Minamoto no Tameyoshi
Minamoto no Tameyoshi was head of the Minamoto samurai clan during his lifetime, grandson of Minamoto no Yoshiie. Tameyoshi is known as Mutsu Shirō. Though most famous for his involvement in the Hōgen Rebellion, Minamoto No Tameyoshi is said to have intervened in a number of other conflicts earlier in his life. Around 1113, the ongoing rivalry between the warrior monks of Mii-dera and Enryaku-ji erupted into outright violence in the streets of Kyoto. Though the palace guard mobilized to protect the Emperor, it is said that Tameyoshi, with a handful of mounted samurai, drove the mobs away himself. Upon being defeated in the Hōgen Rebellion, Tameyoshi took the tonsure and was released into the custody of his son Minamoto no Yoshitomo who had him beheaded; this was an unprecedented breaking of Buddhist values in Japan, yet no one in the court berated Yoshitomo for his actions at the time until after his death. Father: Minamoto no Yoshichika Mother: unknown Wife: daughter of Fujiwara no Tadakiyo 1st son: Minamoto no Yoshitomo Concubine: daughter of Rokujō no Shigesugu 2nd son: Minamoto no Yoshikata 3rd son: Minamoto no Yoshihiro called "Shida Saburō Senjō".
Concubine: daughter of Minamoto no Motosane 4th son: Minamoto no Yorikata 5th son: Minamoto no Tamekata 6th son: Minamoto no Tamemune Concubine: daughter of Kamo no Narimune 7th son: Minamoto no Tamenari Concubine:'prostitute from Eguchi-jō, Settsu Province 8th son: Minamoto no Tametomo 9th son: Minamoto no Tamenaka Children with unknown mother: 10th son: Minamoto no Yukiie 11th son: Minamoto no Otowaka 12th son: Minamoto no Kamewaka 14th son: Minamoto no Koreyoshi 15th son: Minamoto no Yorisada 17th son: Minamoto no Masachika Son: Minamoto no Norisato Son: Minamoto no Takakimi Daughter: "Lady of Mino" Daughter: Tori-in-zen-ni Daughter: wife of Sasaki Hideyoshi Daughter: wife of Fujiwara no Mitsutaka Siege of Shirakawa-den trans. Varley, Paul H.. "A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns'Jinnō Shōtōki' of Kitabatake Chikafusa". New York: Columbia University Press
Emperor Sutoku was the 75th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Sutoku's reign spanned the years from 1123 through 1142. Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was Akihito. Note: Although the Roman alphabet-spelling of the name of this twelfth-century emperor is the same as that of the personal name of the current sovereign of Japan, the kanji are dissimilar. Emperor Sutoku Prince Akihito His Imperial Majesty Prince Akihito Sutoku was the eldest son of Emperor Toba; some old texts say he was the son of Toba's grandfather, Emperor Shirakawa. Chūgū: Fujiwara no Kiyoko Kōkamon'in, Fujiwara Tadamichi’s daughter Hyounosuke-no-Tsubone, Minamoto Masamune's adopted daughter First son: Imperial Prince Shigehito. Mikawa-dono, Minamoto Morotsune's daughter Fifth Son: Kakue Karasuma-no-Tsubone February 25, 1123: In the 16th year of Emperor Toba's reign, he abdicated. Hōan 4, in the 2nd month: Emperor Sutoku is said to have acceded to the throne.
1124: Former-Emperor Shirakawa and former-Emperor Toba went in carriages to outside the city where they could all together enjoy contemplating the flowers. Taiken-mon'in, Toba's empress and Sutoku's mother, joined the procession along with many other women of the court, their cortege was colorful. A great many men of the court in hunting clothes followed the ladies in this parade. Fujiwara Tadamichi followed in a carriage, accompanied by bands of musicians and women who were to sing for the emperors. 1124: Shirakawa visited Mount Kōya. 1125: The emperor visited Iwashimizu Shrine and the Kamo Shrines. 1128: Taiken-mon'in ordered the construction of Enshō-ji in fulfillment of a sacred vow. This was one in a series of "sacred vow temples" built by imperial command following a precedent established by Emperor Shirakawa's Hosshō-ji. 1128: Fujiwara Tadamichi is relieved of his responsibilities and duties as sesshō. August 17, 1135: Former-Emperor Shirakawa died at the age of 77. 1141: The former emperor Toba accepted the tonsure in becoming a monk at the age of 39.
In 1151, Sutoko ordered Waka imperial anthology Shika Wakashū. In 1156, after failing to put down the Hōgen Rebellion, he was exiled to Sanuki Province. Emperor Sutoku's reign lasted for 19 years: 2 years in the nengō Tenji, 5 years in Daiji, 1 year in'Tenshō, 3 years in Chōshō, 6 years in Hōen, 1 year in Eiji; the site of Sutoku's grave is settled. This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Kagawa, he was enshrined in Shiramine shrine and Kotohira-gū in Kagawa Prefecture. The former is associated with the god of football, worshipped by Kuge clan Asukai in times of yore, while the latter enshrined Ō-mono-nushi-no-mikoto, a god known to have restaured harmony in Yamato in exchange for worship and nepotism; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Sutoku's mausoleum. It is formally named Shiramine no misasagi. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time.
These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Sutoku's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Sesshō, Fujiwara Tadamichi, 1097–1164. Daijō-daijin, Fujiwara Tadamichi. Sadaijin Udaijin Nadaijin, Fujiwara Yorinaga, 1120–1156. Dainagon The years of Sutoku's reign are more identified by more than one era name or nengō. Hōan Tenji Daiji Tenshō Chōshō Hōen Eiji After Sutoku's abdication and exile, he devoted himself to monastic life, he offered them to the court. Fearing that the scriptures were cursed, the court refused to accept them. Snubbed, Sutoku was said to have resented the court and, upon his death, became an onryō. Everything from the subsequent fall in fortune of the Imperial court, the rise of the samurai powers and internal unrests were blamed on his haunting. Along with Sugawara no Michizane and Taira no Masakado, he is called one of the “Three Great Onryō of Japan.”. Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds..
Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 _____________.. Vicissitudes of Shinto. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 36655 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Odai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.
The Tale of the Heike
The Tale of the Heike is an epic account compiled prior to 1330 of the struggle between the Taira clan and Minamoto clan for control of Japan at the end of the 12th century in the Genpei War. Heike refers to the Taira, hei being an alternate reading of the first kanji. Note that in the title of the Genpei War, "hei" is in this combination read as "pei" and the "gen" is the first kanji used in the Minamoto clan's name; the Tale of Heike is likened to a Japanese Iliad. It has been translated into English at least five times, the first by Arthur Lindsay Sadler in 1918–1921. A complete translation in nearly 800 pages by Hiroshi Kitagawa & Bruce T. Tsuchida was published in 1975. Translated by Helen McCullough in 1988. An abridged translation by Burton Watson was published in 2006. In 2012, Royall Tyler completed his translation, which seeks to be mindful of the performance style for which the work was intended, it was famously retold in Japanese prose by historical novelist Eiji Yoshikawa, published in Asahi Weekly in 1950 with the title New Tale of the Heike.
The Tale of the Heike's origin cannot be reduced to a single creator. Like most epics, it is the result of the conglomeration of differing versions passed down through an oral tradition by biwa-playing bards known as biwa hōshi; the monk Yoshida Kenkō offers a theory as to the authorship of the text, in his famous work Tsurezuregusa, which he wrote in 1330. According to Kenkō, "The former governor of Shinano, wrote Heike monogatari and showed it to a blind man called Shōbutsu to chant it", he confirms the biwa connection of that blind man, who "was natural from the eastern tract", and, sent from Yukinaga to "recollect some information about samurai, about their bows, their horses and their war strategy. Yukinaga wrote it after that". One of the key points in this theory is that the book was written in a difficult combination of Chinese and Japanese, which in those days was only mastered by educated monks, such as Yukinaga. However, in the end, as the tale is the result of a long oral tradition, there is no single true author.
Moreover, as it is true that there are frequent steps back, that the style is not the same throughout the composition, this cannot mean anything but that it is a collective work. The story of the Heike was compiled from a collection of oral stories recited by traveling monks who chanted to the accompaniment of the biwa, an instrument reminiscent of the lute; the most read version of the Heike monogatari was compiled by a blind monk named Kakuichi in 1371. The Heike is considered one of the great classics of medieval Japanese literature; the central theme of the story is the Buddhist law of impermanence in the form of the fleeting nature of fortune, an analog of sic transit gloria mundi. The theme of impermanence is captured in the famous opening passage: 祇園精舎の鐘の聲、諸行無常の響き有り。 沙羅雙樹の花の色、盛者必衰の理を顯す。 驕れる者も久しからず、唯春の夜の夢の如し。 猛き者も遂には滅びぬ、偏に風の前の塵に同じ。 Gionshōja no kane no koe, Shogyōmujō no hibiki ari. Sarasōju no hana no iro, Jōshahissui. Ogoreru mono mo hisashikarazu, tada haru no yo no yume no gotoshi. Takeki mono mo tsui ni wa horobin, hitoeni kaze no mae no chiri ni onaji.
The sound of the Gion Shōja bells echoes the impermanence of all things. The proud do not endure, they are like a dream on a spring night. -- Chapter 1.1, Helen Craig McCullough's translation The 4-character expression "the prosperous must decline" is a phrase from the Humane King Sutra, in full "The prosperous decline, the full empty". The second concept evident in the Tale of the Heike is karma; the concept of karma says that every action has consequences that become apparent in life. Thus, karma helps to deal with the problem of both natural evil. Evil acts in life will bring about an inevitable suffering in life; this can be seen with the treatment of Kiyomori in The Tale of the Heike, cruel throughout his life, falls into a painful illness that kills him. The fall of the powerful Taira – the samurai clan who defeated the imperial-backed Minamoto in 1161–symbolizes the theme of impermanence in the Heike; the Taira warrior family sowed the seeds of their own destruction with acts of arrogance and pride that led to their defeat in 1185 at the hands of the revitalized Minamoto.
The story is designed to be told in a series of nightly installments. It is a samurai epic focusing on warrior culture – an ideology that laid the groundwork for bushido; the Heike includes a number of love stories, which harkens back to earlier Heian literature. The story is divided into three sections; the central figure of the first section is Taira no Kiyomori, described as arrogant, ruthless and so consumed by the fires of hatred that in death his feverish body does not cool when immersed in water. The main figure of the second section is the Minamoto general Minamoto no Yoshinaka. After he dies the main figure of the third section is the great samurai, Minamoto no Yoshitsune, a military genius, falsely accused of treachery by his politically astute elder brother Minamoto no Yoritomo; the Tale of the Heike has provided material for many artistic works ranging from N