Coming to America
Coming to America is a 1988 American romantic comedy film directed by John Landis and based on a story created by Eddie Murphy, who starred in the lead role. The film co-stars Arsenio Hall, James Earl Jones, Shari Headley, John Amos; the film was released in the United States on June 29, 1988. Eddie Murphy plays Akeem Joffer, the crown prince of the fictional African nation of Zamunda, who travels to the United States in the hopes of finding a woman he can marry. In 1989, a pilot for a planned spin-off TV show was made, although this was never picked up for a series. In the fictional wealthy African nation of Zamunda, crown prince Akeem Joffer grows weary of his pampered lifestyle on his 21st birthday and wishes to do more for himself; when his parents, King Jaffe and Queen Aeoleon, present him with an arranged bride-to-be, Akeem takes action. Seeking an independent woman who loves him for himself and not his social status and his best friend/personal aide, travel to the New York City borough of Queens and rent a squalid tenement in the neighborhood of Long Island City under the guise of poor foreign students.
Beginning their search for Akeem's bride, they end up invited by some locals to a rally, raising money for the inner city. During the rally, Akeem encounters Lisa McDowell, who possesses all the qualities he is looking for, upon his insistence he and Semmi get entry-level jobs working at the local fast food restaurant called McDowell's—a McDonald's ripoff—owned by widower Cleo McDowell, Lisa's father. Akeem's attempts to win Lisa's love are complicated by Lisa's lazy and obnoxious boyfriend, Darryl Jenks, whose father owns Soul Glo. After Darryl announces their engagement—without Lisa's consent—to their families, she starts dating Akeem, who claims that he comes from a family of poor goat herders. Meanwhile, although Akeem thrives on hard work and learning how commoners live, Semmi is not comfortable with living in such meager conditions. After a dinner date with Lisa is thwarted when Semmi furnishes their apartment with a jacuzzi and other luxuries, Akeem confiscates his money and donates it to two homeless men.
Semmi wires a telegraph to King Jaffe for more money, prompting the Joffers to travel to Queens and expose his identity as a prince. Cleo disapproving of Akeem as he did not want to see his daughter with a poor man, becomes ecstatic when he discovers that Akeem is an wealthy prince after being introduced to the Joffers; when Akeem discovers that his parents have arrived in the United States, he and Lisa take shelter at the McDowell residence where Cleo welcomes them. After Cleo's bond with Akeem is ruined by Darryl's unexpected arrival, Lisa becomes angry and confused that Akeem lied to her about his identity. Akeem explains that he wanted her to love him for who, not what, he is offering to renounce his throne. Despondent, Akeem resigns himself to the arranged marriage, but as they leave, Jaffe is reprimanded by Aeoleon for clinging to outdated traditions instead of thinking of his son's happiness. At the wedding procession, a still-heartbroken Akeem becomes surprised when his veiled bride-to-be is Lisa herself.
Following the ceremony, they ride in a carriage to the cheers of Zamundans. Witnessing such splendor, Lisa is both surprised and touched by the fact that Akeem would have given it up just for her. Akeem offers again to abdicate if she does not want this life. Eddie Murphy as Prince Akeem, the prince of Zamunda Murphy plays: Randy Watson, a soul singer with the fictional band Sexual Chocolate. Arsenio Hall as Semmi, Akeem's friend Hall plays: Reverend Brown. James Earl Jones as King Jaffe Joffer, Akeem's father and King of Zamunda. John Amos as Cleo McDowell, Akeem's employer and Lisa's father. Madge Sinclair as Queen Aoleon, Akeem's mother and the Queen of Zamunda. Shari Headley as Lisa McDowell, Cleo's oldest daughter and Akeem's love interest. Paul Bates as Oha, a royal servant. Eriq La Salle as Darryl Jenks, Lisa's boyfriend whom she breaks up with. Frankie Faison as Landlord, manages apartment building where Akeem and Semmi live Vanessa Bell as Imani Izzi, betrothed as Akeem's intended wife Louie Anderson as Maurice, a McDowell's employee Allison Dean as Patrice McDowell, Cleo's youngest daughter and Lisa's sister Sheila Johnson as Lady-in-Waiting Jake Steinfeld as Cab Driver Calvin Lockhart as Colonel Izzi, Imani‘s father Samuel L. Jackson as Hold-Up Man, an armed robber at McDowell'sThe cast includes: Vondie Curtis-Hall as Basketball Game Vendor.
Don Ameche and Ralph Bellamy reprise their roles as Mortimer and Randolph Duke from Landis' 1983 Murphy-starring comedy film Trading Places. A segment of the Trading Places score can be heard during their scene; as shown above, Coming to America features Murphy and Hall in several different roles, of various colours and genders. Following the success of this film, this became a Murphy staple, as seen in four films: Vampire in Brooklyn. Coming to America reunited star Eddie Murphy with director John Landis; the two had worked together on the comedy hit Trading Places. Landis recalled the differences in working with Murphy on the two movies: "The guy on Trading Places was you
A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievements in the music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest; the Grammys are the second of the Big Three major music awards held annually. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Academy Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, the Game Awards; the first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, to honor and respect the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, the Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the 61st Annual Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 1, 2017 to September 30, 2018, were held on February 10, 2019, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s; as the recording executives chosen for the Walk of Fame committee worked at compiling a list of important recording industry people who might qualify for a Walk of Fame star, they realized there were many more people who were leaders in their business who would never earn a star on Hollywood Boulevard.
The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. After it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of, they settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958. The first award ceremony was held in two locations on May 4, 1959 - Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills California, Park Sheraton Hotel in New York City, 28 Grammys were awarded; the number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, but the ceremony was not aired live until the 13th Annual Grammy Awards in 1971; the gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado.
In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, making the trophy bigger and grander. Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, trademarked; the trophies with the recipient's name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements, so "stunt" trophies are re-used each year for the broadcast. By February 2009, a total of 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded; the "General Field" are four awards. Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a single song if other than the performer. Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a full album if other than the performer. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song. Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist; the only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross, who won all four in 1980, Adele, who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017.
Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other contributions such as artwork and video. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry; because of the large number of award categories, the desire to feature several performances by various artists, only the ones with the most popular interest - about 10 to 12, including the four General Field categories and one or two categories in the most popular music genres - are presented directly at the televised award ceremony. The many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast'Premiere Ceremony' earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecast. On April 6, 2011, The Recording Academy announced a drastic overhaul of many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the number of categories was cut from 109 to 78. The most important change was the elimination of the distinction between male and female soloists and between collaborations and duo/groups in various genre fields.
Several categories for instrumental soloists were discontinued. Recordings in these categories now fall under the general categories for best solo performances. In the rock field, the separate categories for hard rock and metal albums were combined and the Best Rock Instrumental Performance category was eliminated due to a waning number of entries. In R&B, the distinction between best contemporary R&B album and other R&B albums has been eliminated, they now feature in general Best R&B Album category. In rap, the categories for best rap soloist and best rap duo or group have been merged into the new Best Rap Performance category; the most eliminations occurred in the roots category. Up to and including 2011, there were separate categories for various regional American music forms, such as Hawaiian music, Native American music and Zydeco/Cajun music. Due to the low number
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitar player strums, fingerpicks, slaps or taps the strings; the pickup uses electromagnetic induction to create this signal, which being weak is fed into a guitar amplifier before being sent to the speaker, which converts it into audible sound. The electric signal can be electronically altered to change the timbre of the sound; the signal is modified using effects such as reverb, distortion and "overdrive". Invented in 1931, the electric guitar was adopted by jazz guitar players, who wanted to play single-note guitar solos in large big band ensembles. Early proponents of the electric guitar on record include Les Paul, Lonnie Johnson, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, T-Bone Walker, Charlie Christian. During the 1950s and 1960s, the electric guitar became the most important instrument in popular music, it has evolved into an instrument, capable of a multitude of sounds and styles in genres ranging from pop and rock to country music and jazz.
It served as a major component in the development of electric blues and roll, rock music, heavy metal music and many other genres of music. Electric guitar design and construction varies in the shape of the body and the configuration of the neck and pickups. Guitars may have a fixed bridge or a spring-loaded hinged bridge, which lets players "bend" the pitch of notes or chords up or down, or perform vibrato effects; the sound of an electric guitar can be modified by new playing techniques such as string bending and hammering-on, using audio feedback, or slide guitar playing. There are several types of electric guitar, including: the solid-body guitar. In pop and rock music, the electric guitar is used in two roles: as a rhythm guitar, which plays the chord sequences or progressions, riffs, sets the beat. In a small group, such as a power trio, one guitarist switches between both roles. In large rock and metal bands, there is a rhythm guitarist and a lead guitarist. Many experiments at electrically amplifying the vibrations of a string instrument were made dating back to the early part of the 20th century.
Patents from the 1910s show telephone transmitters were adapted and placed inside violins and banjos to amplify the sound. Hobbyists in the 1920s used carbon button microphones attached to the bridge. With numerous people experimenting with electrical instruments in the 1920s and early 1930s, there are many claimants to have been the first to invent an electric guitar. Electric guitars were designed by acoustic guitar makers and instrument manufacturers; the demand for amplified guitars began during the big band era. The first electric guitars used in jazz were hollow archtop acoustic guitar bodies with electromagnetic transducers. Early electric guitar manufacturers include Rickenbacker in 1932; the first electrically amplified stringed instrument to be marketed commercially was designed in 1931 by George Beauchamp, the general manager of the National Guitar Corporation, with Paul Barth, vice president. The maple body prototype for the one-piece cast aluminium "frying pan" was built by Harry Watson, factory superintendent of the National Guitar Corporation.
Commercial production began in late summer of 1932 by the Ro-Pat-In Corporation, in Los Angeles, a partnership of Beauchamp, Adolph Rickenbacker, Paul Barth. In 1934, the company was renamed the Rickenbacker Electro Stringed Instrument Company. In that year Beauchamp applied for a United States patent for an Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument and the patent was issued in 1937. By early-mid 1935, Electro String Instrument Corporation had achieved mainstream success with the A-22 "Frying Pan" steel guitar, set out to capture a new audience through its release of the Electro-Spanish Model B and the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts, the first full 25" scale electric guitar produced; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was revolutionary for its time, providing players a full 25" scale, with easy access to 17 frets free of the body. Unlike other lap-steel electrified instruments produced during the time, the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was designed to play standing vertical, upright with a strap; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was the first instrument to feature a hand-operated vibrato as a standard appointment, a device called the "Vibrola," invented by Doc Kauffman.
It is estimated that fewer than 50 Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts were constructed between 1933 and 1937. The solid-body electric guitar is made without functionally resonating air spaces; the first solid-body Spanish standard guitar was offered by Vivi-Tone no than 1934. This model featured a guitar-shaped body of a single sheet
Jeffrey H. Lorber is an American keyboardist and record producer. After six previous nominations, Lorber won his first Grammy Award on Jan. 28, 2018 for Best Contemporary Instrumental Album for Prototype by his band The Jeff Lorber Fusion. Many of his songs have appeared on The Weather Channel's Local on the 8s segments and on the channel's compilation albums, The Weather Channel Presents: The Best of Smooth Jazz and The Weather Channel Presents: Smooth Jazz II, he was nominated for a Grammy Award for his album He Had a Hat Lorber was born to a Jewish family in Cheltenham, the same suburb as Michael and Randy Brecker, with whom he would play. He started to play the piano. After playing in a number of R&B bands as a teen, he attended Berklee College of Music, where he developed his love for jazz. At Berklee he played alongside guitarist John Scofield, he moved to Vancouver, Washington in 1972. For several years he studied chemistry at Boston University, his first group, The Jeff Lorber Fusion, released their self-titled debut album The Jeff Lorber Fusion in 1977 on Inner City Records.
Supported by a revolving cast of musicians, including drummer Dennis Bradford, he recorded five studio albums under this moniker. These early albums showcased a funky sound influenced by other jazz fusion practitioners such as Herbie Hancock, Weather Report, Return to Forever, the latter's Chick Corea appearing on several songs. Like his contemporaries, Lorber performed on multiple keyboard instruments, including piano, Rhodes piano, analog synthesizers favoring the Minimoog and Sequential Circuits Prophet 5; the Jeff Lorber Fusion's 1980 album, Wizard Island, introduced saxophonist Kenneth Bruce Gorelick, better known as Kenny G. In 1982, Lorber recorded his first solo album, It's a Fact, which explored his R&B roots with a smoother, more synthesizer-heavy sound; the album included former Fusion members Kenny G and Paulinho Da Costa. It's a Fact contained several songs with vocalists, a stark contrast to the instrumental recordings of the Fusion. In 1984 he released his second solo album In the Heat of the Night and Jeff Lorber Fusion compilation album Lift Off.
That year, he and the production duo of David Frank and Mic Murphy, otherwise known as The System, produced Step By Step. The title track, written with Anita Pointer of The Pointer Sisters, rose to number 31 on the U. S. Billboard R&B chart; the song "Facts of Love" from the 1986 album Private Passion was his biggest chart hit, reaching No. 27 on the Billboard Hot 100 and No. 17 on the R&B chart. Several singles from this period appeared on the Billboard Dance charts. However, Lorber was not satisfied that he was being overtaken by a more vocal and R&B feel on his own albums, so he took a seven-year-long hiatus. After Step by Step, he quoted Clive Davis as telling him, "We want you to put more vocals on your records", which Lorber thought was a mistake. Lorber's keyboard work appeared in the video game Castlevania: Symphony of the Night, his input can be heard during the game's closing theme song "I Am the Wind". His albums continued to evolve in a smooth jazz direction. Two greatest hits compilation albums were released in 2000 and 2002.
Flipside was nominated for a Grammy Award in the Best Pop Instrumental Album category. At the 56th Annual Grammy Awards, his 2013 album Hacienda was nominated for Best Pop Instrumental Album. In 2018, he received a Grammy for his album Prototype in the Best Contemporary Instrumental Album category. Lorber has done extensive production and session work for other musicians, including Dave Koz, Eric Benét, Herb Alpert, Laura Branigan, he hosts a show on Sirius Satellite Radio. In 2004, Lorber was diagnosed with polycystic kidney disease and received a successful kidney transplant from his wife, he has served as a spokesman for the PKD Foundation, an organization for fighting polycystic kidney disease. He has mentioned, his daughters have it and his mother and sister died from it. With the Jeff Lorber Fusion The Jeff Lorber Fusion Soft Space Water Sign Wizard Island Galaxian Now Is The Time Galaxy Hacienda Step It Up Prototype Impact Solo It's a Fact In the Heat of the Night Step by Step Private Passion Worth Waiting For West Side Stories State of Grace Midnight Kickin' It Philly Style Flipside He Had a Hat Heard That With Jazz Funk Soul Jazz Funk Soul More Serious Business It Remains to be Seen, Afro Elements Official site Jeff Lorber Interview at allaboutjazz.com Interview at jazzmonthly.com Jeff Lorber & Jeff Lorber Fusion biography and album reviews, credits & releases at AllMusic Jeff Lorber discography, album releases & credits at Discogs Jeff Lorber Fusion discography, album releases & credits at Discogs Jeff Lorber albums to be listened as stream on Spotify Jeff Lorber Fusion albums to be listened as stream on Spotify
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Beat Street is a 1984 American drama dance film featuring New York City hip hop culture of the early 1980s, breakdancing, DJing, graffiti. Set in the South Bronx, the film follows the lives of a pair of brothers and their group of friends, all of whom are devoted to various elements of early hip hop culture. Kenny Kirkland is a budding disc jockey and Master of Ceremonies, his younger brother, Lee, is a hardcore b-boy who dances with Beat Street Breakers. Kenny's best friends are Ramon, a graffiti artist known by his tag, "Ramo", Chollie, his self-styled manager/promoter; the film begins with the main characters preparing for a house party set in an abandoned apartment building, where Kenny is the featured DJ. An uninvited Lee and his breakdancing friends crash the party, nearly get tangled into a battle with a rival troupe, the Bronx Rockers; the battle of words is broken up by Henri, a squatter who lives in the building and is befriended by Kenny, Chollie and Luis. Kenny has dreams of performing in New York City's top nightclubs.
No club is bigger than the Roxy, on one visit he crosses paths with Tracy Carlson, a college music student and composer. A breakdance battle between the Breakers and Rock Steady ensues and Tracy admires Lee's performance, she invites him to audition for a television show focusing on dancing. Lee and their crew arrive during a dance rehearsal, Lee gives his performance only to find out he won't be on television. Protecting his brother's interests, Kenny rips into Tracy for leading Lee on. A remorseful Tracy shows up at the Kirkland home to apologize. Lee was not home but Kenny was, working on a mix tape. Tracy clarifies her story, saying that she did not promise to Lee that he was going to be on the TV show, she takes an interest in Kenny's mixing and the two find common ground. Kenny and Tracy head into the subway, where they meet up with Lee and Luis spray painting an abandoned station platform, they leave when they hear noises, thinking it may be the police. As the group take the train back uptown and Tracy break away and spend the rest of the evening together, striking up a romance while walking and talking.
Chollie talks Kenny into a guest spot at the Burning Spear, a club run by DJ Kool Herc. Kenny not only spins but presents a special Christmas-themed skit performed by the Treacherous Three, Doug E. Fresh and the Magnificent Force; the crowd's positive reaction convinces Kool Herc to invite Kenny back. But both Kenny and Chollie see the regular gig as a stepping stone to their bigger goal, they return to the Roxy. Chollie convinces Kenny to let him do the talking, waits for the auditions to end before he succeeds in getting the talent scout to check out Kenny at the Burning Spear; the scout keeps his word, is impressed enough that he offers Kenny a performance on New Year's Eve. Tracy offers to help Kenny out by allowing him to work on a computer keyboard system at her studio. However, Kenny deletes his work. Stubborn and frustrated, Kenny leaves the studio, saying he had enough material for New Year's Eve. Meanwhile, Ramon is feeling pressure from two sources, his father, who despises his graffiti, wants him to find honest work, while his girlfriend Carmen, the mother of his son, longs for them to be together as a family.
Ramon gets a job in a hardware store, he takes Carmen and their baby to live with him in Henri's building. But Ramon does not stop thinking of the subway trains; when he sees a white painted one pass him by, he vows to put his mark on it. That evening and Kenny find the train and proceed to paint one side of the lead car; as they work on the second side of the car, Ramon hears noises, they discover the rogue graffiti artist, defacing the completed side. Ramon and Kenny chase Spit through the tunnel and into a station, a fight ensues. Spit sprays paint in Ramon's eye, both men tussle on the roadbed before they roll onto the electrified third rail, which kills them instantly; as the group mourn the death of their friend, Kenny considers not performing for the New Year's Eve show at the Roxy. However, with the help of Tracy and despite initial reluctance from Chollie, Kenny turns his big break into a celebration of Ramon's life; the show is the film's grand finale starting with a rap performance by Kenny while images of Ramon and his work were shown on a screen in the background.
Kenny is followed by Grandmaster Melle Mel & the Furious Five and a Bronx gospel choir, backed by dancers and breakdancers. Rae Dawn Chong - Tracy Carlson Guy Davis - Kenny "Double K" Kirkland Jon Chardiet - Ramon "Ramo" Leon W. Grant - Chollie Saundra Santiago - Carmen Carraro Robert Taylor - Lee Kirkland Mary Alice - Cora Kirkland Shawn Elliott - Domingo Jim Borelli - Monte Dean Elliot - Henri Franc. Reyes - Luis Tonya Pinkins - Angela Lee Chamberlin - Alicia Duane Jones - Robert Afrika Bambaataa & Soulsonic Force - Themselves Jazzy Jay - Himself Doug E. Fresh - Himself New York City Breakers - Beat Street Breakers Rock Steady Crew - Bronx Rockers Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell - Himself Treacherous Three - Themselves Grandmaster Melle Mel & the Furious Five - ThemselvesKadeem Hardison was credited as "High School Student" in the director's cut of the film. However, his scenes were all cut from the final theatri
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music known as dance music, club music, or dance, is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made for nightclubs and festivals. It is produced for playback by disc jockeys who create seamless selections of tracks, called a mix by segueing from one recording to another. EDM producers perform their music live in a concert or festival setting in what is sometimes called a live PA. In Europe, EDM is more called'dance music', or simply'dance'. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, following the emergence of raving, pirate radios and an upsurge of interest in club culture, EDM achieved widespread mainstream popularity in Europe. In the United States at that time, acceptance of dance culture was not universal. There was a perceived association between EDM and drug culture, which led governments at state and city level to enact laws and policies intended to halt the spread of rave culture. Subsequently, in the new millennium, the popularity of EDM increased globally in Australia and the United States.
By the early 2010s, the term "electronic dance music" and the initialism "EDM" was being pushed by the American music industry and music press in an effort to rebrand American rave culture. Despite the industry's attempt to create a specific EDM brand, the initialism remains in use as an umbrella term for multiple genres, including house, trance and bass and dubstep, as well as their respective subgenres. Various EDM genres have evolved for example. Stylistic variation within an established EDM genre can lead to the emergence of what is called a subgenre. Hybridization, where elements of two or more genres are combined, can lead to the emergence of an new genre of EDM. In the late 1960s bands such as Silver Apples created electronic music, intended to be danced to. Other early examples of music that influenced electronic dance music include Jamaican dub music during the late 1960s to 1970s, the synthesizer-based disco music of Italian producer Giorgio Moroder in the late 1970s, the electro-pop of Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra in the mid-to-late 1970s.
Author Michael Veal considers dub music, a Jamaican music stemming from roots reggae and sound system culture that flourished between 1968 and 1985, to be one of the important precursors to contemporary electronic dance music. Dub productions were remixed reggae tracks that emphasized rhythm, fragmented lyrical and melodic elements, reverberant textures; the music was pioneered by studio engineers, such as Sylvan Morris, King Tubby, Errol Thompson, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Scientist. Their productions included forms of tape editing and sound processing that Veal considers comparable to techniques used in musique concrète. Dub producers made improvised deconstructions of existing multi-track reggae mixes by using the studio mixing board as a performance instrument, they foregrounded spatial effects such as reverb and delay by using auxiliary send routings creatively. The Roland Space Echo, manufactured by Roland Corporation, was used by dub producers in the 1970s to produce echo and delay effects.
Despite the limited electronic equipment available to dub pioneers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry, their experiments in remix culture were musically cutting-edge. Ambient dub was pioneered by King Tubby and other Jamaican sound artists, using DJ-inspired ambient electronics, complete with drop-outs, echo and psychedelic electronic effects, it featured layering techniques and incorporated elements of world music, deep bass lines and harmonic sounds. Techniques such as a long echo delay were used. Hip hop music has played a key role in the development of electronic dance music since the 1970s. Inspired by Jamaican sound system culture Jamaican-American DJ Kool Herc introduced large bass heavy speaker rigs to the Bronx, his parties are credited with having kick-started the New York hip-hop movement in 1973. A technique developed by DJ Kool Herc that became popular in hip hop culture was playing two copies of the same record on two turntables, in alternation, at the point where a track featured a break.
This technique was further used to manually loop a purely percussive break, leading to what was called a break beat. Turntablism has origins in the invention of the direct-drive turntable, by Shuichi Obata, an engineer at Matsushita. In 1969, Matsushita released it as the SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable on the market, the first in their influential Technics series of turntables; the most influential turntable was the Technics SL-1200, developed in 1971 by a team led by Shuichi Obata at Matsushita, which released it onto the market in 1972. In the 1980s and 1990s hip-hop DJs used turntables as musical instruments in their own right and virtuosic use developed into a creative practice called turntablism. In 1974, George McCrae's early disco hit "Rock Your Baby" was one of the first records to use a drum machine, an early Roland rhythm machine, its use of a drum machine was anticipated by Sly and the Family Stone's "Family Affair", which anticipated the sound of disco, with its rhythm echoed in "Rock Your Baby".
The use of drum machines in "Family Affair" and Timmy Thomas' "Why Can't We Live Together", which used a 1972 Roland rhythm machine, influenced the adoption of drum machines by disco artists. Disco producer Biddu used synthesizers in several disco songs from 1976 to 1977, including "Bionic Boogie" from Rain Forest, "Soul Coaxing", and