamination. Holly could not release Lister.
However, because the leaked cadmium II had such a long half-life, Lister was kept in stasis for three million years. During this time, Holly has gone a little computer senile. Lister is told that not only is he all alone on the ship and millions of years away from Earth, but he is likely the last human left alive. Lister promptly falls apart, walking around the ship naked and nearly drinking himself to death before he collapses. Lister wakes up in the medical unit to find Rimmer, whom Holly has selected as the person most to keep Lister sane and generated as a hologram. Lister instructs Holly to chart a course for Earth; the crew discovers another life on board, an intelligent humanoid who comes to be known as The Cat, a member of a race of cats evolved from Lister's cat Frankenstein and her kittens after having survived the radiation blast deep
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per
Eating is the ingestion of food to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth. Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive — carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores consume a mixture of both plant and animal matter, detritivores eat detritus. Fungi digest organic matter outside their bodies as opposed to animals that digest their food inside their bodies. For humans, eating is an activity of daily living; some individuals may limit their amount of nutritional intake. This may be a result of a lifestyle choice, due to hunger or famine, as part of a diet or as religious fasting. Many homes have a large eating room or outside kitchen area devoted to preparation of meals and food, may have a dining room, dining hall, or another designated area for eating; some trains have a dining car. Most societies have restaurants, food courts, food vendors so that people may eat when away from home, when lacking time to prepare food, or as a social occasion.
At their highest level of sophistication, these places become "theatrical spectacles of global cosmopolitanism and myth." At picnics and food festivals, eating is in fact the primary purpose of a social gathering. At many social events and beverages are made available to attendees. Dishware, silverware and cookware come in a wide array of forms and sizes. People have two or three meals a day regularly. Snacks of smaller amounts may be consumed between meals. Doctors in the UK, recommend three meals a day, with four to six hours between. Having three well-balanced meals will account to some 1800–2000 kcal, the average requirement for a regular person; the issue of healthy eating has long been an important concern to cultures. Among other practices, fasting and vegetarianism are all techniques employed by individuals and encouraged by societies to increase longevity and health; some religions promote vegetarianism. Leading nutritionists believe that instead of indulging oneself in three large meals each day, it is much healthier and easier on the metabolism to eat five smaller meals each day (e.g. better digestion, easier on the lower intestine to deposit wastes.
However, psychiatrists with Yale Medical School have found that people who suffer from Binge Eating Disorder and consume three meals per day weigh less than those who have meals that are more frequent. Eating can be a way of making money. In jurisdictions under sharia law, it may be proscribed for Muslim adults during the daylight hours of Ramadan. Newborn babies do not eat adult foods, they survive on breast milk or formula. Small amounts of pureed food are sometimes fed to young infants as young as two or three months old, but most infants do not eat adult food until they are between six and eight months old. Young babies eat pureed baby foods because they have immature digestive systems. Between 8 and 12 months of age, the digestive system improves, many babies begin eating finger foods, their diet is still limited, because most babies lack molars or canines at this age, have a limited number of incisors. By 18 months, babies have enough teeth and a sufficiently mature digestive system to eat the same foods as adults.
Learning to eat is a messy process for children, children do not master neatness or eating etiquette until they are 5 or 6 years old. Eating positions vary according to the different regions of the world, as culture influences the way people eat their meals. For example, most of the Middle Eastern countries, eating while sitting on the floor is most common, it is believed to be healthier than eating while sitting to a table. Compulsive overeating, or emotional eating, is "the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions". Empirical studies have indicated that anxiety leads to decreased food consumption in people with normal weight and increased food consumption in the obese. Many laboratory studies showed that overweight individuals are more reactive and are more to overeat when distressed than people of normal weight. Furthermore, it was found that obese individuals experience negative emotions more and more intensively than do normal weight persons; the naturalistic study by Lowe and Fisher compared the emotional reactivity and emotional eating of normal and overweight female college students.
The study confirmed the tendency of obese individuals to overeat, but these findings applied only to snacks, not to meals. That means. One possible explanation that Lowe and Fisher suggest is obese individuals eat their meals with others and do not eat more than average due to the reduction of distress because of the presence of other people. Another possible explanation would be that obese individuals do not eat more than the others while having meals due to social desirability. Conversely, snacks are eaten alone. There are many physiological mechanisms that control stopping a meal; the control of food intake is a motivated behavioral system. Hormones such as cholecystokinin, neurotensin, calcitonin, enterostatin and corticotropin-releasing hormone have all been shown to suppress food intake. There are numerous signals given off
Mark Williams (actor)
Mark Williams is an English actor and presenter. He is best known as Arthur Weasley in the Harry Potter films, as one of the stars of the popular BBC sketch show The Fast Show, he played Brian Williams in the BBC series Doctor Who, Olaf Petersen in Red Dwarf. “ More he has appeared as the title character in the BBC series Father Brown. Williams was educated at Oxford, he performed with Oxford University Dramatic Society. Having made a career as a theatre actor and working for the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal National Theatre along the way, he came to wider public attention through his appearances on the BBC television sketch programmes Alexei Sayle's Stuff and The Fast Show. Williams has described the huge popularity of the latter show as a "double-edged sword" as it has led to his being seen by the public as a comedian rather than as an actor. Williams made his film début alongside fellow débutants Hugh Grant and Imogen Stubbs in the Oxford University Film Foundation production Privileged in 1982.
His most famous cinema role is as Arthur Weasley in the Harry Potter film series, which began in 2002. Other high-profile appearances include the film adaptation of Neil Gaiman's Stardust alongside Michelle Pfeiffer, Robert De Niro and Claire Danes in 2007 and a 2012 role in Doctor Who as Brian Williams, father of the Doctor's companion, Rory. Since 2013, he has appeared as the lead role in the BBC costume drama Father Brown. Williams featured in the first series of Blandings, the BBC TV adaptation of the P. G. Wodehouse Blandings Castle stories, broadcast in 2013, in which he played Beach, the Emsworth's tipsy butler. In 2014 and 2015, he presented; the show ran for two series. Aside from his acting work, Williams has presented several documentary programmes: Mark Williams' Big Bangs on the history of explosives, a follow-up to previous series Mark Williams on the Rails, Industrial Revelations and More Industrial Revelations, he is a supporter of Aston Villa F. C. although, living in Lewes, he supports Brighton & Hove Albion.
Interviewed in 2014 by the Lancashire Evening Post, when asked if some people still saw him as a comedy actor, Williams replied, "Well, it’s only a few people in the BBC. In America, they see me as a major British character actor, but the BBC is pretty parochial and people are institutionalised here." Williams is married to Dianne and the couple has one child. Power Rangers Operation Overdrive - Big Mouth Monster Merlin - The Goblin Power Rangers Samurai - Eyescar Lego Dimensions - Arthur Weasley We're Going on a Bear Hunt - Dad Early Man - Barry Mark Williams on IMDb
Better Than Life
Better Than Life is a science fiction comedy novel by Grant Naylor, the collective name for Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, co-creators and writers of the Red Dwarf television series, on which the novel is based. The main plotline was developed and expanded from the Red Dwarf episode of the same name, as well as the Series 3 and 4 episodes: White Hole, Marooned and Backwards; the book, first published April 4 1991, is a sequel to Red Dwarf: Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers, was the first Red Dwarf novel to receive its first print run in hardback edition. Like the first novel, Better Than Life became a best seller and was reproduced in paperback and audiobook versions. Two further novels, Last Human and Backwards, were each created as alternate sequels by the writers, followed in 1995 and 1996 respectively. Following on from Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers, Lister and the Cat have discovered a cache of'Better Than Life' headbands in one of the sleeping quarters, they fantasize that they use its Duality Jump drive to return to Earth.
The messages on his arm cause Lister to realize that he is in the game, he confronts Rimmer. They travel to meet with the Cat. While discussing how to get out, Kryten arrives and explains how they started playing, to leave they need only want to leave, but their subsequent attempts to escape fail because the game lures them in, their collective fantasies fall apart because of Rimmer's massive self-loathing. As a result, his company crashes, his new physical body is repossessed, his attempt to escape leaves him trapped with a pair of violent criminals and transferred into the body of a female prostitute. Rimmer's escape damages the fantasies of the other three. Once back in the real world and Kryten leave Lister and Cat in the infirmary to recuperate- the two near-starved and physically weak after two years of near-inactivity while in the Game- but learn that ship's computer Holly has shut himself down, as an experiment to cure his computer senility suggested by Talkie Toaster- a sentient Toaster with a fixation with doing its job- and restore his original IQ of 6 000 has given him an IQ of 12 000 at the cost of reducing his lifespan to a few minutes.
With the ship now powerless without Holly's control, it is discovered to be locked on course for a planet, but after attempts to manually restart the engines fail, Holly is able to use his remaining minutes of life to come up with a plan to knock the planet out of its orbit with an explosive. Holly's plan succeeds, but damage sustained to the Starbug shuttle causes Rimmer and Lister to crash-land on a drifting ice planet. Rimmer is returned to Red Dwarf when his remote projection unit runs out of power, but cannot send help for Lister as the ship has become trapped in the event horizon of a black hole. Back on the planet, Lister realises that he has arrived on Earth, sent drifting out of orbit after it became the solar system's garbage dump, Lister becoming the'king' of the mutated giant cockroaches that are the planet's only remaining life. Back on the Dwarf, the crew are able to escape as Holly told the Toaster how to get out of a black hole before he shut himself down; when the Dwarfers go to rescue Lister- with Rimmer and the Cat in one ship and Kryten and the Toaster in the other- Rimmer and the Cat are shocked to find a beautiful farm amidst the garbage, tended by an old Lister.
Because of the time dilation of the black hole, thirty-four years have passed on the planet. A shape-shifting, emotion-stealing mutant known as a polymorph is able to sneak on board the ship, draining Lister of his fear, Cat of his confidence, Kryten of his guilt and Rimmer of his rage; the handicapped crew are able to defeat the Polymorph, but the abrupt restoration of his fear causes Lister to die of a heart attack. Rather than burying Lister, they take him to Universe 3. Lister returns to life on a version of Earth, he recovers from his heart attack, regurgitates lunch, is forced to take a wallet and watch from a mugger. A message from the Dwarf crew instructs Lister to meet them in thirty-six years. Lister finds an elderly Kochanski waiting for him. Lister is happy to look forward to. We are first introduced to the game in a series two episode titled Better Than Life; the game arrives among other fantastic packages in a post pod, encountered after Red Dwarf turns around to head for home. It is part of a series of'VR Total Immersion Video Games', which work by inserting electrodes into the user's frontal lobes and hypothalamus.
The user becomes immersed within the reality of the game. Better Than Life is a game which allows the user to live out all their desires; when in the game, one has the ability to mentally command into existence any object, person or environment. The problem with the game in the TV series, however, is that it detects subconscious desires: if the user subconsciously hates himself the game will detect this and subject them to tailored masochistic tortures. Total Immersion Video Games - though not Better Than Life - are encountered in the Series 5 episode'Back to Reality', in which a group hallucination makes the Dwarf crew believe that the previous four years had been a video game fantasy. Another game in Series 7 allowed the crew to have tea with the characters of Pride And Prejudice, showing that n