A cargo ship or freighter ship is a merchant ship that carries cargo and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year, handling the bulk of international trade. Cargo ships are specially designed for the task being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, come in all sizes. Today, they are always built by welded steel, with some exceptions have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped. Cargo ships/freighters can be divided into six groups, according to the type of cargo they carry; these groups are: General cargo vessels Container ships Tankers Dry bulk carriers Multi-purpose vessels Reefer shipsGeneral cargo vessels carry packaged items like chemicals, furniture, motor- and military vehicles, garments, etc. Tankers carry other liquid cargo. Dry bulk carriers carry coal, grain and other similar products in loose form. Multi-purpose vessels, as the name suggests, carry different classes of cargo – e.g. liquid and general cargo – at the same time.
A Reefer ship is designed and used for shipping perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled fruits, fish, dairy products and other foodstuffs. Specialized types of cargo vessels include container ships and bulk carriers. Cargo ships fall into two further categories that reflect the services they offer to industry: liner and tramp services; those on a fixed published schedule and fixed tariff rates are cargo liners. Tramp ships do not have fixed schedules. Users charter them to haul loads; the smaller shipping companies and private individuals operate tramp ships. Cargo liners run on fixed schedules published by the shipping companies; each trip a liner takes is called a voyage. Liners carry general cargo. However, some cargo liners may carry passengers also. A cargo liner that carries 12 or more passengers is called a combination or passenger-run-cargo line; the earliest records of waterborne activity mention the carriage of items for trade. The desire to operate trade routes over longer distances, throughout more seasons of the year, motivated improvements in ship design during the Middle Ages.
Before the middle of the 19th century, the incidence of piracy resulted in most cargo ships being armed, sometimes quite as in the case of the Manila galleons and East Indiamen. They were sometimes escorted by warships. Piracy is still quite common in some waters in the Malacca Straits, a narrow channel between Indonesia and Singapore / Malaysia, cargo ships are still targeted. In 2004, the governments of those three nations agreed to provide better protection for the ships passing through the Straits; the waters off Somalia and Nigeria are prone to piracy, while smaller vessels are in danger along parts of the South American, Southeast Asian coasts and near the Caribbean Sea. The words cargo and freight have become interchangeable in casual usage. Technically, "cargo" refers to the goods carried aboard the ship for hire, while "freight" refers to the compensation the ship or charterer receives for carrying the cargo; the modern ocean shipping business is divided into two classes: Liner business: container vessels, operating as "common carriers", calling a published schedule of ports.
A common carrier refers to a regulated service where any member of the public may book cargo for shipment, according to long-established and internationally agreed rules. Tramp-tanker business: this is private business arranged between the shipper and receiver and facilitated by the vessel owners or operators, who offer their vessels for hire to carry bulk or break bulk to any suitable port in the world, according to a drawn contract, called a charter party. Larger cargo ships are operated by shipping lines: companies that specialize in the handling of cargo in general. Smaller vessels, such as coasters, are owned by their operators. A category designation appears before the vessel's name. A few examples of prefixes for naval ships are "USS", "HMS", "HMCS" and "HTMS", while a few examples for prefixes for merchant ships are "RMS", "MV", "MT" "FV" Fishing Vessel and "SS". "TS", sometimes found in first position before a merchant ship's prefix, denotes that it is a Turbine Steamer. Famous cargo ships include the Liberty ships of World War II based on a British design.
Liberty ship sections were prefabricated in locations across the United States and assembled by shipbuilders in an average of six weeks, with the record being just over four days. These ships allowed the Allies to replace sunken cargo vessels at a rate gr
The Cats of Ulthar
"The Cats of Ulthar" is a short story written by American fantasy author H. P. Lovecraft in June 1920. In the tale, an unnamed narrator relates the story of how a law forbidding the killing of cats came to be in a town called Ulthar; as the narrative goes, the city is home to an old couple who enjoy capturing and killing the townspeople's cats. When a caravan of wanderers passes through the city, the kitten of an orphan traveling with the band disappears. Upon hearing of the couple's violent acts towards cats, Menes invokes a prayer before leaving town that causes the local felines to swarm the cat-killers' house and devour them. Upon witnessing the result, the local politicians pass a law forbidding the killing of cats. Influenced by Lord Dunsany, the tale was a personal favorite of Lovecraft's and has remained popular since his death. Considered one of the best short stories of Lovecraft's early period, aspects of The Cats of Ulthar would be referenced again in the author's works The Other Gods and The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath.
It was first published in the literary journal Tryout in November 1920 and now resides in the public domain. An unnamed narrator, while gazing upon his pet cat, begins to reminisce about a law in the town of Ulthar which forbids the killing of cats and relates the story of how this law came to be; the tale begins with the introduction of an old cotter and his wife who delight in trapping and violently killing any cats who venture onto their property. The people of the town are too afraid of the couple to speak against these acts, so they instead focus their efforts on keeping their felines from approaching the cotter's house. One night a caravan of travelers from a distant land passes through the village, they bring with them an orphan named Menes who, having lost his family to a plague, has only a small, black kitten to keep him company. After being unable to find his kitten on the third day of his stay, Menes hears the stories of the old cotter and his wife, decides to take action. Menes spends time meditating prior to unleashing a prayer that affects the shapes and movements of the clouds in the sky.
The caravan leaves Ulthar that night, shortly before the townspeople notice that all of their cats have gone missing. The townspeople suspect both the old couple and the wanderers, but the innkeeper's son Atal witnesses the felines circling the property of the cotter; the next morning, the cats have returned to their owners well-fed, but the cotter and his wife have vanished. When the townspeople explore their abandoned house, they discovered nothing more than two skeletons that have been picked clean; the local burgesses, after reviewing the evidence and stories of the townspeople, decide to pass a law that forbids the killing of cats in Ulthar. Lovecraft outlined the plot to his friend Rheinhart Kleiner in May 1920 and wrote The Cats of Ulthar on June 15, 1920, five months after completing his previous tale, The Terrible Old Man. Conceived during the author's early period, Lovecraft was influenced by the writing of Anglo-Irish writer Lord Dunsany and attempted to mimic his style. Among the literary aspects that Lovecraft borrows are the "vengeance motif" and the "ponderous tone" of Dunsany.
Dunsany's influence is evident on the surface of the text as well: wanderers, similar to the ones portrayed in The Cats of Ulthar, appear in Dunsany's earlier tale Idle Days on the Yann. Lovecraft's character of Menes shares his name with Menes, the semi-mythical founder of the ancient city of Memphis, Egypt; the ancient Egyptians were admirers of cats who made it a crime to export felines. Prior to The Cats of Ulthar, Lovecraft had penned several tales in the style of Lord Dunsany, including The White Ship, The Street, The Doom that Came to Sarnath, The Terrible Old Man, The Tree, his next Dunsanian tale, Celephaïs, was considered by Lovecraft scholar S. T. Joshi to be "one of his best and most significant"; the Cats of Ulthar was first published in the literary journal Tryout in November 1920, appeared in Weird Tales in February 1926 and 1933, as well as being reprinted in a forty two-copy run in December 1935. The Cats of Ulthar was a personal favorite of Lovecraft's, an ardent cat lover.
A number of contemporary critics, as well as Lovecraft himself, consider the story to be the best of all his Dunsanian tales. Other critics have noted that the story is one of Lovecraft's most famous tales that fits both the Dunsanian and the "weird fantasy" style. Literary critic Darrell Schweitzer, comments that The Cats of Ulthar resembles Dunsany in "mood and execution" only and that " has no obvious parallels in any Dunsany story". Schweitzer refers to the prose as "restrained", notes that, unlike Lovecraft, Dunsany preferred dogs and would have been unlikely to have written such an enthusiastic tribute. Lovecraft scholar S. T. Joshi disagrees, claiming that "his tale owes more to Dunsany than many of his other'Dunsanian' fantasies"; the character of Atal, the innkeeper's son who witnesses the cats of Ulthar circling the antagonists' cottage, would appear in Lovecraft's The Other Gods. In this short story, written in August 1921 and first published in November 1933, now an adult, becomes an apprentice to Barzai the Wise and travels with him to seek out the tale's eponymous deities.
Barzai mentions the law against killing cats in Ulthar, further cementing the connection. Atal appears as a priest in the long The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath — written in 1927 but not published until 1943 — when protagonist Randolph Carter visits the city 300 years after the events in The Cats of Ulthar, when the town is still populated by felines. Carter is able to summon the cats of Ulthar to his aid. Cats would be used in what scholar Katharine M. Rogers calls "a more original w
Yucatán the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 106 municipalities, its capital city is Mérida, it is located on the north part of the Yucatán Peninsula. It is bordered by the states of Campeche to the southwest and Quintana Roo to the southeast, with the Gulf of Mexico off its north coast. Before the arrival of Spaniards to the Yucatán Peninsula, the name of this region was Mayab. In the Mayan language, "ma' ya'ab" is translated as "a few", it was a important region for the Mayan civilization, which reached the peak of its development here, where the Mayans founded the cities of Chichen Itza, Motul, Mayapan, Ek' Balam and Ichcaanzihóo, now Mérida. After the Spanish conquest of Yucatán, the Peninsula was a single administrative and political entity, the Captaincy General of Yucatán. Following independence and the breakup of the Mexican Empire in 1823, the first Republic of Yucatán was proclaimed, voluntarily annexed to the Federal Republic of United Mexican States on December 21, 1823.
On March 16, 1841, as a result of cultural and political conflicts around the federal pact, Yucatán declared its independence from Mexico. Forming a second Republic of Yucatán. On July 14, 1848, Yucatán was forced to rejoin Mexico. In 1858, in the middle of the caste war, the state of Yucatán was divided for the first time, establishing Campeche as a separate state. During the Porfiriato, in 1902, the state of Yucatán was divided again to form the Federal territory that became the present state of Quintana Roo. Today, Yucatán is the safest state in Mexico and Mérida was awarded City of Peace in 2011; the name Yucatán assigned to the peninsula, came from early explorations of the Conquistadors from Europe. Three different explanations for the origin of the name have been proposed; the first is that the name resulted from confusion between the Mayan inhabitants and the first Spanish explorers around 1517: According to one of them, it came from the answer of an indigenous Mayan to the question of a Spanish explorer, who wanted to know the name of the region.
The Mayan replied Ma'anaatik ka t'ann which means in the Maya language I do not understand your speech or I do not understand you. It is said that the Spaniards gave the name of Yucatán to the region, because the Mayan answered their questions with the phrase uh yu ka t'ann, which in the Maya language means hear how they talk; the first person to propose the "I do not understand" version was the friar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia. In his book Historia de los indios de la Nueva España he says because talking with those Indians of the coast, whatever the Spanish asked the Indians responded: Tectetán, Tectetán which means I don't understand you, I don't understand you; the second proposed explanation comes from Bernal Díaz del Castillo. In his book Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España, he says Yucatá means "land of yucas", a plant, cultivated by the Maya and was an important food source for them; the third, most explanation is that the name derived from the Maya people who inhabited the region.
Today the people are referred to by their Aztec name, the Chontal, but the Chontal Maya people refer to themselves as the Yokot'anob or the Yokot'an, meaning "the speakers of Yoko ochoco". Thus Yucatan most derives from Yokot'an; the origin of the first settlements has not been scientifically confirmed, although the presence of first humans in the area dates from the late Pleistocene or ice age, according to the findings in the Loltún caves and caverns of Tulum. The first Maya moved to the Peninsula circa 250 CE, from the Petén, to settle the southeastern peninsula in the modern Bacalar, Quintana Roo. In 525, the Chanés, moved to the east of the peninsula, founding Chichén Itzá, Motul, Ek' Balam, Ichcaanzihó and Champotón. Tutul xiúes, Toltec descent, who came from the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, settled in the region causing displacement of the Itza and Cocomes—a diversified branch of Itzá—and after years and many battles, was formed Mayapán League, that disintegrated circa 1194, giving way to a period of anarchy and fragmentation into small domains which the Spanish conquistadors found in the 16th century.
In 1513, Juan Ponce de León had conquered the island of Borinquén and had discovered Florida. Antón de Alaminos, with Ponce de León on this latest discovery, suspected that west of Cuba they could find new land. Under their influence, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, supported by the governor of Cuba, organized an expedition commanded by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba to explore the seas west of the island; this expedition sailed from port of Ajaruco on February 8, 1517, to La Habana and after circling the island and sailing southwest by what is now known as the Yucatán Channel, the expedition made landfall at the Yucatán Peninsula on March 1. There are discrepancies about; some say. Bernal Díaz del Castillo places it at Cabo Catoche where they saw a great city which they named the «Gran Cairo». T
Dolphin is a common name of aquatic mammals within the order Cetacea, arbitrarily excluding whales and porpoises. The term dolphin refers to the extant families Delphinidae, Platanistidae and Pontoporiidae, the extinct Lipotidae. There are 40 extant species named as dolphins. Dolphins range in size from the 1.7 m long and 50 kg Maui's dolphin to the 9.5 m and 10 t killer whale. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism, they have two limbs that are modified into flippers. Though not quite as flexible as seals, some dolphins can travel at 55.5 km/h. Dolphins use their conical shaped teeth to capture fast moving prey, they have well-developed hearing, adapted for both air and water and is so well developed that some can survive if they are blind. Some species are well adapted for diving to great depths, they have a layer of blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water. Although dolphins are widespread, most species prefer the warmer waters of the tropic zones, but some, like the right whale dolphin, prefer colder climates.
Dolphins feed on fish and squid, but a few, like the killer whale, feed on large mammals, like seals. Male dolphins mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. Calves are born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a long period of time. Dolphins produce a variety of vocalizations in the form of clicks and whistles. Dolphins are sometimes hunted in places such as Japan, in an activity known as dolphin drive hunting. Besides drive hunting, they face threats from bycatch, habitat loss, marine pollution. Dolphins have been depicted in various cultures worldwide. Dolphins feature in literature and film, as in the film series Free Willy. Dolphins are sometimes trained to perform tricks; the most common dolphin species in captivity is the bottlenose dolphin, while there are around 60 captive killer whales. The name is from Greek δελφίς, "dolphin", related to the Greek δελφύς, "womb".
The animal's name can therefore be interpreted as meaning "a'fish' with a womb". The name was transmitted via the Latin delphinus, which in Medieval Latin became dolfinus and in Old French daulphin, which reintroduced the ph into the word; the term mereswine has historically been used. The term'dolphin' can be used to refer to, under the parvorder Odontoceti, all the species in the family Delphinidae and the river dolphin families Iniidae, Pontoporiidae and Platanistidae; this term has been misused in the US in the fishing industry, where all small cetaceans are considered porpoises, while the fish dorado is called dolphin fish. In common usage the term'whale' is used only for the larger cetacean species, while the smaller ones with a beaked or longer nose are considered'dolphins'; the name'dolphin' is used casually as a synonym for bottlenose dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin. There are six species of dolphins thought of as whales, collectively known as blackfish: the killer whale, the melon-headed whale, the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale, the two species of pilot whales, all of which are classified under the family Delphinidae and qualify as dolphins.
Though the terms'dolphin' and'porpoise' are sometimes used interchangeably, porpoises are not considered dolphins and have different physical features such as a shorter beak and spade-shaped teeth. Porpoises share a common ancestry with the Delphinidae. A group of dolphins is called a "school" or a "pod". Male dolphins are called "bulls", females "cows" and young dolphins are called "calves". Parvorder Odontoceti, toothed whales Family Platanistidae Ganges and Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica with two subspecies Ganges river dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor Family Iniidae Amazon river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis Orinoco river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis humboldtiana Araguaian river dolphin, Inia Araguaiaensis Bolivian river dolphin, Inia boliviensis Family Lipotidae Baiji, Lipotes vexillifer Family Pontoporiidae La Plata dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei Family Delphinidae, oceanic dolphins Genus Delphinus Long-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus capensis Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis Genus Tursiops Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus Burrunan dolphin, Tursiops australis, a newly discovered species from the sea around Melbourne in September 2011.
Genus Lissodelphis Northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis Southern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis peronii Genus Sotalia Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis Costero, Sotalia guianensis Genus Sousa Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis Chinese white dolphin, Sousa chinensis chinensis Atlantic humpback dolphin, Sousa teuszii Genus Stenella Atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis Clymene dolphin, Stenella clymene Pantropical
Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people to oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject. The term is used for a rebellion among members of the military against their superior officers, but it can occasionally refer to any type of rebellion against authority figures or governances. During the Age of Discovery, mutiny meant open rebellion against a ship's captain; this occurred, for example, during Ferdinand Magellan's journeys around the world resulting in the killing of one mutineer, the execution of another, the marooning of others. Mutiny carried capital punishment; until 1689, mutiny was regulated in England by Articles of War instituted by the monarch and effective only in a period of war. In 1689, the first Mutiny Act was passed which passed the responsibility to enforce discipline within the military to Parliament; the Mutiny Act, altered in 1803, the Articles of War defined the nature and punishment of mutiny until the latter were replaced by the Army Discipline and Regulation Act in 1879.
This, in turn, was replaced by the Army Act in 1881. Today the Army Act 1955 defines mutiny as follows: Mutiny means a combination between two or more persons subject to service law, or between persons two at least of whom are subject to service law— to overthrow or resist lawful authority in Her Majesty's forces or any forces co-operating therewith or in any part of any of the said forces, to disobey such authority in such circumstances as to make the disobedience subversive of discipline, or with the object of avoiding any duty or service against, or in connection with operations against, the enemy, or to impede the performance of any duty or service in Her Majesty's forces or in any forces co-operating therewith or in any part of any of the said forces; the same definition applies in the Royal Royal Air Force. The military law of England in early times existed, like the forces to which it applied, in a period of war only. Troops were disbanded upon the cessation of hostilities; the crown, by prerogative, made laws known as Articles of War for the government and discipline of the troops while thus embodied and serving.
Except for the punishment of desertion, made a felony by statute in the reign of Henry VI, these ordinances or Articles of War remained the sole authority for the enforcement of discipline until 1689 when the first Mutiny Act was passed and the military forces of the crown were brought under the direct control of parliament. The Parliamentary forces in the time of Charles I and Oliver Cromwell were governed, not by an act of the legislature, but by articles of war similar to those issued by the king and authorized by an ordinance of the Lords and Commons exercising in that respect the sovereign prerogative; this power of law-making by prerogative was however held to be applicable during a state of actual war only, attempts to exercise it in time of peace were ineffectual. Subject to this limitation, it existed for more than a century after the passing of the first Mutiny Act. From 1689 to 1803, although in peacetime the Mutiny Act was suffered to expire, a statutory power was given to the crown to make Articles of War to operate in the colonies and elsewhere beyond the seas in the same manner as those made by prerogative operated in time of war.
In 1715, in consequence of the rebellion, this power was created in respect of the forces in the kingdom but apart from and in no respect affected the principle acknowledged all this time that the crown of its mere prerogative could make laws for the government of the army in foreign countries in time of war. The Mutiny Act of 1803 effected a great constitutional change in this respect: the power of the crown to make any Articles of War became altogether statutory, the prerogative merged in the act of parliament; the Mutiny Act 1873 was passed in this manner. Such matters remained until 1879 when the last Mutiny Act was passed and the last Articles of War were promulgated; the Mutiny Act legislated for offences in respect of which death or penal servitude could be awarded, the Articles of War, while repeating those provisions of the act, constituted the direct authority for dealing with offences for which imprisonment was the maximum punishment as well as with many matters relating to trial and procedure.
The act and the articles were found not to harmonize in all respects. Their general arrangement was faulty, their language sometimes obscure. In 1869, a royal commission recommended that both should be recast in a simple and intelligible shape. In 1878, a committee of the House of Commons endorsed this view and made recommendations as to how the task should be performed. In 1879, passed into law a measure consolidating in one act both the Mutiny Act and the Articles of War, amending their provisions in certain important respects; this measure was called the Army Discipline and Regulation Act 1879. After one or two years experience finding room for improvement, it was superseded by the Army Act 1881, which hence formed the foundation and the main portion of the military law of England, containing a proviso saving the right of the crown to make Articles of War, but in such a manner as to render the power in effect a nullity by enacting that no crime made punishable by the act shall be otherwise punishable by such articles.
As the punishment of every conceivable offence was provided, any articles made under the act could be no more than an empty formality having no practical effect. Thus the history of English
Dagon (short story)
"Dagon" is a short story by American author H. P. Lovecraft, it is one of the first stories that Lovecraft wrote as an adult. It was first published in the November 1919 edition of The Vagrant. Dagon was published in Weird Tales, it is considered by many to be one of Lovecraft's most forward-looking stories. The story is the testament of a tortured, morphine-addicted man who relates an incident that occurred during his service as an officer during World War I. In the unnamed narrator's account, his cargo ship is captured by an Imperial German sea-raider in "one of the most open and least frequented parts of the broad Pacific", he escapes on a lifeboat and drifts aimlessly, south of the equator, until he finds himself stranded on "a slimy expanse of hellish black mire which extended about in monotonous undulations as far as could see.... The region was putrid with the carcasses of decaying fish and less describable things which saw protruding from the nasty mud of the unending plain." He theorizes that this area was a portion of the ocean floor thrown to the surface by volcanic activity, "exposing regions which for innumerable millions of years had lain hidden under unfathomable watery depths."After waiting three days for the seafloor to dry out sufficiently to walk on, he ventures out on foot to find the sea and possible rescue.
After two days of walking, he reaches his goal, a hill which turns out to be a mound on the edge of an "immeasurable pit or canyon". Descending the slope, he sees a gigantic white stone object that he soon perceives to be a "well-shaped monolith whose massive bulk had known the workmanship and the worship of living and thinking creatures." The monolith, situated next to a channel of water in the bottom of the chasm, is covered in unfamiliar hieroglyphs "consisting for the most part of conventionalized aquatic symbols such as fishes, octopuses, mollusks and the like." There are "crude sculptures" depicting: men—at least, a certain sort of men. Curiously enough, they seemed to have been chiseled badly out of proportion with their scenic background; as the narrator looks at the monolith, a creature emerges from the water: With only a slight churning to mark its rise to the surface, the thing slid into view above the dark waters. Vast, Polyphemus-like, loathsome, it darted like a stupendous monster of nightmares to the monolith, about which it flung its gigantic scaly arms, the while it bowed its hideous head and gave vent to certain measured sounds.
Horrified, the mariner flees back to his stranded boat and vaguely recalls a "great storm". His next memory is of a San Francisco hospital, where he was taken after being rescued in mid-ocean by a U. S. ship. There are no reports of any Pacific upheavals, he does not expect anyone to believe his incredible story, he mentions one abortive attempt to gain understanding of his experience: Once I sought out a celebrated ethnologist, amused him with peculiar questions regarding the ancient Philistine legend of Dagon, the Fish-God. Haunted by visions of the creature, "especially when the moon is gibbous and waning", he describes his fears for the future of humanity: I cannot think of the deep sea without shuddering at the nameless things that may at this moment be crawling and floundering on its slimy bed, worshipping their ancient stone idols and carving their own detestable likenesses on submarine obelisks of water-soaked granite. I dream of a day when they may rise above the billows to drag down in their reeking talons the remnants of puny, war-exhausted mankind --of a day when the land shall sink, the dark ocean floor shall ascend amidst universal pandemonium.
With the drug that has given him "transient surcease" running out, he declares himself ready to do himself in. The story ends with the narrator rushing to the window as he hears "a noise at the door, as of some immense slippery body lumbering against it." After reading Lovecraft's juvenilia in 1917, W. Paul Cook, editor of the amateur press journal The Vagrant, encouraged him to resume writing fiction; that summer, Lovecraft wrote two stories: "The Tomb" and "Dagon". The story was inspired in part by a dream. "I dreamed that whole hideous crawl, can yet feel the ooze sucking me down!" he wrote. Critic William Fulwiler indicates that Lovecraft may have been influenced by Irvin S. Cobb's "Fishhead", a story about a strange fish-like human. Fulwiler has suggested that Lovecraft took the story's theme of "an ancient prehuman race that will someday rise to conquer humanity" from Edgar Rice Burroughs' At the Earth's Core; the story mentions the Piltdown Man, which had not been exposed by the scientific community as a fraud and hoax at the time of writing.
As to the name of the story, Lovecraft seems to be referring to the ancient Sumerian god named Dagon, the fertility god of grains and fish, because in the story, the main character makes inquiries "....regarding the ancient Philistine legend of Dagon, the Fish-God." The Sumerian deity is sometimes depicted as being part fish, or wearing a fish. Since Lovecraft was fond of references to actual archaeological discoveries in his writings from time