Mark Geyer OAM, is an Australian former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000’s. An Australian international and New South Wales State of Origin representative second-rower, he is a rugby league media identity. Geyer's club career was played with Penrith, with whom he won a premiership in 1991, as well as the Balmain Tigers and the Western Reds, he is the brother of fellow former professional rugby league footballer Matt Geyer. Geyer was part of the Triple M on-air team for the Sydney breakfast show called The Grill Team from 2009 to 2017 before moving to an evening slot—The Rush Hour—on the same station. In 1987, Geyer established a regular first-grade place with the Penrith Panthers and was selected for the City Seconds team after only a handful of top grade appearances, he played in Penrith's 1987 Reserve Grade Grand Final winning team that defeated the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles 11-0 at the Sydney Cricket Ground. Geyer was first selected in the second row for New South Wales in game 3 of the 1989 State of Origin series, at Lang Park in Brisbane.
His 1990 season was lost to a succession of injuries that restricted him to just 12 games, though he did play in Penrith's maiden Grand Final appearance and from there was selected, along with Panthers teammates Greg Alexander, John Cartwright and Brad Fittler, for the 1990 Kangaroo tour. Geyer played in 11 games on the Kangaroo Tour, scoring 4 tries and earning his first Australian test jumper when he was selected on the bench for the first test against France at the Parc de Sports in Avignon. Geyer's form for the Panthers in 1991 again earned him selection for NSW during the State of Origin series. Geyer received a five-match suspension for an incident in the second game at a wet Sydney Football Stadium, preceded by a half-time confrontation with Queensland captain Wally Lewis in which referee David Manson and NSW captain Ben Elias had to stand between the two who twice came to blows, he was cited for an elbow to the head of Queensland fullback Paul Hauff, which sparked an all-in brawl. His suspension saw him unavailable for selection in the first test of the 1991 Trans-Tasman Test series against New Zealand in Melbourne, though after the Australians lost the test 24-8 a number of changes were made and Geyer's form was rewarded with selection in the second test in Sydney and the third in Brisbane.
The Aussies went on to win the final two tests to wrap up the series 2-1. In August 1991, he was thought to be out for the rest of the season after injuring his ankle ligaments in a training session, only to return for the major semifinal. However, despite his problems during the season, Geyer helped the minor premiers into the Grand Final where they gained revenge on Canberra with a 19-12 win that saw the Panthers win their first premiership since entering the competition in 1967. Geyer had a hand in all three of the Panthers tries on the day and was judged to be their best player, though his sin-binning for dissent by referee Bill Harrigan during the second half was thought to have cost him the Clive Churchill Medal as man of the match, he spent the 1993 season with the Balmain Tigers. After leaving Penrith, the coach of Balmain at the time Alan Jones handed Geyer a lifeline. Speaking to the media in 2018 Geyer spoke of his time at Balmain saying "It was shit to be honest, I didn't like it one bit,I didn't like travelling on the M4, which at the time only had two lanes all the way to Leichhardt Oval in peak hour driving home in peak hour, take all that aside from it, the people involved with the Tigers at the time I loved.
Alan Jones was the only coach in Sydney who would throw me a lifeline after I left Penrith in controversial circumstances". Geyer played for the Western Reds from 1995 until 1997, before returning to the Panthers in 1998. In 2000, Mark Geyer was awarded the Australian Sports Medal for his contribution to Australia's international standing in rugby league, he retired at the end of the 2000 season. Since his retirement, Geyer has written extensively about rugby league for various newspapers and sporting magazines. In May 2010, he spoke out about his mid career drug and alcohol battle that lasted from 1992–1995 and how it ended his career, he said a large part of the drug usage was to trying to numb the pain of losing his best mate, former Penrith player Ben Alexander, killed in a car accident in 1992. Geyer was a regular panellist on rugby league talk show The Sunday Roast where he referred himself as'the man of the people', he was on Triple M in Sydney, as a breakfast presenter on The Grill Team Monday-to-Friday 6-9am with Matthew Johns and Gus Worland from August 2009 to 2017.
He appears on Triple M on Saturday mornings, presenting the'Dead Set Legends' segment alongside Ray Warren. In 2012, it was announced, he is a Panelist on NRL on FOX Geyer is involved in a number of charities, such as the Fight For Life charity boxing event, he is the ambassador for the Save Our Sons charity. In response to the 2010–2011 Queensland floods, Geyer organised the 2011 Legends of Origin charity match which raised $455,345 for the recovery effort. On Australia Day 2013, Mark was announced in the Honours List, he received an Order Of Australia medal for "service to the sport of Rugby League football, to the community through a range of charitable organisations." In November 2017, Geyer announced. He heads The Rush Hour on the same network. Geyer's younger brother Matt Geyer played rugby league with Mark at the Western Reds in 1997, before playing with the Melbourne Storm between 1998 and 2008. Geyer is married to
Adam MacDougall is an Australian author and former professional rugby league footballer of the 1990s and 2000s. A New South Wales State of Origin and Australian international representative centre and wing, he could play fullback and spent the majority of his career at the Newcastle Knights, with whom he won the 1997 and 2001 Premierships, he has played for the Sydney Roosters and South Sydney Rabbitohs. His brothers, Luke MacDougall, Ben MacDougall and Scott MacDougall have played in the NRL, his father, Gil MacDougall, played for the Balmain Tigers and Western Suburbs Magpies NSWRFL. In retirement, MacDougall founded a nutrition company that produces the popular meal replacement product, The MAN Shake. MacDougall was born in Australia. MacDougall made his first-grade debut for the Sydney City Roosters in the 1995 ARL season. Macdougall holds the record for most tries scored in a match for Newcastle with four, which he did against the New Zealand Warriors in 2001, he is third on the club's all time try scorers list and sixth on the club's all time point-scorers list.
In MacDougall's first season with Newcastle he scored five tries in eleven games that culminated in the club's victory in the 1997 ARL Grand Final where he famously, but accidentally stood on the head of Manly-Warringah captain Geoff Toovey after being tackled by the Manly halfback. In 1998, Macdougall made his representative debut for New South Wales rugby league team after a stellar start to the season. On 8 July 1998 Macdougall tested positive to stimulants amfepramone. MacDougall's A and B samples both recorded an epitestosterone to testosterone level greater than the allowable 6:1 ratio - indicating the possible use of steroids. On 28 August he pleaded guilty to using one banned stimulant and was found to have inadvertently used another and received an 11-match ban along with team mates Robbie O'Davis and Wayne Richards who each received 22-week bans, it was revealed during his appeal that MacDougall had suffered a severe head injury in 1993 that damaged his pituitary gland and it was essential that he take prescribed medication, called Sustanon 250, which included a banned steroid.
This medication restored normal hormone levels in his body and without it, he would suffer serious side effects and not be able to lead a normal life, let alone play football. After just two games back for the Knights in 1999, Macdougall was recalled to the New South Wales rugby league team. Arguably Macdougall's best seasons came in 2000 and 2001, where he scored 30 tries in 41 games and starred in NSW comprehensive 3-0 series win against Queensland in 2000, he played in Australia's victory in the 2000 World Cup Final. MacDougall won a second premiership with the Knights, playing on the wing in their 2001 NRL Grand Final victory over the Parramatta Eels. After that he went on the 2001 Kangaroo tour. MacDougall switched to the South Sydney Rabbitohs for the 2004 NRL season. MacDougall re-commenced playing for the Knights in the 2007 NRL season, he had enjoyed a long and successful career with the Knights, having played with them from 1996 to 2003. In Round 26 of the 2011 NRL season, MacDougall was farewelled in his last home game for the Knights.
He played his last game the following week against the Melbourne Storm at AAMI Park in the first week of the finals series. Junior Club: Harbord Diggers, De La Salle-Caringbah Career Stats: 195 career games with 92 tries State Of Origin: Played 11 games in total for New South Wales International: Played 11 tests for Australia including the 2000 World Cup In retirement, MacDougall, who has master's degrees in Business Administration and Business Coaching as well as a Bachelor of Economics, started a nutrition company called Cranky Health, its flagship product is The MAN Shake, a meal replacement made for men. The company produces protein bars and meal replacement shakes for women called The Lady Shake. In 2015, Macdougall released his first book with publisher Penguin Books called The Man Plan; the books promotes a healthy lifestyle for men, focusing on simple 10-minute workouts and easy to follow recipes. In 2015, Macdougall launched The Man Challenge, an online health and fitness program created for the needs of men.
The Man Challenge is built on the premise of exercising for just 10 minutes a day and giving men a simple to follow meal plan that still allows them to enjoy a beer and a burger. Involved is AFL Premiership winning Coach Paul Roos who acts as a motivator for users of the program, while another feature includes taking on celebrity athletes such as Sonny Bill Williams to exercise challenges. Official website 2011 Newcastle Knights Profile 2001 Ashes profile The MAN Shake website Daily Telegraph article on The MAN Plan
Laurie William Daley AM is an Australian professional rugby league football coach and a former player. He represented Australia on 26 occasions and has since been named as one of the nation's finest of the 20th century. Daley played as a Centre and Five-eighth for the Canberra Raiders during their most successful period in the 1990s. Daley was born in Australia to a white father and an Aboriginal mother. Spotted playing first grade for the Junee Diesels in 1986 at the age of sixteen, after being signed by the Raiders, he developed as a centre and was playing first grade by 1987, including being a non-playing reserve for the Raiders in their 18-8 Grand Final loss to Manly-Warringah at the Sydney Cricket Ground. Daley was playing representative rugby league before his 19th birthday in 1988 when he was selected to represent NSW Country in the annual City vs Country Origin game, he was the second highest try-scorer in the 1989 NSWRL season with sixteen tries, only one less than team mate Gary Belcher.
He tasted premiership success with the Raiders 1989 in an extra-time game which saw Canberra defeat the Balmain Tigers 19-14, in the ensuing celebrations the Winfield Cup was smashed, not by Daley dropping it as was reported by the press, but when it fell from the rear tray of Ford T bucket hot rod both were riding in when the hot rod hit a bump in the road. In the post season he travelled with the Raiders to England for the 1989 World Club Challenge, playing at centre in Canberra's 18-30 loss to Widnes at the Old Trafford stadium in Manchester. Daley played his first games for New South Wales in the 1989 State of Origin series. Part way through the 1990 NSWRL Premiership season Daley made his first appearance for Australian at five-eighth against France in the NSW country town of Parkes, scoring a try on début, he would play against New Zealand a month in Wellington. At the end of the 1990 season where the Raiders won their second consecutive Grand Final, Daley won the Raiders' player of the year award and was selected for the 1990 Kangaroo Tour.
He missed Australia's opening loss to Great Britain at Wembley Stadium due to a broken hand suffered in a previous tour match against Leeds, but played centre for three tests on tour. The broken hand, a hamstring injury which saw him miss the second Test against France, restricted him to just 6 games on tour, 3 club games and the 3 tests. During the 1990 season, Canberra coach Tim Sheens shifted Daley from centre to five-eighth at the Raiders and popular theory was that he was being groomed to take over the Test five-eighth role from Wally Lewis, coming to the end of his career. Daley helped the Raiders to back-to-back premierships when they defeated Penrith 18–14 in the Grand Final at the Sydney Football Stadium. Following the Kangaroo Tour, Daley suffered a number of niggling injuries during the early part of the 1991 season, though he played well enough to retain his place in the NSW side for the 1991 State of Origin series, although overlooked for the opining Trans-Tasman series test against New Zealand in Melbourne, was recalled into the side in the centres for the final two tests in Sydney and at Lang Park in Brisbane.
After losing in Melbourne, the Australians won 40 -- 12 in Brisbane. Canberra limped into the Finals in defence of their crown, but found form and won high scoring games over Manly-Warringah and North Sydney to again face Penrith in the Grand Final. However, with Ricky Stuart taking a groin injury into the game and Daley doing the same with a dodgy hamstring, the Raiders were no match for the Royce Simmons and Greg Alexander inspired Panthers who won the day 19–12. Daley's injury meant. During the 1992 Great Britain Lions tour of Australia and New Zealand, he helped Australia retain The Ashes. Affected by a knee injury in 1992, which saw him unable to fulfill his contract at Wakefield Trinity, miss Australia's World Cup Final win over Great Britain at Wembley following the 1992 NSWRL season, 1992 saw Daley take over the captaincy of the NSW Origin team and after being knocked out during the first game in Sydney, Daley recovered to lead the Blues to a 2–1 series win over Queensland now captained by Canberra team mate and Australian team captain Mal Meninga.
Daley recovered from injury to captain Australia in the absence of suspended captain Meninga in the first Test against New Zealand in 1993, kicking the match-saving field goal and saving Australia from an embarrassing 14–13 loss. 1994 was again plagued by injury. For the third year running he captained NSW to an Origin series win over Queensland, before representing Australia in a mid season test against France at the Parramatta Stadium in Sydney. Following the test Daley underwent knee surgery, recovered in time to help the Raiders win the Grand Final over Canterbury-Bankstown 36-12, scoring a 50-metre try in the first half and showing that he was back to 100% fitness. Following the Grand Final win, Daley was selected, along with six of his Canberra team-mates, to the successful 1994 Kangaroo Tour; as the incumbent NSW captain, Daley was selected as the vice-captain on the tour. His 1994 tour was a happier one than 1990 with Daley playing in 9 games including all 4 tests on the tour. In 1995, Ricky Stuart was preferred for the Canberra captaincy after Meninga's retirement though Daley had captained both New South Wales and Australia ahead of S
National Rugby League
The National Rugby League is a league of professional men's rugby league teams in Australia. Run by the Australian Rugby League Commission, the NRL's main competition is known as the Telstra Premiership due to sponsorship from Telstra Corporation and is contested by sixteen teams, fifteen of which are based in Australia with one based in New Zealand, it attended rugby league club competition in the world. The National Rugby League is Australia's top-level domestic men's rugby-league club competition, it contains clubs from the original Sydney club Rugby League competition, running continuously since 1908. The NRL formed in the aftermath of the 1990s' Super League war as a joint partnership between the Australian governing body, the Australian Rugby League and media giant News Corporation-controlled Super League, after both organisations ran premierships parallel to each other in 1997; this partnership was dissolved in February 2012, with control of the NRL going to the independently formed Australian Rugby League Commission.
NRL matches are played in New Zealand from March to October. The season culminates in the premiership-deciding game, the NRL Grand Final, traditionally one of Australia's most popular sporting events and one of the world's largest attended sporting championship games. In addition, the NRL premiers play in the World Club Challenge, a pre-season match against the champions of the Super League competition; the reigning premiers are the Sydney Roosters winning their fourteenth official premiership. The New South Wales Rugby League ran the major rugby league competition of New South Wales from its inception in 1908 until 1994. Following the introduction of a new format for interstate rugby league, the State of Origin series in 1980, the decade of the 1980s brought about expansion of the NSWRL premiership, with the introduction of commercial sponsorship, the Winfield Cup, the addition of non-Sydney-based teams and Illawarra in 1982. Although this move brought more interest in the competition statewide in New South Wales, it would spell the beginning of the demise of some of the traditional Sydney-based clubs as well as having a negative effect on the Brisbane Rugby League premiership.
Following the 1983 season, Sydney foundation club Newtown Jets were forced to withdraw from the competition because of financial difficulties. Further expansion of the league followed in 1988, with another three teams based outside Sydney introduced to the competition; the Brisbane and Newcastle sides proved to be successful and popular and paved the way towards a push for a national competition. This was attempted in 1995 with control of the premiership passing from the NSWRFL to the Australian Rugby League, who invited four more teams from outside NSW to participate in 1995; this competition failed, but in its demise the National Rugby League was born, incorporating the traditional Sydney clubs coercing the Sydney market to follow the newly created national competition. The prospect of a national rugby league competition in addition to the introduction of pay television in Australia attracted the attention of global media organisation, News Corporation, it followed that professional rugby league was shaken to its foundations in the mid-1990s with the advent of the Super League war.
A conflict over broadcasting rights, it became a dispute as to who controlled the sport and which traditional clubs would survive into the new national era, as News Limited formed their own Super League and admitted some former ARL clubs, poaching players from the original ARL league with high salaries. With twenty-two teams of varying quality playing in two competitions that year, crowd attendances and corporate sponsorships were spread thinly, many teams found themselves in financial difficulty; the ARL undertook moves to invite the traditional clubs that had moved to the Super League competition back into a re-unified competition. Following a period of negotiation with News Corporation, on 23 September 1997 the ARL announced that it was forming a new company to conduct the competition in 1998. On 7 October News' Manaaki Ranginui announced that he was confident that there would be a single competition in 1998. On 19 December, representatives of clubs affiliated with the Australian Rugby League gathered at the Sydney Football Stadium to decide whether to accept News Limited's offer of a settlement – voting in favour by 36 votes to 4.
As a result, in the following months the National Rugby League, jointly owned by the ARL and News Limited, was formed. It was announced that the inaugural National Rugby League season of 1998 would have 20 teams competing, 19 remaining Super League and ARL teams plus the Melbourne Storm, who were created by Super League for their 1998 season. Clubs on both sides of the war were shut down. Super League decided to close the Hunter Mariners and the financially ruined Perth Reds, who were $10 million in debt at the end of 1997, while the ARL decided to close down the South Queensland Crushers, who were in severe financial trouble. Additionally, at the end of 1998 the NRL decided to close down former Super League club, the Adelaide Rams and former ARL club, the Gold Coast Chargers, despite the Gold Coast franchise being one of the few clubs to make a profit during the Super League war. One condition of the peace agreement between the ARL and News Limited was that there would be a 14 team competition in 2000.
The 20 clubs that played in 1998 would be assessed on various items such as sponsorship, crowds, on-field success and the like. It was announced that clubs that merged would
Bradley Scott'Freddy' Fittler is an Australian rugby league coach and former professional player, the head coach of the New South Wales State of Origin team. He works as a commentator and as a television presenter. Fittler has been named among the finest rugby league footballers of the first century of rugby league in Australia. Nicknamed'Freddy', Fittler captained both New South Wales and Australia, in 2000 was awarded the Golden Boot, he retired as the most-capped New South Wales State of Origin player, inducted into the NSWRL Hall of Fame as an Immortal and third-most-capped Australian international player. Fittler is the only player to have won two Rugby League World Cups as a team captain. Fittler coached in the NRL for the Sydney Roosters between 2007 and 2009 and for the City New South Wales team in the City vs. Country clash from 2012 to 2017, he has coached at international level with the Lebanon national rugby league team at the 2017 Rugby League World Cup. He was appointed New South Wales' State of Origin coach in November 2017 and went on to win the 2018 State of Origin series.
Fittler was born in Australia of German descent. He played junior rugby league for a number of clubs in the Parramatta JRL District including, Sadleir Bulldogs, Ashcroft Stallions and Mt. Pritchard Community Club before moving to Cambridge Park in the Penrith JRL District. While attending Ashcroft High School, St Dominic's College later, McCarthy Catholic Senior High School Emu Plains, Fittler played for the Australian Schoolboys team in 1988 and 1989. Brad Fittler's first grade career started in 1989 at the Penrith Panthers while he was still attending McCarthy Catholic Senior High School in the western suburbs of Sydney. Fittler played in the centres in Penrith's 18-14 loss to the Canberra Raiders in the 1990 Grand Final and at the end of the season was selected for Australia and went on the 1990 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain and France. Fittler did not play in a test on the tour, but scored 8 tries. In 1991 he was part the Panthers' premiership winning-side. Fittler played in the centres as Penrith, under the coaching of Phil Gould won their first premiership.
At the end of the season he was selected for the Kangaroos five game tour of Papua New Guinea and made his test debut for Australia, playing at lock in Australia's two test series win against the Papua New Guinea Kumuls, scoring two tries on debut at the Danny Leahy Oval in Goroka. Fittler scored 4 tries. During the 1992 Great Britain Lions tour of Australia and New Zealand, he helped Australia retain The Ashes. Fittler, like the rest of the Penrith club, endured a tough 1992 season due to the death of his best mate, up-and-coming halfback/hooker Ben Alexander, the younger brother of Penrith captain Greg Alexander. Following Alexander's death in a car accident, Penrith's form dropped off in the second half of the season with the defending premiers finishing out of the finals in 9th place; as a result of Alexander's death which happened between the first and second Ashes tests, Fittler was left out of the second test team by his own request, but returned to the team in the deciding match in Brisbane which Australia won 16-10 to retain The Ashes.
At the end of the 1992 season, Fittler was selected in Australia's World Cup Final team to play Great Britain at Wembley Stadium. In front of a international record attendance of 73,631 the Australians retained the Rugby League World Cup with a hard fought 10-6 win. During the first half, Fittler suffered a fractured cheekbone after being hit with an elbow from Lions hooker Martin Dermott who had gone into tackle the Australian Five-eighth with his elbow cocked. After being checked by team doctor Nathan Gibbs, Fittler continued playing; the 1993 NSWRL season again saw the Panthers struggle, finishing 12th with a 7-15 record for the year. Fittler played all three games for NSW in their 2-1 Origin series win over Queensland, before playing in all three mid-year tests against New Zealand with Australia winning the series 2-0 after the first test at the Mount Smart Stadium in Auckland ended in a 14-all draw thanks to a late field goal by stand in Australian captain Laurie Daley. Penrith improved to a 10-10-2 record and an 8th-place finish in the 1994 NSWRL season, despite the late season walk-out of Phil Gould, replaced with Fittler's 1991 premiership team mate Royce Simmons.
During the year he was selected at lock for a test against France at Sydney's Parramatta Stadium and at the end of the season he was selected for his second Kangaroo Tour. Fittler played at lock in all four tests against Great Britain and France on the tour, winning man of the match in Australia's 38-8 win in the second test at Old Trafford in Manchester to keep the Ashes series alive; the Kangaroos went on to win the third test 23-4 to retain the Ashes before demolishing France with a world record 74-0 win in Béziers. Fittler played in 12 games on tour, scoring two tries, he was named as Man of the Match playing at lock in Australia's non-test international played against Wales in Cardiff, scoring one of his tours two tries in the wet conditions. By 1995 Fittler was the world's highest-paid rugby league player earning $1.05 million for the season. This was during the period of the S
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s