Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
The Dark Eye (video game)
The Dark Eye is a 1995 first-person psychological horror adventure game developed by Inscape for Windows and Mac. The game features combined stop-motion animation and video segments. With its unconventional interface and characters, the game's peculiarity became its selling point; the characters are lifelike in appearance except for their clay-modeled faces, which are distorted or feature grotesquely exaggerated features. This near-realism, sometimes referred to as the uncanny valley, contributes to the game's ambience of unease and anxiety. Notable was the use of author William S. Burroughs as a voice actor: Burroughs provided not only the voice for the character of Edwin, but voiceovers for two slide-show sequences illustrating the short story "The Masque of the Red Death" and the poem "Annabel Lee". Another story, "The Premature Burial", can be found while reading the newspaper during "The Tell-Tale Heart", the poem "To Helen" can be read while playing the victim in "Berenice". Structurally, the game is a point-and-click adventure fueled by the macabre stories of Edgar Allan Poe.
The player can experience three of the stories from the perspectives of both victim. The game presents no choices to make, no life-or-death decisions, no points. During the portions that are direct interpretations of Poe's stories, the player is constrained to follow the actions of the stories' characters; the player can carry only one item at a time. Much of the animation in The Dark Eye consists of QuickTime movies, either full-screen or smaller looping segments, framed by a static background; the plot principally revolves around "performances" and recitations of Poe's stories, with a new plotline used as a framing device. The game is divided into a "realistic" mode in which the framing plot occurs and a "nightmarish" mode in which Poe's stories are reenacted or narrated; the game does not specify the year in which it is set, but based on clothing and technology it appears to be in the late 1800s. The player character, whose name is never divulged, is visiting his uncle Edwin; the player first meets Edwin's assistant and Edwin himself.
He meets Henry, the protagonist's brother, a young businessman who desires the hand of Elise, in marriage. Your character starts to take ill effects from the paint thinner Edwin was using while painting, the player character passes out and has a nightmarish dream. After the protagonist wakes, Henry relates his desperate situation: Edwin disapproves of his love for Elise. Another nightmare follows, after which the protagonist encounters Elise, who asks her to give Henry a note. After another nightmare, the player learns; the protagonist sees Henry and gives him Elise's note follows him to find that Elise has died. Edwin explains that the ground is too marshy for a proper burial, so Henry and Edwin's Assistant take her body into the basement of the house. Henry requests that a lantern be left nearby in case she revives. Edwin states that Henry is mentally unstable. Edwin forges a note from Elise asking Henry to meet her on the cliff outside of the house; the protagonist hands it to Henry, who dashes out of the house.
As Henry stands on the cliff, yelling for Elise, an enormous wave hits him. Watching from afar, the player can see that he is unharmed, although Edwin's assistant approaches Henry and starts a scuffle. In the course of the fight, the assistant shoves Henry into the sea. Edwin lays the blame for all these events upon the player character, causing him to spiral down into a fit of insanity. Upon returning to reality, the protagonist discovers that Elise, still alive, has broken out of her coffin and gouged out her own eyes; this gruesome sight destroys the protagonist's sanity, the game ends. The characters were animated through stop motion. Inscape artist Bruce Heavin did the art design for the puppets, while the task of creating them was outsourced to an external workshop. Inscape hired two stop-motion animators and Russell Lees spent many hours in a hot, dark warehouse directing the animations; the working hours were from 7 am to 7 pm for about a month. They created computer-generated screenshots of the environments and shot against blue-screen, they had a director of photography light them to match the environment.
The Dark Eye was art directed by Rebekah Behrendt, whose stated goal was "to subvert the look of computer 3-D art by creating a more homemade feel." She hired Doug Beswick to help animate the project. Thomas Dolby composed the game's music. Upon its release, the game attracted little attention from either consumers. Jeffrey Adams of Gamespot gave the game a mixed review, criticizing the game's lack of explanation for gameplay mechanics or goals, but still regarding it as "one of the most original computer games created." Conversely, Patrick Arellano of Blasting News hailed it as one of the best obscure horror games of all time. Entertainment Weekly gave the game an A. In 2011, Adventure Gamers named The Dark Eye the 85th-best adventure game released. Adventure Classic Gaming feature CoreGamers article and interview with creator Russell Lees Interview with creator Russell Lees on general development process The Dark Eye at MobyGames The Dark Eye on IMDb
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories his tales of mystery and the macabre, he is regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and of American literature as a whole, he was one of the country's earliest practitioners of the short story. He is considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction, he was the first well-known American writer to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career. Poe was born in the second child of actors David and Elizabeth "Eliza" Arnold Hopkins Poe, his father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died the following year. Thus orphaned, the child was taken in by Frances Allan of Richmond, Virginia, they never formally adopted him. Tension developed as John Allan and Poe clashed over debts, including those incurred by gambling, the cost of Poe's secondary education.
He left after a year due to lack of money. Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name, it was at this time that his publishing career began with the anonymous collection Tamerlane and Other Poems, credited only to "a Bostonian". Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement after the death of Frances Allan in 1829. Poe failed as an officer cadet at West Point, declaring a firm wish to be a poet and writer, he parted ways with John Allan. Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism, his work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore and New York City. He married Virginia Clemm in his 13-year-old cousin. In January 1845, Poe published his poem "The Raven" to instant success, but Virginia died of tuberculosis two years after its publication. Poe planned for years to produce his own journal The Penn.
He died in Baltimore on October 7, 1849, at age 40. Poe and his works influenced literature around the world, as well as specialized fields such as cosmology and cryptography, he and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music and television. A number of his homes are dedicated museums today; the Mystery Writers of America present an annual award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre. He was born Edgar Poe in Boston on January 19, 1809, the second child of English-born actress Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins Poe and actor David Poe Jr, he had a younger sister Rosalie Poe. Their grandfather David Poe Sr. had immigrated from County Cavan, Ireland around 1750. Edgar may have been named after a character in William Shakespeare's King Lear which the couple were performing in 1809, his father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died a year from consumption. Poe was taken into the home of John Allan, a successful merchant in Richmond, Virginia who dealt in a variety of goods, including tobacco, wheat and slaves.
The Allans served as a foster family and gave him the name "Edgar Allan Poe", though they never formally adopted him. The Allan family had Poe baptized in the Episcopal Church in 1812. John Allan alternately spoiled and aggressively disciplined his foster son; the family sailed to Britain in 1815, Poe attended the grammar school for a short period in Irvine, Scotland before rejoining the family in London in 1816. There he studied at a boarding school in Chelsea until summer 1817, he was subsequently entered at the Reverend John Bransby's Manor House School at Stoke Newington a suburb 4 miles north of London. Poe moved with the Allans back to Richmond, Virginia in 1820. In 1824, he served as the lieutenant of the Richmond youth honor guard as Richmond celebrated the visit of the Marquis de Lafayette. In March 1825, John Allan's uncle and business benefactor William Galt died, said to be one of the wealthiest men in Richmond, leaving Allan several acres of real estate; the inheritance was estimated at $750,000.
By summer 1825, Allan celebrated his expansive wealth by purchasing a two-story brick home named Moldavia. Poe may have become engaged to Sarah Elmira Royster before he registered at the University of Virginia in February 1826 to study ancient and modern languages; the university was in its infancy, established on the ideals of its founder Thomas Jefferson. It had strict rules against gambling, guns and alcohol, but these rules were ignored. Jefferson had enacted a system of student self-government, allowing students to choose their own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, report all wrongdoing to the faculty; the unique system was still in chaos, there was a high dropout rate. During his time there, Poe lost touch with Royster and became estranged from his foster father over gambling debts, he claimed that Allan had not given him sufficient money to register for classes, purchase texts, procure and furnish a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and clothes, he gave up on the university after a year but did not feel welco
Manfish is a 1956 adventure film, released by United Artists in 1956 and filmed in DeLuxe Color. Filmed in Jamaica, it was released in Great Britain as Calypso, it was based on the stories "The Gold-Bug" and "The Tell-Tale Heart" by Edgar Allan Poe. Actor John Bromfield starred as Lon Chaney Jr. played the role of Swede. The leading female star was Tessa Prendergast. Tessa became a fashion designer and designed the white bikini of Ursula Andress for Dr. No; the film featured the motion picture debut of Barbara Nichols. Inspector Warren of Scotland Yard flies into Jamaica and is taken to the headquarters of the Jamaica Constabulary Force. Exchanging credentials with a Jamaican Inspector, Warren reveals he has come to seek the extradition of a wanted criminal known as "The Professor". Surprised when the Inspector refuses to extradite the Professor, the Jamaican Inspector recounts a story told in flashback. Devil may care adventurer Brannigan has won the ship Manfish and its first mate Swede in a poker game but keeps away from the Manfish's creditors.
During a drunken evening out Brannigan is attracted to a woman sitting with an older man called "the Professor" with the two brawling over her. During the brief fracas Brannigan notices the Professor is wearing an unusual heavy ring of a skull and cross bones; the next day the Manfish is at sea engaging in a turtle hunt. Two divers from the ship find a skeleton underwater holding a bottle. Brannigan grabs the bottle, he breaks it open on board finding a ripped piece of paper dated 1793 with nonsensical French written on it, but inside the bottle is the same ring that the Professor wears. Tracking down the Professor, Brannigan persuades him to tell what he knows revealing it is half of a document by the pirate Jean Lafitte with the professor holding the other half. Fearing for his life but clever and greedy, the Professor translates the map to reveal a treasure is on the island of Hispaniola but the Professor insures his safety by destroying the map and memorising the contents. Once on the island a treasure worth £25,000 is recovered but the Professor promises it is a drop in the ocean compared to another treasure buried by Lafitte that the Professor says he can locate.
John Bromfield... Brannigan Lon Chaney Jr....'Swede' Victor Jory...'Professor' Barbara Nichols... Mimi Tessa Prendergast... Alita Eric Coverly... Chavez Vincent Chang... Domingo Theodore Purcell... Big Boy Vere Johns... Bianco Jack Lewis... Inspector Warren Arnold Shanks... Aleppo Clyde Hoyte... Calypso Big Fish and Goodbye written and performed by Clyde HoyteBeware the Caribbean written by Richard Koerner and performed by Barbara Nichols List of American films of 1956 List of films in the public domain in the United States Manfish on IMDb Manfish on YouTube Manfish is available for free download at the Internet Archive Scifilm Review
Tell-Tale is a 2009 science fiction-horror drama film inspired by the Edgar Allan Poe short story "The Tell-Tale Heart". It is directed by Michael Cuesta and stars Josh Lucas, Lena Headey, Brian Cox and is produced by Tony Scott and Ridley Scott. A man's transplanted heart leads him on a frantic search to find the donor's killer before a similar fate befalls him. In Providence, a husband and his wife die in a botched robbery, his heart goes to a single father raising a girl with a rare degenerative disease. After the operation, Terry has flashes of memory from the last moments of the dead donor's life, he recognizes one of the donor's killers and follows him into an alley. Within days, Terry becomes an unwilling avenger, with a police detective on his trail. Meanwhile, he begins a romance with his daughter's doctor, his moods complicated by memory flashes, the donor's deepening presence in both Terry's mind and body, the unexplained bond among the donor's killers. Can this end well? Josh Lucas as Terry Brian Cox as Det.
Van Doran Lena Headey as Elizabeth Beatrice Miller as Angela Dallas Roberts as The Surgeon Ulrich Thomsen as Lethe Pablo Schreiber as Cochius Jamie Harrold as Stanovich Tom Riis Farrell as Legethon Julia Ryan as Museum Docent Michael K. Williams as Acherton Scott Winters as Dr. Averman John Timothy Botka as Police Officer The film received a DVD and Blu-ray Disc release on 25 May 2010. Tell-Tale on IMDb
The Tell-Tale Heart (2014 film)
The Tell-Tale Heart is a horror film directed by John La Tier, based on Edgar Allan Poe's short story of the same name. A man is haunted by the heart of a man; the film moves Poe's story into a contemporary New Orleans setting. Rose McGowan stars as a character who "may or may not be real". Rose McGowan Patrick Flueger Peter Bogdanovitch Jacob Vargas Damon Whitaker Filming began in October 2011 in New Orleans; the first image from the set was released on October 28, 2011. The first trailer for the film was released on May 10, 2013, footage from the film was shown at Cannes; the film was produced by the companies Popart Film Leverage Entertainment. Http://www.dreadcentral.com/news/66554/tell-tale-heart-keeps-beating-cannes The Tell-Tale Heart on IMDb The Tell-Tale Heart at Rotten Tomatoes
The Avenging Conscience
The Avenging Conscience: or "Thou Shalt Not Kill" is a 1914 silent horror drama film directed by D. W. Griffith; the film is based on the Edgar Allan Poe short story "The Tell-Tale Heart" and the poem "Annabel Lee". A young man is prevented by his uncle from pursuing her. Tormented by visions of death and suffering and deciding that murder is the way of things, the young man kills his uncle and builds a wall to hide the body; the young man's torment continues, this time caused by guilt over murdering his uncle, he becomes sensitive to slight noises, like the tapping of a shoe or the crying of a bird. The ghost of his uncle begins appearing to him and, as he loses his grip on reality, the police figure out what he has done and chase him down. In the ending sequence, we learn that the experience was all a dream and that his uncle is alive. Henry B. Walthall as the nephew Blanche Sweet as his sweetheart Spottiswoode Aitken as the uncle George Siegmann as the Italian Ralph Lewis as the detective Mae Marsh as the maid Robert Harron as the grocery boy George Beranger Wallace Reid - the doctor The Avenging Conscience on IMDb The Avenging Conscience is available for free download at the Internet Archive