The Tale of Hōgen
The Tale of Hōgen is a Japanese war chronicle or military tale which relates the events and prominent figures of the Hōgen Rebellion. This literary and historical classic is believed to have been completed in the Kamakura period ca. 1320. Its author or authors remain unknown; the events which are recounted in the Hōgen story become a prelude to the story which unfolds in Tale of Heiji. As in the Heiji story, multi-level and inter-related rivalries lead to war. 1st level rivalry—a conflict amongst emperors: Cloistered Emperor Emperor Toba, 1103-1156 Cloistered Emperor Emperor Sutoku, 1119-1164 Reigning Emperor Go-Shirakawa, 1127-1192 2nd level rivalry—a conflict amongst kuge aristocrats, between sons of Fujiwara no Tadazane, 1078-1162 Fujiwara no Tadamichi, 1097-1164 Fujiwara no Yorinaga, 1120-1156 3rd level rivalry—a conflict amongst warrior clans, amongst sons of Minamoto no Tameyoshi, 1096-1156 Tameyoshi's older sons support Go-Shirakawa Tameyoshi and his younger sons support Sutoku. As in the Heiji story, the narrative structure is divided in three segments: Part 1 introduces the characters and their rivalries.
Part 2 relates course of the conflicts. Part 3 explains the tragic consequences; the Japanese have developed a number of complementary strategies for capturing and disseminating the essential elements of their accepted national history – chronicles of sovereigns and events, biographies of eminent persons and personalities, the military tale or gunki monogatari. This last form evolved from an interest in recording the activities of military conflicts in the late 12th century; the major battles, the small skirmishes and the individual contests—and the military figures who animate these accounts—have all been passed from generation to generation in the narrative formats of the Hōgen monogatari, the Heiji monagatari, the Heike monogatari. In each of these familiar monogatari, the central figures are popularly well known, the major events are understood, the stakes as they were understood at the time are conventionally accepted as elements in the foundation of Japanese culture; the accuracy of each of these historical records has become a compelling subject for further study.
Hōgen Rebellion, 1156 Heiji Rebellion, 1159-1160 Tale of Heiji or Heiji monogatari Genpei War, 1180-1185 Tale of Heike or Heike monogatari Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0.
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
A cloister is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth. The attachment of a cloister to a cathedral or church against a warm southern flank indicates that it is part of a monastic foundation, "forming a continuous and solid architectural barrier... that separates the world of the monks from that of the serfs and workmen, whose lives and works went forward outside and around the cloister."Cloistered life is another name for the monastic life of a monk or nun. The English term enclosure is used in contemporary Catholic church law translations to mean cloistered, some form of the Latin parent word "claustrum" is used as a metonymic name for monastery in languages such as German; the early medieval cloister had several antecedents, the peristyle court of the Greco-Roman domus, the atrium and its expanded version that served as forecourt to early Christian basilicas, certain semi-galleried courts attached to the flanks of early Syrian churches.
Walter Horn suggests that the earliest coenobitic communities, which were established in Egypt by Saint Pachomius, did not result in cloister construction, as there were no lay serfs attached to the community of monks, thus no separation within the walled community was required. In the time of Charlemagne the requirements of a separate monastic community within an extended and scattered manorial estate created this "monastery within a monastery" in the form of the locked cloister, an architectural solution allowing the monks to perform their sacred tasks apart from the distractions of laymen and servants. Horn offers as early examples Abbot Gundeland's "Altenmünster" of Lorsch abbey, as revealed in the excavations by Frederich Behn. Another early cloister, that of the abbey of Saint-Riquier, took a triangular shape, with chapels at the corners, in conscious representation of the Trinity. A square cloister sited against the flank of the abbey church was built at Inden and the abbey of St. Wandrille at Fontenelle.
At Fulda, a new cloister was sited to the liturgical west of the church "in the Roman manner" familiar from the forecourt of Old St. Peter's Basilica because it would be closer to the relics. Coomans, Thomas. "Life Inside the Cloister. Understanding Monastic Architecture: Tradition, Adaptive Reuse". Leuven University Press. ISBN 9789462701434. Horn, Walter. "On the Origins of the Medieval Cloister". Gesta. 2: 13–52. Doi:10.2307/766633. JSTOR 766633; the Code of Canon Law, cf canons 667 ff. New Advent Encyclopaedia III ff. on "Nuns, properly so called "Cloister" in the New Advent encyclopaedia New Advent Encyclopaedia on "Religious Life Photos and information on cloisters in France and Spain
Minamoto no Yoshitomo
Minamoto no Yoshitomo was the head of the Minamoto clan and a general of the late Heian period of Japanese history. His son Minamoto no Yoritomo became shōgun and founded the Kamakura shogunate, the first shogunate in the history of Japan. With the outbreak of the Hōgen Rebellion in 1156, the members of the Minamoto and Taira samurai clans were beckoned into the conflict. Yoshitomo sided along with Taira no Kiyomori in support of the Emperor Go-Shirakawa and Fujiwara no Tadamichi, while his father Minamoto no Tameyoshi sided with the retired Emperor Sutoku and Fujiwara no Yorinaga. Yoshitomo, defeating his father and the forces of Sutoku and Yorinaga, became head of the Minamoto and established himself as a political power in the capital of Kyoto. However, despite his attempts to have his father pardoned, Tameyoshi was executed; the outcome of the Hōgen rebellion established the Minamoto and Taira as the two strongest political rivals in the country. Three years in 1159, Yoshitomo and Fujiwara no Nobuyori placed Go-Shirakawa under house arrest and killed his retainer, the scholar Fujiwara no Michinori, in what is called the Heiji Rebellion.
Taira no Kiyomori, in support of Go-Shirakawa, defeated Yoshitomo. While escaping from Kyoto, Yoshitomo was forced to kill his son Tomonaga. Yoshitomo was betrayed and killed in his bath. Three of his sons, Minamoto no Yoshitsune and Minamoto no Noriyori, were spared and exiled by Kiyomori; however and Nobuyori were executed. His grave in Aichi Prefecture is surrounded on all sides by wooden swords, as by legend his last words were "If only I had a bokuto..." Yoshitomo fathered nine sons in total. His two sons and Tomonaga, lost their lives following the Minamoto Clan's defeat in the Heiji Rebellion. At the time of the outbreak of the Genpei War in 1180, Minamoto no Yoritomo was his eldest surviving son, his six remaining sons in order from eldest to youngest were Yoshikado, Noriyori, Zenjo and Yoshitsune. Father: Minamoto no Tameyoshi Mother: daughter of Fujiwara no Tadakiyo Wife: Yura Gozen, "Urahime", daughter of Fujiwara no Suenori. 3rd son: Minamoto no Yoritomo 4th son: Minamoto no Yoshikado 5th son: Minamoto no Mareyoshi Concubine: Tokiwa Gozen 7th son: Ano Zenjō 8th son: Minamoto no Gien 9th son: Minamoto no Yoshitsune Concubine: daughter of Miura Yoshiaki 1st son: Minamoto no Yoshihira Concubine: sister of Hatano Yoshimichi 2nd son: Minamoto no Tomonaga Concubine: a prostitute from Ideda-jiku, Tōtōmi Province 6th son: Minamoto no Noriyori Concubine: a cook of Aohaka Chōja Siege of Shirakawa-den Siege of Sanjō Palace Turnbull, Stephen.
The Samurai Sourcebook. London: Cassell & Co. page 60
Siege of Sanjō Palace
The Siege of the Sanjō Palace was the primary battle of the Heiji Rebellion. In early January 1160, after Taira no Kiyomori left Kyoto on a family pilgrimage, Fujiwara no Nobuyori and Minamoto no Yoshitomo saw an opportunity to effect changes they sought in the government. With a force of five hundred men, they attacked in the night, kidnapped former emperor Emperor Go-Shirakawa, set fire to the palace, they abducted and imprisoned the current emperor, Emperor Nijō, who supported their enemies, the Taira clan and Fujiwara no Michinori. They next attacked the manor house of Michinori, setting it too aflame and killing all those inside, with the exception of Michinori himself, captured and decapitated. Nobuyori forced Emperor Nijō to name him imperial chancellor, completing one of the first important steps toward growing his political power. However, Taira no Kiyomori soon returned afterwards with his son Taira no Shigemori and a small force; the Minamoto, reinforced with men from Kamakura led by Yoshitomo's eldest son Minamoto no Yoshihira, although the larger force, were unprepared and hesitated at Kiyomori's return.
Thus the Taira were allowed to return to their family mansion in the Rokuhara district, plan tactics and strategies, bolster their force. At the end of January, the Taira smuggled the Emperor Nijō and his empress consort out of the Sanjō Palace and into the Rokuhara mansion, while helping the former Emperor Go-Shirakawa escape from the Minamoto as well. On the morning of February 5, Minamoto no Yoshitomo and his men prepared to defend the palace against the inevitable Taira assault; the Minamoto were able to hold. But a portion of the Taira feigned retreat; this gave the rest of the Taira force an opportunity to rush the gates and, soon afterwards, drive the Minamoto out. Yoshitomo's men were forced to attack the Rokuhara mansion, but ultimate failed. In the wake of their failure, they fled Kyoto, meeting resistance along the way from the warrior monks of Mount Hiei whom they had attacked in decades past
The Genpei War was a national civil war between the Taira and Minamoto clans during the late-Heian period of Japan. It resulted in the downfall of the Taira and the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate under Minamoto no Yoritomo in 1192; the name "Genpei" comes from alternate readings of the kanji "Minamoto" and "Taira". The conflict is known in Japanese as the Jishō-Juei War, after the two Imperial eras between which it took place, it followed a coup d'état by the Taira in 1179 with the removal of rivals from all government posts, subsequently banishing them, a call to arms against them, led by the Minamoto in 1180. The ensuing battle of Uji took place just outside Kyoto, starting a five-year-long war, concluding with a decisive Minamoto victory in the naval battle of Dan-no-ura; the Genpei War was the culmination of a decades-long conflict between the two aforementioned clans over dominance of the Imperial court, by extension, control of Japan. In the Hōgen Rebellion and in the Heiji Rebellion of earlier decades, the Minamoto attempted to regain control from the Taira and failed.
In 1180, Taira no Kiyomori put his grandson Antoku on the throne after the abdication of Emperor Takakura. Emperor Go-Shirakawa's son Mochihito felt that he was being denied his rightful place on the throne and, with the help of Minamoto no Yorimasa, sent out a call to arms to the Minamoto clan and Buddhist monasteries in May. However, this plot ended with the deaths of Mochihito. In June 1180, Kiyomori moved the seat of imperial power to Fukuhara-kyō, "his immediate objective seems to have been to get the royal family under his close charge." The actions of Taira no Kiyomori having deepened Minamoto hatred for the Taira clan, a call for arms was sent up by Minamoto no Yorimasa and Prince Mochihito. Not knowing, behind this rally, Kiyomori called for the arrest of Mochihito, who sought protection at the temple of Mii-dera; the Mii-dera monks were unable to ensure him sufficient protection, so he was forced to move along. He was chased by Taira forces to the Byōdō-in, just outside Kyoto; the war began thus, with a dramatic encounter around the bridge over the River Uji.
This battle ended in Yorimasa's ritual suicide inside the Byōdō-in and Mochihito's capture and execution shortly afterwards. It was at this point that Minamoto no Yoritomo took over leadership of the Minamoto clan and began traveling the country seeking to rendezvous with allies. Leaving Izu Province and heading for the Hakone Pass, he was defeated by the Taira in the battle of Ishibashiyama; however he made it to the provinces of Kai and Kōzuke, where the Takeda and other friendly families helped repel the Taira army. Meanwhile, seeking vengeance against the Mii-dera monks and others, besieged Nara and burnt much of the city to the ground. Fighting continued the following year, 1181. Minamoto no Yukiie was defeated by a force led by Taira no Shigehira at the Battle of Sunomatagawa. However, the "Taira could not follow up their victory."Taira no Kiyomori died from illness in the spring of 1181, around the same time Japan began to suffer from a famine, to last through the following year. The Taira moved to attack Minamoto no Yoshinaka, a cousin of Yoritomo who had raised forces in the north, but were unsuccessful.
For nearly two years, the war ceased, only to resume in the spring of 1183. In 1183, the Taira loss at the Battle of Kurikara was so severe that they found themselves, several months under siege in Kyoto, with Yoshinaka approaching the city from the north and Yukiie from the east. Both Minamoto leaders had seen little or no opposition in marching to the capital and now forced the Taira to flee the city. Taira no Munemori, head of the clan since his father Kiyomori's death, led his army, along with the young Emperor Antoku and the Imperial regalia, to the west; the cloistered emperor Go-Shirakawa defected to Yoshinaka. Go-Shirakawa issued a mandate for Yoshinaka to "join with Yukiie in destroying Munemori and his army". In 1183, Yoshinaka once again sought to gain control of the Minamoto clan by planning an attack on Yoritomo, while pursuing the Taira westward; the Taira set up a temporary Court at Daaifu in the southernmost of Japan's main islands. They were forced out soon afterwards by local revolts instigated by Go-Shirakawa, moved their Court to Yashima.
The Taira were successful in beating off an attack by Yoshinaka's pursuing forces at the Battle of Mizushima. Yoshinaka conspired with Yukiie to seize the capital and the Emperor even establishing a new Court in the north. However, Yukiie revealed these plans to the Emperor. Betrayed by Yukiie, Yoshinaka took command of Kyoto and, at the beginning of 1184, set fire to the Hōjūjidono, taking the Emperor into custody. Minamoto no Yoshitsune arrived soon afterwards with his brother Noriyori and a considerable force, driving Yoshinaka from the city. After fighting his cousins at the bridge over the Uji, Yoshinaka made his final stand at Awazu, in Ōmi Province, he was defeated by Yoshitsune, killed while attempting to flee. As the united Minamoto forces left Kyoto, the Taira began consolidating their position at a number of sites in and around the Inland Sea, their ancestral home territory, they received a number of missives from the Emperor offering that if they surrendered by the seventh day of the second month, the Minamoto could be persuaded to agree to a truce.
This was a farce, as neither the Minamoto nor the Emperor had any intentions of waiting until the eighth day to attack. This tactic offered the Emperor a chance to regain the Rega