The Africanized bee known as the Africanised honey bee, known colloquially as the "killer bee", is a hybrid of the western honey bee species, produced by cross-breeding of the East African lowland honey bee with various European honey bees such as the Italian honey bee A. m. ligustica and the Iberian honey bee A. m. iberiensis. The Africanized honey bee was first introduced to Brazil in 1956 in an effort to increase honey production, but 26 swarms escaped quarantine in 1957. Since the hybrid has spread throughout South America and arrived in North America in 1985. Hives were found in South Texas of the United States in 1990. Africanized bees are much more defensive than other varieties of honey bee, react to disturbances faster than European honey bees, they can chase a person a quarter of a mile. They have killed horses and other animals. There are 29 recognized subspecies of Apis mellifera based on geographic variations. All subspecies are cross-fertile. Geographic isolation led to numerous local adaptations.
These adaptations include brood cycles synchronized with the bloom period of local flora, forming a winter cluster in colder climates, migratory swarming in Africa, enhanced foraging behavior in desert areas, numerous other inherited traits. The Africanized honey bees in the Western Hemisphere are descended from hives operated by biologist Warwick E. Kerr, who had interbred honey bees from Europe and southern Africa. Kerr was attempting to breed a strain of bees that would produce more honey and be better adapted to tropical conditions than the European strain of honey bee in use throughout North and South America; the hives containing this particular Africanized subspecies were housed at an apiary near Rio Claro, São Paulo, in the southeast of Brazil, were noted to be defensive. These hives had been fitted with special excluder screens to prevent the larger queen bees and drones from getting out and mating with the local population of European bees. According to Kerr, in October 1957 a visiting beekeeper, noticing that the queen excluders were interfering with the worker bees' movement, removed them, resulting in the accidental release of 26 Tanganyikan swarms of A. m. scutellata.
Following this accidental release, the Africanized swarms spread out and cross-bred with local European colonies. The descendants of these colonies have since spread throughout the Americas, moving through the Amazon Basin in the 1970, crossing into Central America in 1982, reaching Mexico in 1985; because their movement through these regions was rapid and unassisted by humans, Africanized bees have earned the reputation of being a notorious invasive species The prospect of killer bees arriving in the United States caused a media sensation in the late 1970s, inspired several horror movies, sparked debate about the capability of humans to alter entire ecosystems. The first Africanized bees in the US were discovered in 1985 at an oil field in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Bee experts theorized the colony had not traveled overland but instead "arrived hidden in a load of oil-drilling pipe shipped from South America." The first permanent colonies arrived in Texas, from Mexico, in 1990. In the Tucson region of Arizona, a study of trapped swarms in 1994 found that only 15 percent had been Africanized.
Though Africanized bees display certain behavioral traits that make them less than desirable for commercial beekeeping, excessive defensiveness and swarming foremost, they have now become the dominant type of honey bee for beekeeping in Central and South America due to their genetic dominance as well as ability to out-compete their European counterpart, with some beekeepers asserting that they are superior honey producers and pollinators. The major differences between Africanized and other Western bee types are: Tends to swarm more and go farther than other types of honey bees. Is more to migrate as part of a seasonal response to lowered food supply. Is more to "abscond"—the entire colony leaves the hive and relocates—in response to stress. Has greater defensiveness when in a resting swarm, compared to other honey bee types. Lives more in ground cavities than the European types. Guards the hive aggressively, with a larger alarm zone around the hive. Has a higher proportion of "guard" bees within the hive.
Deploys in greater numbers for defense and pursues perceived threats over much longer distances from the hive. Cannot survive extended periods of forage deprivation, preventing introduction into areas with harsh winters or dry late summers. African honeybees are considered an invasive species in the Americas; as of 2002, the Africanized honeybees had spread from Brazil south to northern Argentina and north to Central America, Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico and southern California. Their expansion stopped for a time at eastern Texas due to the large population of honey bee hives in the area. However, discoveries of the Africanized bees in southern Louisiana indicate this subspecies has penetrated this barrier, or has come as a swarm aboard a ship. In June 2005, it was discovered that the bees had penetrated the border of Texas and had spread into southwest Arkansas. On 11 September 2007, Commissioner Bob Odom of the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry said that Africanized honey bees established themselves in the New Orleans area.
In February 2009, Africanized honeybees were found in southern Utah. The bees had spread into eig
Bradford Dillman was an American actor and author. Bradford Dillman was born on April 14, 1930 in San Francisco, the son of Josephine and Dean Dillman, a stockbroker. Bradford's paternal grandparents were Stella Borland Dean, he studied at Town School for St. Ignatius High School, he attended the Hotchkiss School in Connecticut, where he became involved in school theatre productions. While at Yale, he enlisted in the U. S. Naval Reserve in 1948, he graduated from Yale University in 1951 with a BA in English Literature. While a student, he was a member of the Yale Dramat, Fence Club, Torch Honor Society, The Society of Orpheus and Bacchus, WYBC and Berzelius. After graduation, he entered the United States Marine Corps as an officer candidate, training at Parris Island, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps in September 1951. As he was preparing to deploy to Korea, his orders were changed, he spent the rest of his time in the Marine Corps, 1951 to 1953, teaching communication in the Instructors' Orientation Course.
He was discharged in 1953 at the rank of first lieutenant. Studying with the Actors Studio, he spent several seasons apprenticing with the Sharon, Connecticut Playhouse before making his professional acting debut in The Scarecrow in 1953. Dillman took his initial Broadway bow in the Eugene O'Neill play Long Day's Journey Into Night in 1956, playing the author's alter ego character Edmund Tyrone and winning a Theatre World Award in the process; the production featured Frederic March, Florence Eldridge and Jason Robards Jr. and ran for 390 performances until 1958. In 1955 he appeared in an episode of The Big Picture as an MP patrolling the city of Augusta, Georgia. In 1957, Katharine Cornell cast him in a Hallmark Hall of Fame television production of Robert E. Sherwood's Pulitzer Prize winning 1940 play, There Shall Be No Night. Dillman was cast in the melodrama A Certain Smile, he followed this with In Love and War, a wartime melodrama starring many of 20th Century Fox's young contract players.
It was a box office success. So too was Compulsion, starring Dillman, Dean Stockwell and Orson Welles for producer Richard Zanuck and director Richard Fleischer. Dillman shared a Best Actor award with co-stars Welles at the Cannes Film Festival. After making A Circle of Deception in London, Dillman was reunited with Welles and Zanuck for Crack in the Mirror, shot in Paris, it was a flop. Back in Hollywood, Fox cast Dillman in support of Lee Remick in Sanctuary, they put him in the title role in Francis of Assisi. When he left Fox, Dillman concentrated on television, he co-starred with Barbara Barrie on The Alfred Hitchcock Hour in the episode “Isabel” and with Peter Graves in Court Martial. He guest-starred on series such as Ironside, The Name of the Game, Wild Wild West, The Eleventh Hour, Wagon Train, The Greatest Show on Earth, Breaking Point, Mission Impossible, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Barnaby Jones and Three for the Road, a two part episode of The Man From U. N. C. L. E. Which was made into the feature film The Helicopter Spies.
Dillman appeared twice on the Western television series, The Big Valley, once in Season 2, episode 15, entitled “Day of the Comet,” airing on December 26, 1966, the second time in Season 3, episode 9 appearing in the episode entitled “A Noose is Waiting,” which aired on November 13, 1967. He appeared in occasional films during this period such as A Rage to Live, Sergeant Ryker, The Bridge at Remagen. Dillman played painter Richard Pickman in the TV adaptation of H. P. Lovecraft's 1926 story, “Pickman's Model,” presented as the opening act of a December 1971 Night Gallery episode. Dillman appeared in made-for-TV movies such as Fear No Evil, Moon of the Wolf, Deliver Us from Evil, his film work included Escape from the Planet of the Apes, The Way We Were, Bug, The Enforcer, The Swarm, Sudden Impact, Lords of the Deep. His last known acting appearance was on an episode of Murder, She Wrote in 1995, a series in which he made eight guest appearances. Dillman's football fan book, Inside the New York Giants, was published in 1995.
An autobiography, Are You Anybody?: An Actor's Life, followed in 1997. From 1956 to 1962, Dillman was married to Frieda Harding, had two children with her, he met model Suzy Parker during the filming of A Circle of Deception. The couple married on April 20, 1963, had three children, Dinah and Christopher; the marriage lasted until Parker died on May 3, 2003. Dillman is a cousin of the famed mystic and author Aimee Crocker. Dillman lived for many years in Montecito and helped raise money for medical research, he died from complications of pneumonia. Bradford Dillman was the actor's real name, he said "Bradford Dillman sounded like a distinguished, theatrical name -- so I kept it." Bradford Dillman at the Internet Broadway Database Cinema Retro's interview with Bradford Dillman Bradford Dillman on IMDb Bradford Dillman at the TCM Movie Database Bradford Dillman
Olivia de Havilland
Dame Olivia Mary de Havilland is a British-American-French retired actress whose film career spanned from 1935 to 1988. She has appeared in 49 feature films and was one of the leading, is now one of the last surviving movie stars of the ‘Golden Age’ of Classical Hollywood, her younger sister was actress Joan Fontaine. De Havilland came to prominence as a screen couple with Errol Flynn in adventure films such as Captain Blood and The Adventures of Robin Hood. One of her best-known roles is Melanie Hamilton in the film classic Gone with the Wind. De Havilland departed from ingénue roles in the 1940s and won awards for her performances in To Each His Own, The Snake Pit, The Heiress, including two Academy Awards, she was successful in work on stage and television. De Havilland has lived in Paris since the 1950s and received honours like the National Medal of the Arts, the Légion d'honneur and the appointment to Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire. In addition to her film career, de Havilland continued her work in the theatre, appearing three times on Broadway, in Romeo and Juliet, A Gift of Time.
She worked in television, appearing in the successful miniseries, Roots: The Next Generations, television feature films such as Anastasia: The Mystery of Anna, for which she received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination. During her film career, de Havilland won two Golden Globe Awards, two New York Film Critics Circle Awards, the National Board of Review Award for Best Actress, the Venice Film Festival Volpi Cup. For her contributions to the motion picture industry, she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. De Havilland's father, Walter de Havilland, served as an English professor at the Imperial University in Tokyo before becoming a patent attorney, her mother, Lilian Fontaine, was educated at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London and became a stage actress. Lilian sang with the Master of the King's Music, Sir Walter Parratt, toured England with the composer Ralph Vaughan Williams. Olivia's paternal cousin was Sir Geoffrey de Havilland, an aircraft designer and founder of the de Havilland aircraft company.
Lilian and Walter were married the following year. De Havilland was born on July 1, 1916, they moved into a large house in Tokyo, where Lilian gave informal singing recitals for the European colony. Olivia's younger sister Joan —later known as actress Joan Fontaine—was born fifteen months on October 22, 1917. Both sisters became citizens of the United Kingdom automatically by birthright. In February 1919, Lilian persuaded her husband to take the family back to England to a climate better suited for their ailing daughters, they sailed aboard the SS Siberia Maru to San Francisco, where the family stopped to treat Olivia's tonsillitis. After Joan developed pneumonia, Lilian decided to remain with her daughters in California, where they settled in the village of Saratoga, 50 miles south of San Francisco, her father abandoned the family and returned to his Japanese housekeeper, who became his second wife. Olivia was raised to appreciate the arts, beginning with ballet lessons at the age of four and piano lessons a year later.
She learned to read before she was six, her mother, who taught drama and elocution, had her reciting passages from Shakespeare to strengthen her diction. During this period, her younger sister Joan first started calling her "Livvie", a nickname that would last throughout her life. De Havilland did well in her studies, she enjoyed reading, writing poetry, drawing, once represented her grammar school in a county spelling bee, coming in second place. In 1923, Lilian had a new Tudor-style house built. In April 1925, after her divorce was finalized, Lilian married George Milan Fontaine, a department store manager for O. A. Hale & Co. in San Jose. Fontaine was a good provider and respectable businessman, but his strict parenting style generated animosity and rebellion in both of his new stepdaughters. De Havilland continued her education at Los Gatos High School near her home in Saratoga. There she excelled in oratory and field hockey and participated in school plays and the school drama club becoming the club's secretary.
With plans of becoming a schoolteacher of English and speech, she attended Notre Dame Convent in Belmont. In 1933, a teenage de Havilland made her debut in amateur theatre in Alice in Wonderland, a production of the Saratoga Community Players based on the novel by Lewis Carroll, she appeared in several school plays, including The Merchant of Venice and Hansel and Gretel. Her passion for drama led to a confrontation with her stepfather, who forbade her from participating in further extracurricular activities; when he learned that she had won the lead role of Elizabeth Bennet in a school fund-raising production of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, he told her that she had to choose between staying at home, or appearing in the production and not being allowed home. Not wanting to let her school and classmates down, she left home forever, moving in with a family friend. After graduating from high school in 1934, de Havilland was offered a scholarship to Mills College in Oakland to pursue her chosen career as an English teacher.
She was offered the role of Puck in the Saratoga Community Theater production of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. That summer, Austrian director Max Reinhardt came to California for a major n
Louis Burton Lindley Jr. better known by his stage name Slim Pickens, was an American rodeo performer and film and television actor. During much of his career, Pickens played cowboy roles, is best remembered today for his comic roles in Dr. Strangelove and Blazing Saddles. Louis Burton Lindley Jr. was born in Kingsburg, the son of Sally Mosher and Louis Bert Lindley Sr. a Texas-born dairy farmer. Young Lindley was an excellent horse rider from an early age. Known as "Burt" to his family and friends, he grew bored with dairy farming and began to make a few dollars by riding broncos and roping steers in his early teens, his father found out and forbade this activity but he took no notice, went to compete in a rodeo, was told by the doubtful rodeo manager that there would be "slim pickin's" for him. To prevent his father from discovering that he had competed, he entered his name as Slim Pickens and won $400 that afternoon. Lindley graduated from Hanford High School, Hanford and was a member of the Future Farmers of America.
He joined the rodeo, billed as Slim Pickens, became a well-known rodeo clown. During World War II, he enlisted in the United States Army; when the recruiter asked him his profession, he responded "Rodeo". This was misread as radio and he spent his entire enlistment at a radio station in the American Midwest. After nearly 20 years of rodeo work, his distinctive country drawl, his wide eyes, moon face, strong physical presence gained him a role in the Western film, Rocky Mountain starring Errol Flynn, he appeared in many more Westerns, playing both villains and comic sidekicks to the likes of Rex Allen. Hollywood made good use of Pickens' rodeo background, he did not need a stand-in for horseback scenes, he was able to gallop his own Appaloosa horses across the desert, or drive a stagecoach pulled by a six-horse team. In a large number of films and TV shows, he wore his own hats and boots, rode his own horses and mules. Pickens appeared in dozens of films, including Rocky Mountain, Old Oklahoma Plains, Down Laredo Way, One-Eyed Jacks with Marlon Brando, Dr. Strangelove, Major Dundee with Charlton Heston, the remake of Stagecoach, Never a Dull Moment, The Cowboys with John Wayne, The Getaway with Steve McQueen, Ginger in the Morning with Fred Ward, Blazing Saddles, Poor Pretty Eddie, Rancho Deluxe, Tom Horn with McQueen, Beyond the Poseidon Adventure with Michael Caine and Karl Malden, An Eye for an Eye and Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid.
He had a small but memorable role in Steven Spielberg's 1941 in scenes with Toshiro Mifune and Christopher Lee. In 1978, Pickens lent his voice to theme park Silver Dollar City as a character named Rube Dugan, for a ride called "Rube Dugan's Diving Bell"; the diving bell was a simulation ride that took passengers on a journey to the bottom of Lake Silver and back. The ride was in operation from 1978 to 1984, he played werewolf sheriff Sam Newfield in The Howling. In 1960, he appeared in the NBC Western series, Overland Trail in the episode "Sour Annie" with fellow guest stars Mercedes McCambridge and Andrew Prine. Pickens appeared five times on NBC's Outlaws Western series as the character "Slim"; the program, starring Barton MacLane, was the story of a U. S. marshal in Oklahoma Territory — deputies played by Don Collier, Jock Gaynor, Bruce Yarnell — and the outlaws that they pursued. In 1967, Pickens had a recurring role as the scout California Joe Milner on the ABC military Western Custer, starring Wayne Maunder in the title role.
In 1975, Pickens was in another Western, playing the evil, limping bank robber in Walt Disney's The Apple Dumpling Gang. He provided the voice of B. O. B. in the 1979 Disney science-fiction thriller The Black Hole. His last film was his least notable, Pink Motel with Phyllis Diller. Pickens played B-52 pilot Major T. J. "King" Kong. In Dr. Strangelove. Stanley Kubrick cast Pickens after Peter Sellers, who played three other roles in the film, sprained his ankle and was unable to perform in the role due to having to work in the cramped cockpit set. Pickens was chosen because his accent and comic sense were perfect for the role of Kong, a cartoonishly patriotic and gung-ho B-52 commander, he was not given the script for the entire film, but only those portions. Three memorable scenes featuring Pickens were: A monologue meant to steel the crew for their duty after he receives the definitive inflight order to bomb a strategic target in the USSR Reading aloud to his crew the contents of their survival kits: After listing the contents usable for barter with Russian women, as well as a.45 automatic pistol, Major Kong said, "Shoot, a fella could have a pretty good time in Big D with all this stuff."
This line had to be looped after the November 22, 1963, screening for critics was cancelled due to President John F. Kennedy's assassination. Best known of all, Pickens riding a dropped H-bomb to a certain death and waving his cowboy hat, not knowing its detonation will trigger a Russian doomsday devicePicke
Frederick Martin MacMurray was an American actor and singer who appeared in more than 100 films and a successful television series during a career that spanned nearly a half-century, from 1930 to the 1970s. MacMurray is best known for his role in the 1944 film noir Double Indemnity directed by Billy Wilder, in which he starred with Barbara Stanwyck and Edward G. Robinson. In his career, he performed in numerous Disney films, including The Absent-Minded Professor, The Happiest Millionaire, The Shaggy Dog. In 1960, MacMurray turned to television in the role of Steve Douglas, the widowed patriarch on My Three Sons, which ran on ABC from 1960 to 1965 and on CBS from 1965 to 1972. Fred MacMurray was born in Kankakee, the son of Maleta and Frederick MacMurray, Sr. both natives of Wisconsin. His aunt, Fay Holderness, was actress. Before MacMurray was two years old, his family moved to Madison, where his father worked as a music teacher; the family relocated within the state to Beaver Dam, where his mother had been born in 1880.
He attended school in Quincy, before earning a full scholarship to attend Carroll College in Waukesha, Wisconsin. While at Carroll, MacMurray performed in numerous local bands, he did not graduate from the college. MacMurray, as a featured vocalist, recorded in 1930 with the Gus Arnheim Orchestra on "All I Want Is Just One Girl" on the Victor label, and with George Olsen on "I'm In The Market For You" and "After a Million Dreams". Before signing with Paramount Pictures in 1934, he appeared on Broadway in Three's a Crowd and alongside Sydney Greenstreet and Bob Hope in Roberta. In the 1930s, MacMurray worked with film directors Billy Wilder and Preston Sturges, along with actors Barbara Stanwyck, Humphrey Bogart, Marlene Dietrich and, in seven films, Claudette Colbert, beginning with The Gilded Lily, he co-starred with Katharine Hepburn in Alice Adams, with Joan Crawford in Above Suspicion, with Carole Lombard in four productions: Hands Across the Table, The Princess Comes Across, Swing High, Swing Low, True Confession.
Cast in light comedies as a decent, thoughtful character and in melodramas and musicals, MacMurray became one of the movie industry's highest-paid actors in that period. By 1943, his annual salary had reached $420,000, making him the highest-paid actor in Hollywood and the fourth-highest-paid person in the nation. Despite being typecast as a "nice guy", MacMurray said his best roles were when he was cast against type, such as under the direction of Billy Wilder and Edward Dmytryk, his best known "bad guy" performance was in the role of Walter Neff, an insurance salesman who plots with a greedy wife Barbara Stanwyck to murder her husband in the film noir classic Double Indemnity. In another turn in the "not so nice" category, MacMurray played the cynical, duplicitous Lieutenant Thomas Keefer in Dmytryk's 1954 film The Caine Mutiny. Six years MacMurray played Jeff Sheldrake, a two-timing corporate executive in Wilder's Oscar-winning romcom The Apartment, with Shirley MacLaine and Jack Lemmon.
In 1958, he guest-starred in the premiere episode of NBC's Cimarron City Western series, with George Montgomery and John Smith. MacMurray's career continued upward the following year, when he was cast as the father in the popular Disney Studios comedy, The Shaggy Dog. From 1960 to 1972, he starred on television in My Three Sons, a long-running rated series. Concurrent with My Three Sons, MacMurray stayed busy in films, starring as Professor Ned Brainard in Disney's The Absent-Minded Professor and in the sequel Son of Flubber. Using his star-power clout, MacMurray had a provision in his My Three Sons contract that all of his scenes on that series were to be shot in two separate month-long production blocks and filmed first; that condensed performance schedule provided him more free time to pursue his work in films, maintain his ranch in Northern California, enjoy his favorite leisure activity, golf. Over the years, MacMurray became one of the wealthiest actors in the entertainment business from wise real estate investments and from his "notorious frugality".
After the cancellation of My Three Sons in 1972, MacMurray made only a few more film appearances before retiring in 1978. In the 1970s, MacMurray appeared in commercials for the Greyhound Lines bus company. Towards the end of the decade, he was featured in a series of commercials for the Korean chisenbop math calculation program. MacMurray was married twice, he married Lillian Lamont on June 20, 1936, the couple adopted two children and Robert. After Lamont died of cancer on June 22, 1953, he married actress June Haver the following year; the couple subsequently adopted two more children -- twins born in 1956 -- Laurie. MacMurray and Haver's marriage lasted 37 years, until Fred's death. In 1941, MacMurray purchased land in the Russian River Valley in Northern California and established MacMurray Ranch. At the 1,750-acre ranch he raised prize-winning Aberdeen Angus cattle, cultivated prunes, apples and other crops, enjoyed watercolor painting, fly fishing, skeet shooting. MacMurray wanted the property's agricultural heritage preserved, so five years after his death, in 1996, it was sold to Gallo, which planted vineyards on it for wines that bear the MacMurray Ranch label.
Kate MacMurray, daughter of Haver and MacMurray, now lives on the property (in a ca
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
George Richard Chamberlain is an American stage and screen actor and singer, who became a teen idol in the title role of the television show Dr. Kildare. Since he has appeared in several mini-series such as Shōgun and The Thorn Birds, many successful films such as The Bourne Identity being the first man to play Jason Bourne, he has performed classical stage roles and worked in musical theatre. Chamberlain was born in 1934 in Beverly Hills, the son of Elsa Winnifred and Charles Axiom Chamberlain, a salesman. In 1952, Chamberlain graduated from Beverly Hills High School and attended Pomona College. Chamberlain co-founded a Los Angeles–based theatre group, Company of Angels, began appearing in television series in the 1950s, he was cast as Lt. Dave Winslow in "Chicota Landing", a 1960 episode of the NBC western series, Riverboat. In the storyline, Juan Cortilla, a Mexican bandit played by Joe De Santis, is stormed from jail. Chamberlain, as United States Army Lieutenant Winslow, asks Grey Holden to transport Cortilla and his men to a military garrison.
Instead, Cortilla takes over Holden's vessel, the Enterprise, its gunpowder. Connie Hines appears with Chamberlain as Lucy Bridges, Ted de Corsia is cast as another bandit. Less than a year in 1961, Chamberlain gained widespread fame as the young intern, Dr. Kildare, in the NBC/MGM television series of the same name, co-starring with Raymond Massey. Chamberlain's singing ability led to some hit singles in the early 1960s, including the "Theme from Dr. Kildare" entitled "Three Stars Will Shine Tonight", which struck No. 10 according to the Billboard Hot 100 Charts. Dr. Kildare ended in 1966. In 1966, he was cast opposite Mary Tyler Moore in the ill-fated Broadway musical Breakfast at Tiffany's, co-starring Priscilla Lopez, after an out-of-town tryout period, closed after only four previews. Decades he returned to Broadway in revivals of My Fair Lady and The Sound of Music. At the end of the 1960s, Chamberlain spent a period of time in England where he played in repertory theatre and in the BBC's Portrait of a Lady adaptation, becoming recognized as a serious actor.
In 1969, he starred opposite Katharine Hepburn in the film The Madwoman of Chaillot. While in England, he took vocal coaching and in 1969 performed the title role in Hamlet for the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, becoming the first American to play the role there since John Barrymore in 1925, he received excellent notices and reprised the role for television in 1970 for the Hallmark Hall of Fame. In the 1970s, Chamberlain enjoyed success as a leading man in films: The Music Lovers, Lady Caroline Lamb, The Three Musketeers, The Lady's Not for Burning, The Towering Inferno, The Count of Monte Cristo. In The Slipper and the Rose, a musical version of the Cinderella story, co-starring Gemma Craven, he displayed his vocal talents. A television film, William Bast's The Man in the Iron Mask, followed; that same year, he starred in Peter Weir's film The Last Wave. Chamberlain appeared in several popular television mini-series, including Centennial, Shōgun, The Thorn Birds as Father Ralph de Bricassart with Rachel Ward and Barbara Stanwyck co-starring.
In the 1980s, he appeared as leading man with King Solomon's Mines opposite newcomer Sharon Stone, played Jason Bourne/David Webb in the television film version of The Bourne Identity. Since the 1990s, Chamberlain has appeared in television movies, on stage, as a guest star on such series as ABC's The Drew Carey Show and Will & Grace, he starred as Henry Higgins in the 1993–1994 Broadway revival of My Fair Lady. In the fall of 2005, Chamberlain appeared in the title role of Ebenezer Scrooge in the Broadway National Tour of Scrooge: The Musical. In 2006, Chamberlain guest-starred in an episode of the British drama series Hustle as well as season 4 of Nip/Tuck. In 2007, Chamberlain guest-starred in episode 80 of Desperate Housewives as Glen Wingfield, Lynette Scavo's stepfather. In 2008 and 2009, he appeared as King Arthur in the national tour of Monty Python's Spamalot. In 2010, he appeared as Archie Leach in season 3, episode 3 of the series Leverage, as well as two episodes of season 4 of Chuck where he played a villain known only as The Belgian.
Chamberlain has appeared in several episodes of Brothers & Sisters, playing an old friend and love-interest of Saul's. He appeared in the independent film We Are the Hartmans in 2011. In 2012, Chamberlain appeared on stage in the Pasadena Playhouse as Dr. Sloper in the play, The Heiress. Chamberlain was romantically involved with television actor Wesley Eure in the early 1970s. In 1977, he met actor-writer-producer Martin Rabbett; this led to a civil union in the state of Hawaii, where the couple resided from 1986 to 2010 and during which time Chamberlain adopted Rabbett to protect his future estate. Rabbett and Chamberlain starred together in, among others, Allan Quatermain and the Lost City of Gold, in which they played brothers Allan and Robeson Quatermain. In the spring of 2010 Chamberlain returned to Los Angeles to pursue career opportunities, leaving Rabbett in Hawaii, at least temporarily. Chamberlain was outed as a gay man at the age of 55 by the French women's magazine Nous Deux in December 1989, but it was not until 2003 that he confirmed his homosexuality in h