Norman Tokar was a prolific director and writer and producer of serial television and feature films, who directed many of the early episodes of Leave it to Beaver, found his greatest success directing over a dozen films for Walt Disney Productions, spanning the 1950s to the 1970s. After a career as an actor on Broadway in the early 1940s, Tokar moved into radio, most notably The Aldrich Family, where he played Henry Aldrich's friend Willie at the microphone and wrote several episodes as well. Tokar went into television direction on such sitcoms as The Bob Cummings Show and The Donna Reed Show, the drama Naked City. In the early 1960s, Tokar’s success working with the juvenile actors on 93 episodes of the TV sitcom Leave it to Beaver encouraged Walt Disney to hire him to direct family features for his studio, which used children in key roles, his first feature film assignment was the Western Big Red, followed by the Old Yeller sequel Savage Sam and Those Calloways. After directing the Fred MacMurray picture Follow Me, Boys!, the Dean Jones/Suzanne Pleshette slapstick comedy The Ugly Dachshund, Tokar's next directorial assignment was the roadshow musical The Happiest Millionaire.
With a Sherman Brothers score and a cast including Fred MacMurray, Greer Garson, Tommy Steele, Lesley Ann Warren, John Davidson, the studio hoped the film would do as well with critics and audiences as Mary Poppins had done. When it failed to do so, the studio cut the nearly three-hour film down to 144 minutes and again to 118 minutes for general release. Tokar followed Millionaire with more examples of the high-concept comedies that became the mainstay of the studio in the 1960s and 1970s: The Horse in the Gray Flannel Suit, The Boatniks, Snowball Express. After directing his only non-Disney feature Where the Red Fern Grows, Tokar made his most commercially successful film. Following Candleshoe, on Tokar's final film before his death, The Cat from Outer Space, he gained a co-producer credit. On April 6, 1979, Tokar died of a fatal heart attack in his sleep at his studio apartment in Hollywood, California. Norman Tokar on IMDb
Tab Hunter was an American actor, film producer and author. He appeared in over 40 films and was a well-known Hollywood star and heartthrob of the 1950s and 1960s, known for his blond, clean-cut good looks. Hunter was born in the son of Gertrude and Charles Kelm, his father was Jewish and his mother was a German Catholic immigrant, from Hamburg. He had Walter. Hunter’s father was abusive, within a few years of his birth, his parents divorced, he was raised in California living with his mother and maternal grandparents, John Henry and Ida Gelien, living in San Francisco, Long Beach and Los Angeles. His mother reassumed her maiden surname and changed her sons’ surnames, as well; as a teenager, Arthur Gelien, as he was known, was a figure skater, competing in both singles and pairs. Hunter was sent to Catholic school by his religious mother, he joined the United States Coast Guard at age 15. While in the Coast Guard, he gained the nickname “Hollywood” for his penchant for watching movies rather than going to bars while on liberty.
When his superiors discovered his true age, they discharged him. He met. Clayton introduced Hunter to agent Henry Willson, who specialized in representing male stars such as Robert Wagner and Rock Hudson, it was Willson who named him "Tab Hunter". Hunter's first film role was a minor part in The Lawless, he was friends with character actor Paul Guilfoyle, who suggested him to director Stuart Heisler, looking for an unknown to play the lead in Island of Desire opposite Linda Darnell. The film a two-hander between Hunter and Darnell, was a hit. Hunter supported George Montgomery in Gun Belt, a Western produced by Edward Small. Small used him again for a war film, The Steel Lady supporting Rod Cameron, as the lead in an adventure tale, Return to Treasure Island, he began appearing in a production of Our Town. He was offered, accepted, a contract at Warner Bros. One of Hunter's first films for Warners was The Sea Chase, supporting Lana Turner, it was a big hit, but Hunter's part was small. Rushes were seen by William A. Wellman, who cast Hunter to play the younger brother of Robert Mitchum in Track of the Cat.
It was a solid hit and Hunter began to get more notice. His breakthrough role came when he was cast as the young Marine Danny in 1955's World War II drama Battle Cry, his character ends up marrying the girl next door. It was based on a bestseller by Leon Uris and became Warner Bros.' Largest grossing film of that year, cementing Hunter's position as one of Hollywood's top young romantic leads. He was in the third and tenth most popular films of the year. In September 1955, the tabloid magazine Confidential reported that Hunter had been arrested for disorderly conduct in 1950; the innuendo-laced article, a second one focusing on Rory Calhoun's prison record, were the result of a deal Henry Willson had brokered with the scandal rag in exchange for not revealing the sexual orientation of his more prominent client, Rock Hudson, to the public. The report had no negative effect on Hunter's career. A few months he was named Most Promising New Personality in a nationwide poll sponsored by the Council of Motion Picture Organizations.
In 1956, he received 62,000 valentines. Hunter, James Dean and Natalie Wood were the last actors to be placed under an exclusive studio contract at Warner Bros. Warners decided to promote him to star status, teaming him with Natalie Wood in two films, a Western, The Burning Hills, directed by Heisler, The Girl He Left Behind, a service comedy; these films proved to be hits with audiences and Warners planned a third teaming of Hunter and Wood. Hunter rejected the third picture, thus ending Warners' attempt to make Hunter and Wood the William Powell and Myrna Loy of the 1950s. Hunter was Warner Bros.' Most popular male star from 1955 until 1959. Hunter received strong critical acclaim for a television performance he gave in the debut episode of Playhouse 90 written by Rod Serling and directed by John Frankenheimer. Hunter had a 1957 hit record with the song "Young Love,", No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart for six weeks and became one of the larger hits of the Rock'n' Roll era. It sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA.
He had another hit single, "Ninety-Nine Ways", which peaked at No. 11 in the United States and No. 5 in the United Kingdom. His success prompted Jack L. Warner to enforce the actor's contract with the Warner Bros. studio by banning Dot Records, the label for which Hunter had recorded the single, from releasing a follow-up album he had recorded for them. He established Warner Bros. Records for Hunter. Hunter's acting career was at its peak. William Wellman used him again in Lafayette Escadrille. Columbia Pictures borrowed him for a Western, Gunman's Walk, a film which Hunter considered his favorite role. Hunter starred in the musical film Damn Yankees, in which he played Joe Hardy of Washington, D. C.'s American League baseball club. The film had been a Broadway musical, but Hunter was the only one in the film version who had not appeared in the original cast; the show was based on the best-selling 1954-book The Year the Yankees Lost the Pennant by Douglass Wallop. Hunter said the filming was hellish because
Bringing Up Father
Bringing Up Father was an American comic strip created by cartoonist George McManus. Distributed by King Features Syndicate, it ran for 87 years, from January 12, 1913, to May 28, 2000; the strip is known as "Jiggs and Maggie", after its two main characters. According to McManus, he introduced these same characters in other strips as early as November 1911; the humor centers on an immigrant Irishman named Jiggs, a former hod carrier who came into wealth in the United States by winning a million dollars in a sweepstakes. Now nouveau-riche, he still longs to revert to his former working class habits and lifestyle, his constant attempts to sneak out with his old gang of boisterous, rough-edged pals, eat corned beef and cabbage and hang out at the local tavern were thwarted by his formidable, social-climbing harridan of a wife, their lovely young daughter and infrequently their lazy son, Ethelbert known as just Sonny. A character presented in the strip was named fittingly Titus Canby; the strip deals with "lace-curtain Irish", with Maggie as the middle-class Irish American desiring assimilation into mainstream society in counterpoint to an older, more raffish "shanty Irish" sensibility represented by Jiggs.
Her lofty goal—frustrated in nearly every strip—is to bring father "up" to upper class standards, hence the title, Bringing Up Father. The occasional malapropisms and left-footed social blunders of these upward mobiles were gleefully lampooned in vaudeville, popular song, formed the basis for Bringing Up Father; the strip presented multiple perceptions of Irish Catholic ethnics during the early 20th century. Through the character Jiggs, McManus gave voice to their aspirations. Varied interpretations of McManus's work highlight difficult issues of ethnicity and class, such as the conflicts over assimilation and social mobility that second- and third-generation immigrants confronted. McManus took a middle position, which aided ethnic readers in becoming accepted in American society without losing their identity. A cross-country tour that the characters took in September 1939 into 1940 gave the strip a big promotional boost and raised its profile in the cities they visited. Jiggs and Maggie were drawn with circles for eyes, a feature more associated with the strip, Little Orphan Annie.
McManus, who numbered Aubrey Beardsley among his influences, had a clean-cut cartooning line. His strong sense of composition and Art Nouveau and Art Deco design made the strip a stand-out on the comics page. McManus was inspired by The Rising Generation, a musical comedy by William Gill that he had seen as a boy in St. Louis, Missouri's Grand Opera House, where his father was manager. In The Rising Generation, Irish-American bricklayer Martin McShayne becomes a wealthy contractor, yet his society-minded wife and daughter were ashamed of him and his lowbrow buddies, prompting McShayne to sneak out to join his pals for poker. McManus used him as the basis for his drawings of Jiggs. McManus' wife, the former Florence Bergere, was the model for daughter Nora. One of McManus' friends, restaurateur James Moore, claimed he was the inspiration for the character Dinty Moore, the owner of Jiggs' favorite tavern. James Moore founded a real-life restaurant chain; the restaurant owner, did not begin the successful line of Dinty Moore canned goods marketed today by Hormel.
A surrealistic running gag throughout the strip, always removed from the main action of the story, involved hanging wall paintings that "come to life", with subjects "breaking the fourth wall", escaping the confines of the picture frames, or changing position from panel to panel within the same strip. None of the nominal stars of the strip seemed to notice the animated figures, or anything unusual happening on the walls in the background directly behind them. Comics historian Don Markstein wrote about McManus' characters: On January 12, 1913, he debuted Bringing Up Father, about an Irishman named Jiggs, who doesn't understand why his ascension to wealth via the Irish Sweepstakes means he can't hang out with his friends, his nagging, social-climbing wife, Maggie; the strip was an instant hit because of its combination of an appealing cast of characters with a unique look of art-nouveau splendor... Before McManus died, in 1954, Bringing Up Father made him two fortunes. By that time, Jiggs's Irishness had faded—the new generation saw him as just a rich guy that liked to hang out with a regular crowd.
An uncredited script collaborator on the strip was McManus' brother, Charles W. McManus, 61 when he died August 31, 1941, he had his own comic strips in the 1920s, Dorothy Darnit and Mr. Broad. In 1913, Rosie's Beau was McManus' Sunday page, he revived it as a Sunday topper strip above Bringing Up Father. On April 17, 1938, an absent-minded character named Sir Von Platter in Rosie's Beau realized he was in the wrong place and climbed down into the first panel of Bringing Up Father, arriving in the living room of Maggie and Jiggs. In 1941, McManus replaced Rosie's Beau with Snookums which ran as the topper above Bringing Up Father until 1956. In the final episode of HBO's The Pacific, Robert Leckie is seen reading Snookums; the Pacific is based on Leckie's book, Helmet for My Pillow, but there is no mention of Snookums in Leckie's book. Between 1935 and
Mary Tyler Moore
Mary Tyler Moore was an American actress, best known for her roles in the television sitcoms The Mary Tyler Moore Show, in which she starred as Mary Richards, a single woman working as a local news producer in Minneapolis, The Dick Van Dyke Show, in which she played Laura Petrie, a former dancer turned Westchester homemaker and mother. Her film work includes 1967's Thoroughly Modern Millie and 1980's Ordinary People, in which she played roles that were different from the television characters she had portrayed, her work in Ordinary People earned her a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Actress. Thanks to her roles on both The Mary Tyler Moore Show and The Dick Van Dyke Show, in which her characters broke from stereotypical images of women and pushed gender norms, Moore became a cultural icon and served as an inspiration for many younger actresses, professional women, she was active in charity work and various political causes the issues of animal rights and diabetes. She was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes early in the run of The Mary Tyler Moore Show.
She suffered from alcoholism, which she wrote about in her first of two memoirs. She died from cardiopulmonary arrest due to pneumonia at the age of 80 on January 25, 2017. Moore was born in Brooklyn, New York, to George Tyler Moore, a clerk, his wife Marjorie Hackett. Moore was the oldest of three children. Moore's family lived on Ocean Parkway in the Flatbush section of Brooklyn, her paternal great-grandfather, Lieutenant Colonel Lewis Tilghman Moore, owned the house, now the Stonewall Jackson's Headquarters Museum in Winchester, Virginia. When she was eight years old, Moore's family moved to Los Angeles at the recommendation of Moore's uncle, an MCA employee, she was raised Catholic, attended St. Rose of Lima Parochial School in Brooklyn until the third grade, she attended Saint Ambrose School in Los Angeles, followed by Immaculate Heart High School in Los Feliz, California. Moore's sister, died at age 21 "from a combination of... painkillers and alcohol", while her brother died at age 47 from kidney cancer.
Moore decided at age 17. Her television career began with Moore's first job as "Happy Hotpoint", a tiny elf dancing on Hotpoint appliances in TV commercials during the 1950s series Ozzie and Harriet. After appearing in 39 Hotpoint commercials in five days, she received $6,000, she became pregnant while still working as "Happy" and Hotpoint ended her work when it was too difficult to conceal her pregnancy with the elf costume. Moore modeled anonymously on the covers of a number of record albums and auditioned for the role of the older daughter of Danny Thomas for his long-running TV show, but was turned down. Much Thomas explained that "she missed it by a nose... no daughter of mine could have a nose that small". Moore's first regular television role was as a mysterious and glamorous telephone receptionist on Richard Diamond, Private Detective. On the show, Moore's voice was heard, but only her legs appeared on camera, adding to the character's mystique. About this time, she guest-starred on John Cassavetes's NBC detective series Johnny Staccato.
She guest-starred in Bachelor Father in the episode titled "Bentley and the Big Board". In 1960, she was featured in two episodes of the William Bendix-Doug McClure NBC western series, Overland Trail and several months in the first episode of NBC's one-season The Tab Hunter Show, a sitcom starring the former teen idol as a bachelor cartoonist. In 1961, Moore appeared in several big parts in movies and on television, including Bourbon Street Beat, 77 Sunset Strip, Surfside 6, Wanted: Dead or Alive, Steve Canyon, Hawaiian Eye and Lock-Up. In 1961, Carl Reiner cast Moore in The Dick Van Dyke Show, a weekly series based on Reiner's own life and career as a writer for Sid Caesar's television variety show Your Show of Shows, telling the cast from the outset that it would run for no more than five years; the show was produced by Danny Thomas' company, Thomas himself recommended her. He remembered Moore as "the girl with three names". Moore's energetic comic performances as Van Dyke's character's wife, begun at age 24, made both the actress and her signature tight capri pants popular, she became internationally known.
When she won her first Emmy Award for her portrayal of Laura Petrie, she said, "I know this will never happen again." In 1970, after having appeared earlier in a pivotal one-hour musical special called Dick Van Dyke and the Other Woman and husband Grant Tinker pitched a sitcom centered on Moore to CBS. The Mary Tyler Moore Show is a half-hour newsroom sitcom featuring Ed Asner as her gruff boss Lou Grant. Moore's show proved so popular that three other regular characters, Valerie Harper as Rhoda Morgenstern, Cloris Leachman as Phyllis Lindstrom and Ed Asner as Lou Grant were spun off into their own series; the premise of the single working woman's life, alternating during the program between work and home, became a television staple. After six years of ratings in the top 20, the show slipped to number 39 during season seven. Producers decided to cancel the series because of falling ratings, afraid that the show's legacy might be damaged if it were renewed for another season. Despite the decline in ratings, the 1977 season would go on to win an Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series, to add to the awards it had won in 1975 and 1976.
All in all, during its seven seasons, the program held the record for winning the most Emmys – 29. That record remained unbroken until 2002 when the NB
A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative serialized, with text in balloons and captions. Traditionally, throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, these have been published in newspapers and magazines, with horizontal strips printed in black-and-white in daily newspapers, while Sunday newspapers offered longer sequences in special color comics sections. With the development of the internet, they began to appear online as webcomics. There were more than 200 different comic strips and daily cartoon panels in South Korea alone each day for most of the 20th century, for a total of at least 7,300,000 episodes. Strips are drawn by a comics artist or cartoonist; as the name implies, comic strips can be humorous. Starting in the late 1920s, comic strips expanded from their mirthful origins to feature adventure stories, as seen in Popeye, Captain Easy, Buck Rogers and The Adventures of Tintin. Soap-opera continuity strips such as Judge Parker and Mary Worth gained popularity in the 1940s.
All are called, comic strips, though cartoonist Will Eisner has suggested that "sequential art" would be a better genre-neutral name. In the UK and the rest of Europe, comic strips are serialized in comic book magazines, with a strip's story sometimes continuing over three pages or more. Comic strips have appeared in American magazines such as Liberty and Boys' Life and on the front covers of magazines, such as the Flossy Frills series on The American Weekly Sunday newspaper supplement. Storytelling using a sequence of pictures has existed through history. One medieval European example in textile form is the Bayeux Tapestry. Printed examples emerged in 19th-century Germany and in 18th-century England, where some of the first satirical or humorous sequential narrative drawings were produced. William Hogarth's 18th century English cartoons include both narrative sequences, such as A Rake's Progress, single panels; the Biblia pauperum, a tradition of picture Bibles beginning in the Middle Ages, sometimes depicted Biblical events with words spoken by the figures in the miniatures written on scrolls coming out of their mouths—which makes them to some extent ancestors of the modern cartoon strips.
In China, with its traditions of block printing and of the incorporation of text with image, experiments with what became lianhuanhua date back to 1884. The first newspaper comic strips appeared in North America in the late 19th century; the Yellow Kid is credited as one of the first newspaper strips. However, the art form combining words and pictures developed and there are many examples which led up to the comic strip. Swiss author and caricature artist Rodolphe Töpffer is considered the father of the modern comic strips, his illustrated stories such as Histoire de M. Vieux Bois, first published in the USA in 1842 as The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck or Histoire de Monsieur Jabot, inspired subsequent generations of German and American comic artists. In 1865, German painter and caricaturist Wilhelm Busch created the strip Max and Moritz, about two trouble-making boys, which had a direct influence on the American comic strip. Max and Moritz was a series of moralistic tales in the vein of German children's stories such as Struwwelpeter.
Max and Moritz provided an inspiration for German immigrant Rudolph Dirks, who created the Katzenjammer Kids in 1897. Familiar comic-strip iconography such as stars for pain, sawing logs for snoring, speech balloons, thought balloons originated in Dirks' strip. Hugely popular, Katzenjammer Kids occasioned one of the first comic-strip copyright ownership suits in the history of the medium; when Dirks left William Randolph Hearst for the promise of a better salary under Joseph Pulitzer, it was an unusual move, since cartoonists deserted Pulitzer for Hearst. In a unusual court decision, Hearst retained the rights to the name "Katzenjammer Kids", while creator Dirks retained the rights to the characters. Hearst promptly hired Harold Knerr to draw his own version of the strip. Dirks renamed his version Fritz. Thus, two versions distributed by rival syndicates graced the comics pages for decades. Dirks' version distributed by United Feature Syndicate, ran until 1979. In the United States, the great popularity of comics sprang from the newspaper war between Pulitzer and Hearst.
The Little Bears was the first American comic strip with recurring characters, while the first color comic supplement was published by the Chicago Inter-Ocean sometime in the latter half of 1892, followed by the New York Journal's first color Sunday comic pages in 1897. On January 31, 1912, Hearst introduced the nation's first full daily comic page in his New York Evening Journal; the history of this newspaper rivalry and the rapid appearance of comic strips in most major American newspapers is discussed by Ian Gordon. Numerous events in newspaper comic strips have reverberated throughout society at large, though few of these events occurred in recent years, owing to the declining role of the newspaper comic strip as an entertainment form; the longest-running American comic strips are: The Katzenjammer Kids Gasoline Alley Ripley's Believe It or Not! Barney Google and Snuffy Smith Thimble Theater/Popeye Blondie Bringing Up Father (1913–2000.
Malibu is a beach city in western Los Angeles County, situated about 30 miles west of Downtown Los Angeles. It is known for its Mediterranean climate and its 21-mile strip of the Malibu coast, incorporated in 1991 into the City of Malibu; the area is known for being the home of Hollywood movie stars, people in the entertainment industry, other affluent residents. Most Malibu residents live within a few hundred yards of Pacific Coast Highway, which traverses the city, with some residents living up to a mile away from the beach up narrow canyons; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 12,645. Nicknamed "the'Bu" by surfers and locals, beaches along the Malibu coast include Surfrider Beach, Zuma Beach, Malibu Beach, Topanga Beach, Point Dume Beach, County Line, Dan Blocker Beach. State parks and beaches on the Malibu coast include Malibu Creek State Park, Leo Carrillo State Beach and Park, Point Mugu State Park, Robert H. Meyer Memorial State Beach, with individual beaches: El Pescador, La Piedra and El Matador.
The many parks within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area lie along the ridges above the city along with local parks that include Malibu Bluffs Park, Trancas Canyon Park, Las Flores Creek Park, Legacy Park. Signs around the city proclaim "21 miles of scenic beauty", referring to the incorporated city limits; the city updated the signs in 2017 from the historical 27-mile length of the Malibu coast spanning from Tuna Canyon on the southeast to Point Mugu in Ventura County on the northwest. For many residents of the unincorporated canyon areas, Malibu has the closest commercial centers and they are included in the Malibu ZIP Codes; the city is bounded by Topanga on the east, the Santa Monica Mountains to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south, Solromar in Ventura County to the west. Malibu is named for the Ventureño Chumash settlement of Humaliwo, which translates to “The Surf Sounds Loudly.” This pre-colonial village is now part of the State Park. Malibu was settled by the Chumash, Native Americans whose territory extended loosely from the San Joaquin Valley to San Luis Obispo to Malibu, as well as several islands off the southern coast of California.
They named it "Humaliwo" or "the surf sounds loudly". The city's name derives from this; the village of Humaliwo was located next to Malibu Lagoon and was an important regional center in prehistoric times. The village, identified as CA-LAN-264, was occupied from 2,500 BCE, it was the second-largest Chumash coastal settlement by the Santa Monica Mountains, with just Muwu being more populated. A total of 118 individuals were baptized in Humaliwo. Humaliwo was considered an important political center, but there were additional minor settlements in today’s Malibu. One village, known as Ta’lopop, was located few miles up Malibu Canyon from Malibu Lagoon. Research have shown that Humaliwo had ties to other villages in pre-colonial times, including Hipuk and Huwam. Explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo is believed to have moored at Malibu Lagoon, at the mouth of Malibu Creek, to obtain fresh water in 1542; the Spanish presence returned with the California mission system, the area was part of Rancho Topanga Malibu Sequit—a 13,000-acre land grant—in 1802.
That ranch passed intact to Frederick Hastings Rindge in 1891. He and his widow, May K. Rindge, guarded their privacy zealously by hiring guards to evict all trespassers and fighting a lengthy court battle to prevent the building of a Southern Pacific railroad line through the ranch. Interstate Commerce Commission regulations would not support a railroad condemning property in order to build tracks that paralleled an existing line, so Frederick H. Rindge decided to build his own railroad through his property first, he died, May K. Rindge followed through with the plans, building the Hueneme and Port Los Angeles Railway; the line started at Carbon Canyon, just inside the ranch's property eastern boundary, ran 15 miles westward, past Pt. Dume. Few roads entered the area before 1929, when the state won another court case and built what is now known as the Pacific Coast Highway. By May Rindge was forced to subdivide her property and begin selling and leasing lots; the Rindge house, known as the Adamson House, is now part of Malibu Creek State Park and is situated between Malibu Lagoon State Beach and Surfrider Beach, beside the Malibu Pier, used to provide transportation to/from the ranch, including construction materials for the Rindge railroad, to tie up the family's yacht.
In 1926, in an effort to avoid selling land to stave off insolvency, May K. Rindge created a small ceramic tile factory. At its height, Malibu Potteries employed over 100 workers, produced decorative tiles which furnish many Los Angeles-area public buildings and Beverly Hills residences; the factory, located one-half mile east of the pier, was ravaged by a fire in 1931. Although the factory reopened in 1932, it could not recover from the effects of the Great Depression and a steep downturn in Southern California construction projects. A distinct hybrid of Moorish and Arts and crafts designs, Malibu tile is considered collectible. Fine examples of the tiles may be seen at the Adamson House and Serra Retreat, a fifty-room mansion, started in the 1920s as the main Rindge home on a hill overlooking the lagoon; the unfinished building was sold to the Franciscan Order in 1942 and is