The Shadows were an English instrumental rock group, were Cliff Richard's backing band from 1958 to 1968 and have collaborated again on numerous reunion tours. The Shadows have placed 69 UK charted singles from the 1950s to the 2000s, 35 credited to the Shadows and 34 to Cliff Richard and the Shadows; the group, who were in the forefront of the UK beat-group boom, were the first backing band to emerge as stars. As pioneers of the four-member instrumental format, the band consisted of lead guitar, rhythm guitar, bass guitar and drums, their range covers pop, surf rock and ballads with a jazz influence. The core members from 1958 to 2015 were Bruce Welch. Along with the Fender guitar, another cornerstone of the Shadows sound was the Vox amplifier; the Shadows, with Cliff Richard, dominated British popular music in the late 1950s and early 1960s in the years before the Beatles. The Shadows' number one hits included "Apache", "Kon-Tiki", "Wonderful Land", "Foot Tapper" and "Dance On!". They reunited in the 1970s for further commercial success.
The Shadows are the fourth most successful act in the UK singles chart, behind Elvis Presley, the Beatles, Cliff Richard. The Shadows and Cliff Richard & the Shadows each have had four No. 1 selling EPs. Formed as a backing band for Cliff Richard under the name The Drifters, the original members were founder Ken Pavey, Terry Smart on drums, Norman Mitham on guitar, Ian Samwell on guitar and Harry Webb on guitar and vocals, they had no bass player. Samwell wrote the first hit, "Move It" mistakenly attributed to "Cliff Richard and the Shadows". Norrie Paramor wanted to record using only studio musicians but after persuasion he allowed Smart and Samwell to play as well. Two session players, guitarist Ernie Shear and bassist Frank Clark, played on the "Move It/Schoolboy Crush" single on Paramor's insistence to ensure a strong sound. In his memoirs, Welch regrets that he and Marvin could not be at the start of making history with "Move It"; the Drifters signed for Jack Good's Oh Boy! television series.
Paramor of EMI signed Richard, asked Johnny Foster to recruit a better guitarist. Foster went to Soho's 2i's coffee bar, known for musical talent performing there in skiffle, in search of guitarist Tony Sheridan. Sheridan was not there but Foster's attention was caught by Marvin, who played guitar well and had Buddy Holly-style glasses. In spring the same year, the owner of the United States vocal group The Drifters threatened legal action after the release and immediate withdrawal of "Feelin Fine" in the US; the second single, Jet Black, was released in the States as by The Four Jets to avoid further legal aggravation, but a new band name was urgently needed. The name "The Shadows" was thought up by Harris while he and Marvin were at the Six Bells pub in Ruislip in July 1959. From The Story of the Shadows: With a combination of the American situation, Cliff Richard's runaway success and a bit of nudging from Norrie Paramor, we set about finding a permanent name, which arrived out of the blue one summer's day in July 1959.
When Hank Marvin and Jet Harris took off on their scooters up to the Six Bells pub at Ruislip, Jet hit upon a name straight away.'What about the Shadows?' The lad was a genius! So we became the Shadows for the first time on Cliff's sixth single "Travellin' Light". In 1960, "Apache", an instrumental by Jerry Lordan, topped the UK charts for five weeks. Further hits followed, including the number ones "Kon Tiki" and "Wonderful Land", another Lordan composition with orchestral backing; the Shadows played on further hits as Richard's band. In October 1961, Meehan left to be a producer at Decca records, he was replaced by Brian Bennett. In April 1962, Harris was replaced by Brian "Licorice" Locking. Bennett and Locking were friends from the 2I's, in Marty Wilde's backing group, the Wildcats, who recorded instrumentals as the Krew Kats; this Shadows line-up released seven hit singles, two of which, "Dance On!" and "Foot Tapper", topped the charts. In October 1963, Locking left to spend more time as a Jehovah's Witness.
Meanwhile and Meehan teamed up at Decca as an eponymous duo to record another Lordan instrumental, "Diamonds". It rose to UK no. 1 in January 1963. Two further hits, "Scarlett O'Hara" and "Applejack", followed in the same year. On the Lordan tunes, Harris played lead using a six-stringed Fender Bass VI. During 1963, the ex-Shadows were competing in the charts with their former bandmates; the Shadows had met John Rostill on tour with other bands and had been impressed by his playing, so they invited him to join. This final and longest-lasting line-up was the most innovative as they tried different guitars and developed a wider range of styles and higher musicianship, they produced albums but the chart positions of singles began to ease. The line-up had ten hits, the first and most successful of, "The Rise and Fall of Flingel Bunt". During the 1960s, the group appeared with Richard in the films The Young Ones, Summer Holiday, Wonderful Life, Finders Keepers, they appeared as marionettes in the Gerry Anderson film Thunderbirds Are GO, starred in a short B-film called Rhythm'n Greens which became the basis of a music book and an EP.
They appeared in pantomime: Aladdin and his Wonderful Lamp was in 1964 at the London Palladium with Arthur Askey as Widow Twankey, Richard as Aladdin, the Shadows as Wishee, Washee and Poshee. Their film and stage roles allowed
1950 in music
This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1950. 1950 in British music 1950 in Norwegian music 1950 in country music 1950 in jazz January 3 – Sam Phillips launches Sun Records at 706 Union Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee. March 14 – Pablo Casals terminates his recording contract with RCA Records and signs with their chief competitor, Columbia Records. June 26 – Louis Armstrong records the first American version of C'est si bon with the English lyrics by Jerry Seelen. August 29 – The first American Music Competition of the Sigma Alpha Iota music fraternity is won by Richard Winslow for Huswifery, a choral composition for women's voices. August – Herbert Howells' Hymnus Paradisi is premiered at the Three Choirs Festival. October 1 – Italian composer Luciano Berio marries American mezzo-soprano Cathy Berberian. October 11 – On temporary release from Ellis Island pending a deportation decision from U. S. immigration authorities, 20-year-old Friedrich Gulda makes his Carnegie Hall debut.
November – The Eleanor Steber Award is won by soprano Willabelle Underwood. Johann Sebastian Bach is reburied in St. Thomas Church, Leipzig. Malcolm Sargent becomes chief conductor of the BBC Symphony Orchestra. Isaak Dunayevsky is named People's Artist of the USSR. Mitch Miller signs as A&R man with Columbia Records. Patti Page becomes the first artist to have a Number One record on the Pop, R&B and Country charts concurrently. Al Cernick is signed to Columbia by Mitch Miller, who changes the singer's name to Guy Mitchell. Columbia Records lures Jo Stafford away from Capitol. Georgia Gibbs leaves the Majestic label and scores her first charting single with Coral. Bandleader Les Baxter founds the school of "Outer Space" exotica. Sam Cooke replaces R. H. Harris as lead singer of The Soul Stirrers. American Folks Songs – Jo Stafford Auld Lang Syne – Bing Crosby Autumn in New York – Jo Stafford Barber Shop Ballads – The Mills Brothers Blue of the Night – Bing Crosby The Famous 1938 Carnegie Hall Jazz Concert – Benny Goodman Christmas Greetings – Bing Crosby Cole Porter Songs – Bing Crosby Country Feelin – Dinah Shore Drifting and Dreaming – Bing Crosby Ella Sings Gershwin – Ella Fitzgerald The Fat Man – Fats Domino Frankie Laine – Frankie Laine Going My Way – Bing Crosby Historical America in Song – Burl Ives King Cole Trio – King Cole Trio King Cole Trio Volume 2 – King Cole Trio Live at Carnegie Hall – Benny Goodman Oh!
Susanna – Al Jolson Popular Classics for Four Pianos – Philharmonic Piano Quartet Porgy and Bess – Various Artists Sing a Song of Christmas – The Ames Brothers Sing and Dance with Frank Sinatra – Frank Sinatra Songs By Gershwin – Bing Crosby Songs of Faith – Jo Stafford Songs for Sunday Evening – Jo Stafford Tea for Two – Doris Day Two Loves Have I – Frankie Laine Voice of the Xtabay – Yma Sumac Young Man with a Horn – Doris Day These singles reached the top of Billboard magazine's charts in 1950. The following songs achieved the highest chart positions in the limited set of charts available for 1950. "Double Crossin' Blues" – Johnny Otis with Little Esther & the Robins "Adelaide's Lament" w.m. Frank Loesser "African Bolero" m. John Serry, Sr. "American Beauty Rose" w.m. Hal David, Redd Evans & Arthur Altman "Be My Love" w. Sammy Cahn m. Nicholas Brodszky "The Best Thing For You" w.m. Irving Berlin "Blind Date" w.m. Sid Robin "A Bushel And A Peck" w.m. Frank Loesser "Candy And Cake" w.m. Bob Merrill "Chattanoogie Shoe Shine Boy" w.m.
Harry Stone & Jack Stapp "Choo'n Gum" w. Mann Curtis m. Vic Mizzy "Cold, Cold Heart" w.m. Hank Williams "The Cry of the Wild Goose" w.m. Terry Gilkyson "Dearie" w.m. Bob Hilliard & David Mann "Domino" w. Don Raye Jacques Plante m. Louis Ferrari "Freight Train" w. Paul James & Fred Williams m. trad arr. Elizabeth Cotton "The French Can-Can Polka" w. Jimmy Kennedy m. Jacques Offenbach "From This Moment On" w.m. Cole Porter "Frosty the Snowman" w.m. Steve Nelson & Jack Rollins "Fugue For Tinhorns" w.m. Frank Loesser "Get Out Those Old Records" w.m. Carmen Lombardo & John Jacob Loeb "Gone Fishin'" w.m. Nick Kenny & Charles Kenny "Guys and Dolls" w.m. Frank Loesser "Home Cookin"' w.m. Jay Livingston & Ray Evans "Hoop-Dee-Doo" w. Frank Loesser m. Milton De Lugg "The Hostess With The Mostes' On The Ball" w.m. Irving Berlin. Introduced by Ethel Merman in the musical Call Me Madam "I Almost Lost My Mind" w.m. Ivory Joe Hunter "I Didn't Slip, I Wasn't Pushed, I Fell" w.m. Edward Pola & George Wyle "I Don't Care If The Sun Don't Shine" w.m.
Mack David "I Leave My Heart in an English Garden" w.m. Harry Parr-Davies and Christopher Hassall from the musical Dear Miss Phoebe "I Tawt I Taw a Puddy Tat" w.m. Alan Livingston, Billy May & Warren Foster "If I Knew You Were Comin' I'd've Baked A Cake" w.m. Al Hoffman, Bob Merrill & Clem Watts "If I Were A Bell" w.m. Frank Loesser "I'll Know" w.m. Frank Loesser "I'll Never Be Free" w.m. Bennie Benjamin & George David Weiss "I'm Movin' On" w.m. Hank Snow "It Is No Secret" w.m. Stuart Hamblen "It's A Lovely Day Today" w.m. Irving Berlin "I've Never Been In Love Before" w.m. Frank Loesser "Ivory Rag" Lou Busch, Jack Elliott "Little White Duck" w.m. Walt Barrows & Bernard Zaritsky "The Loveliest Night Of The Year" w. Paul Francis Webster m. Juventino P. Rosas "Luck Be a Lady" w.m. Frank Loesser "Lucky Lucky Lucky Me" Berle, Arnold "Marry The Man Today" w.m. Frank Loesser "Marrying For Love" w.m. Irving Berlin "More I Cannot Wish You" w.m. Frank Loesser "My Heart Cries For You" w.m. Carl Sigman & Percy Faith "My Time Of Day" w.m.
Frank Loesser "No Other Love" adapt from Chopin's Etude No 3 in E, Opus 10. W.m. Bob Russell & Paul Weston "The Old Piano Roll Blues" w.m. Cy Coben "The Oldest Established" w.m. Frank Loesser "Orange Colored Sky" w.m. Milton De Lugg & William Stein "Patricia" w.m. Benny Davis " I'm the One Who Loves You" w.m. Stuart Hamblen "The Roving Kind" adapt. W.m
Ebisu Station (Tokyo)
Ebisu Station is a railway station in the Ebisu neighborhood of Tokyo's Shibuya ward, operated by East Japan Railway Company and the Tokyo subway operator Tokyo Metro. The station is named after Yebisu Beer, once brewed in an adjacent brewery, and, itself named for the Japanese deity Ebisu. Ebisu is served by the following lines: East Japan Railway Company Yamanote Line Saikyō Line Shōnan-Shinjuku Line Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line The JR East station consists of two island platforms serving four tracks; the melody known as "The Third Man Theme" is played at the platforms just prior to train departures. This melody was used in Ebisu beer TV commercials; the subway station has two side platforms serving two tracks. The station first opened in 1901 as a freight terminal for the neighboring Yebisu Beer factory. Passenger trains began to stop at the station on 30 September 1906; the Tokyo Tamagawa tram line was extended to the station in 1927. In May 1945, the station building burned to the ground amid the bombing of Tokyo.
The subway station opened on 25 March 1964 and the tram service was discontinued in 1967. The Sapporo Brewery at Ebisu and its accompanying rail freight terminal were closed in 1982; the space was used for a "car train" service for several years before being redeveloped as the Ebisu Garden Place high-rise complex. The Saikyo Line was extended to Ebisu in 1996. Through service to the Shonan-Shinjuku Line began in 2001, to the Rinkai Line in 2002. Between 1996 and 2002, Ebisu served as the southern passenger terminus of the Saikyo Line, with Osaki Station being used as a turnaround point but not having passenger platforms connected to the line. Chest-height platform edge doors were introduced on the two Yamanote Line platforms from 26 June 2010, the first time that such doors were installed on a JR line other than the Shinkansen. In fiscal 2013, the JR East station was used by 133,553 passengers daily, making it the 23rd-busiest station operated by JR East. In fiscal 2013, the Tokyo Metro station was used by an average of 104,738 passengers per day, making it the sixteenth-busiest station operated by Tokyo Metro.
The daily passenger figures for each operator in previous years are as shown below. Note that JR East figures are for boarding passengers only. List of railway stations in Japan JR East Ebisu Station information Tokyo Metro Ebisu Station information
The Third Man
The Third Man is a 1949 British film noir directed by Carol Reed, written by Graham Greene, starring Joseph Cotten, Alida Valli, Orson Welles, Trevor Howard. The film is set in post–World War II Vienna, it centres on Holly Martins, an American, given a job in Vienna by his friend Harry Lime, but when Holly arrives in Vienna he gets the news that Lime is dead. Martins meets with Lime's acquaintances in an attempt to investigate what he considers a suspicious death; the atmospheric use of black-and-white expressionist cinematography by Robert Krasker, with harsh lighting and distorted "Dutch angle" camera technique, is a major feature of The Third Man. Combined with the iconic theme music, seedy locations and acclaimed performances from the cast, the style evokes the atmosphere of an exhausted, cynical post-war Vienna at the start of the Cold War. Greene wrote the novella of the same name as preparation for the screenplay. Anton Karas performed the score, which featured only the zither; the title music "The Third Man Theme" topped the international music charts in 1950, bringing the unknown performer international fame.
“The Third Man” is considered one of the greatest films of all time, celebrated for its acting, musical score and atmospheric cinematography. In 1999, the British Film Institute voted The Third Man the greatest British film of all time. In 2017 a poll of 150 actors, writers and critics for Time Out magazine saw it ranked the second best British film ever. Opportunistic racketeering thrives in a damaged and impoverished Allied-occupied Vienna, divided into four sectors, each controlled by one of the occupying forces: American, British and Soviet; these powers share the duties of law enforcement in the city. American pulp Western writer Holly Martins comes to the city seeking his childhood friend, Harry Lime, who has offered him a job. Upon arrival, he discovers that Lime was killed while crossing the street just hours earlier by a speeding truck. Martins attends Lime's funeral, where he meets two British Army Police: Sergeant Paine, a fan of Martins' pulp novels. An official of the British occupying forces approaches Martins, requesting that he give a lecture and offering to pay for his lodging.
Viewing this as an opportunity to clear his friend's name, Martins decides to remain in Vienna. At a meeting with Lime's friend, "Baron" Kurtz, Kurtz tells Martins that after the accident he and Popescu carried the dying Lime to the side of the street. Lime asked Popescu to take care of Martins and Anna Schmidt, Lime's actress girlfriend. To learn more, Martins goes to see Anna at the theatre, they question the porter at Lime's apartment building: Lime died and was carried off the street by someone else in addition to Lime's two friends. Martins berates the porter for not being more forthcoming with the police. Concerned for his family's safety, the porter indignantly tells Martins not to involve him; the police, searching Anna's flat for evidence and confiscate her forged passport and detain her. Anna tells Martins that she is of Czechoslovak nationality and will be deported from Austria by the Soviet occupying forces if discovered. Martins visits Lime's "medical adviser", Dr Winkel, who says that he arrived at the accident after Lime was dead, only two men were present.
The porter secretly offers Martins more information but is murdered before their arranged meeting. When Martins arrives, unaware of the murder, a young boy recognizes him as having argued with the porter earlier and points this out to the gathering bystanders, who become hostile, mob-like. Escaping from them, Martins returns to the hotel, a cab whisks him away, he takes him to the book club. With no lecture prepared, he stumbles. Martins replies that it will be called "a murder story" inspired by facts. Popescu tells Martins. Martins flees. Calloway again advises Martins to leave Vienna, but Martins refuses and demands that Lime's death be investigated. Calloway reluctantly reveals that Lime had been stealing penicillin from military hospitals, selling it on the black market diluted so much that many patients died. In postwar Vienna, antibiotics were new and scarce outside military hospitals and commanded a high price. Calloway's evidence convinces Martins. Disillusioned, he agrees to leave Vienna.
Martins visits Anna to say good-bye and finds that she knows of Lime's misdeeds, but that her feelings toward him are unchanged. She tells him she is to be deported. Upon leaving her flat, he notices someone watching from a dark doorway. Martins summons Calloway; the British police exhume Lime's coffin and discover that the body is that of Joseph Harbin, an orderly who stole penicillin for Lime and was reported missing after turning informant. Martins demands to see Lime. Lime comes out to meet him and they ride Vienna's Ferris wheel, the Wiener Riesenrad. Lime indirectly threatens Martins's life but relents when told that the police know his death and funeral were faked. In a monologue on the ins
Herb Alpert is an American jazz musician most associated with the group variously known as Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass, Herb Alpert's Tijuana Brass, or TJB. Alpert is a recording industry executive, the "A" of A&M Records, a recording label he and business partner Jerry Moss founded and sold to PolyGram. Alpert has created abstract expressionist paintings and sculpture over two decades, which are publicly displayed on occasion. Alpert and his wife, Lani Hall, are substantial philanthropists through the operation of the Herb Alpert Foundation. Alpert's musical accomplishments include five No. 1 albums and 28 albums total on the Billboard Album chart, nine Grammy Awards, fourteen platinum albums, fifteen gold albums. Alpert has sold 72 million records worldwide. Alpert is the only recording artist to hit No. 1 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 pop chart as both a vocalist, an instrumentalist. Herb Alpert was born and raised in the Boyle Heights section of Eastside Los Angeles, the son of Tillie and Louis Leib Alpert.
His parents were Jewish emigrants to the U. S. from Radomyshl and Romania. Born into a family of musicians, his father, although a tailor by trade, was a talented mandolin player, his mother taught violin at a young age, his older brother David was a talented young drummer. Herb played at dances as a teenager. Acquiring an early wire recorder in high school, he experimented on this crude equipment. After graduating from Fairfax High School in 1952, he joined the United States Army and performed at military ceremonies. After his service in the Army, Alpert tried his hand at acting, but settled on pursuing a career in music. While attending the University of Southern California in the 1950s, he was a member of the USC Trojan Marching Band for two years. In 1956, he appeared in the uncredited role as "Drummer on Mt. Sinai" in The Ten Commandments. In 1957 Alpert teamed up with Rob Weerts, another burgeoning lyricist, as a songwriter for Keen Records. A number of songs written or co-written by Alpert during the following two years became Top 20 hits, including "Baby Talk" by Jan and Dean and "Wonderful World" by Sam Cooke.
In 1960, he began his recording career as a vocalist at Dot Records under the name of Dore Alpert. "Tell It to the Birds" was recorded as the first release on the Alpert & Moss label Carnival Records. When Alpert and Moss found that there was prior usage of the Carnival name, they renamed the label A&M Records. Alpert set up a small recording studio in his garage and had been overdubbing a tune called "Twinkle Star", written by Sol Lake, who would write many of the Brass's original tunes. During a visit to Tijuana, Alpert happened to hear a mariachi band while attending a bullfight. Following the experience, Alpert recalled that he was inspired to find a way to express musically what he felt while watching the wild responses of the crowd, hearing the brass musicians introducing each new event with rousing fanfare. Alpert adapted the trumpet style to the tune, mixed in crowd cheers and other noises for ambience, renamed the song "The Lonely Bull", he funded the production of the record as a single, it spread through radio DJs until it caught on and became a Top 10 hit in the Fall of 1962.
He followed up with his debut album, The Lonely Bull by "Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass". The Tijuana Brass was just Alpert overdubbing his own trumpet out of sync; the title cut reached No. 6 on the Billboard Pop Singles chart. This was A&M's first album with the original release number being #101, although it was recorded at Conway Records. For this album and subsequent releases, Alpert recorded with the group of L. A. session musicians known as The Wrecking Crew. By the end of 1964, because of a growing demand for live appearances by the Tijuana Brass, Alpert auditioned and hired a team of crack session men. Alpert used to tell his audiences that his group consisted of "Four lasagnas, two bagels, an American cheese": John Pisano; the band debuted in 1965, became one of the highest-paid acts performing, having put together a complete revue that included choreographed moves and comic routines written by Bill Dana. An album or two was released each year throughout the 1960s. Alpert's band was featured in several TV specials, each one centered on visual interpretations of the songs from their latest album—essentially an early type of music videos made famous by MTV.
The first Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass special, sponsored by the Singer Sewing Machine Company, aired on April 24, 1967 on CBS. Alpert's style achieved enormous popularity with the national exposure The Clark Gum Company gave to one of his recordings in 1964, a Sol Lake number titled "The Mexican Shuffle". In 1965, Alpert released Whipped Cream & Other Delights and Going Places. Whipped Cream sold over 6 million copies in the United States; the album cover featured model Dolores Erickson wearing only. In reality, Erickson was wearing a white blanket over which were scattered artfully placed daubs of shaving cream—real whipped cream would have melted under the heat of the studio lights. In concerts, when about to play the song, Alpert would tell the audience, "Sorry, we can't play the cover for you." The art was
Sapporo Breweries Ltd. is a Japanese beer brewing company founded in 1876. Sapporo is the oldest brand of beer in Japan, it was first brewed in Japan, in 1876 by brewer Seibei Nakagawa. The world headquarters of Sapporo Breweries is in Ebisu, Tokyo; the company purchased the Canadian company Sleeman Breweries in 2006. The company has five breweries in Japan, the Sleeman brewery in Canada, Sapporo Brewing Company in La Crosse, Wisconsin, U. S; the main brands are Sapporo Draft. Sapporo Premium has been the #1 selling Asian beer in the United States since Sapporo U. S. A. Inc. was first founded in 1984. Sapporo Breweries is a member of the Mizuho keiretsu; the origins of this company are in Sapporo, during the Meiji period, where the Hokkaido Development Commission established many businesses. Seibei Nakagawa, a German-trained brewer, became the first brewmaster of the Kaitakushi Brewery in June 1876, the first Sapporo Lager was produced at that time. Privatized in 1886, the Sapporo brewery became the centerpiece for the Sapporo Beer Company.
In 1887, another company, the Japan Beer Brewery Company was established in Mita, Meguro and began producing Yebisu Beer. The competition between Sapporo and Japan Beer, as well as competition with the Osaka and Kirin breweries led to a 1906 merger of Sapporo and Osaka breweries into the Dai-Nippon Beer Company, Ltd. which formed a near monopoly on the Japanese market until after World War II. After 1949, Dai-Nippon was split into Nippon and Asahi breweries, with the Nippon Breweries resuming production of Sapporo beer in 1956 and renaming itself to the present name, Sapporo Breweries, in 1964. Yebisu Beer was relaunched as a separate brand in 1971, marketed as a German-style barley beer. Sapporo Black Label beer was launched in 1977. In 2006, Sapporo announced they would be acquiring Canadian brewer Sleeman in a $400-million all-cash deal. On February 15, 2007, Steel Partners Japan Strategic Fund, a Cayman Islands-registered fund management subsidiary of Warren Lichtenstein's Steel Partners and the biggest shareholder of Sapporo Holdings, submitted a proposal to the company seeking approval to raise its stake to 66.6%.
On 3 August 2017, it was announced. Despite its name, Sapporo beer is not brewed in Sapporo. Sapporo is brewed in Sendai, Chiba and Kyushu. Most Sapporo beer sold in North America had been brewed at the Sleeman brewery in Guelph, Canada. Most Sapporo beer sold in the United States is now brewed by Sapporo Brewing Company in La Crosse, Wisconsin, U. S. Sapporo has five breweries in Japan; the first, Sendai Brewery, was opened in 1971 in Natori and was among the first to use a computerised brewing system. Shizuoka Brewery in Yaizu was opened in 1980, Chiba Brewery in Chiba was opened in 1988, Hokkaido Brewery in Eniwa, Hokkaidō was built in 1989, the Kyushu Hita Brewery was opened in Hita, Ōita in 2000. Sleeman Breweries was purchased by Sapporo Brewery in 2006 for $400 million. Sleeman was restarted in 1988 in Guelph, Canada by the great grandson of John H. Sleeman, the owner of the original Sleeman brewery founded in 1834; the first Sleeman brewery ceased operations by 1933, when their liquor license was revoked for bootlegging smuggling beer into Detroit, Michigan.
The company's current products are based on the family's original recipes, recipes from Unibroue. Sleeman Breweries / Sapporo Canada consists of 3 Canadian Breweries, Sleeman in Guelph, Okanagan Spring in Vernon, B. C, Unibroue in Chambly, Quebec. Sleeman Breweries owns 2% of The Beer Store Sapporo beers are brewed and bottled by Sapporo Brewing Company in La Crosse, for Sapporo U. S. A. On 3 August 2017, it was announced; the Sapporo Vietnam brewery is situated in Long An. The company produces a range including Sapporo Draft and Yebisu. In the Sleeman brewery in Canada they brew Sleeman branded beers such as Sleeman Cream Ale, as well as Sapporo Premium; the company produce a malt based soft drink, Super Clear, launched in 2002 as a low-alcohol beer changed in September 2009 to an alcohol free malt drink. Yebisu is one of Japan's oldest brands, first brewed in Tokyo in 1890 by the Japan Beer Brewery Company. Through a complicated set of mergers and divisions, the brand was acquired and retained by the modern-day Sapporo Brewery.
The brand lay dormant during the post-World War II era, until it was resurrected in 1971. It has been brewed continuously since. Yebisu comes in two main varieties: Yebisu, a Dortmunder/export lager, Yebisu Black, a dark lager. There are occasional special varieties that are limited in distribution area and time. In April 2007, for example, there was a green-label "The Hop" variety; the modern-day Yebisu is positioned as Sapporo's "luxury" beer label. Sapporo describes it as a beer brand with "a touch of class", it is a 100% malt beer. Yebisu is notable in that its Japanese name includes the now-obsolete we kana for the even-older ye reading, an anachronism; this can lead to confusion as the "Y" is not pronounced. The Tokyo neighborhood of Ebisu was named for the beer, produced there, though the we kana was dropped; the pronunciations of both "Yebisu" and "Ebisu" are the same. Using barley grown from seeds which
Sir Carol Reed was an English film director best known for Odd Man Out, The Fallen Idol, The Third Man, Oliver!. For Oliver!, he received the Academy Award for Best Director. Odd Man Out was the first recipient of the BAFTA Award for Best British Film; the Fallen Idol won the second BAFTA Award for Best British Film. The British Film Institute voted The Third Man the greatest British film of the 20th century. Carol Reed was born in Putney, south-west London, he was his mistress, May Pinney Reed. He was educated at Canterbury, he embarked on an acting career while still in his late teens. A period in the theatrical company of the thriller writer Edgar Wallace followed, Reed became his personal assistant in 1927. Apart from acting in a few Wallace derived films himself, Reed became involved in adapting his work for the screen during the day while he was a stage manager in the evenings; the connection with Wallace ended with his death in Hollywood during February 1932. Taken on by Basil Dean, Reed worked for his Associated Talking Pictures, successively for ATP as a dialogue director, second-unit director and assistant director.
His films in the role working under Dean were Autumn Crocus, Lorna Doone and Loyalties and Java Head. His earliest films as director were "quota quickies". Of his experience making Midshipman Easy his first solo directorial project he was harsh on himself. "I was indefinite and indecisive", he said later. "I thought I had picked up a lot about cutting and camera angles, but now, when I had to make all the decisions myself and was not just mentally approving or criticising what somebody else decided, I was pretty much lost. I realised that this was the only way to learn – by making mistakes." Graham Greene reviewing films for The Spectator, was much more forgiving, commenting that Reed "has more sense of the cinema than most veteran British directors". Of Reed's comedy Laburnum Grove, he wrote: "Here at last is an English film one can unreservedly praise", he was perceptive about Reed's potential, describing the film as "thoroughly workmanlike and unpretentious, with just the hint of a personal manner which makes one believe that Mr. Reed, when he gets the right script, will prove far more than efficient."Reed's career began to develop with The Stars Look Down, from the A. J. Cronin novel, which features Michael Redgrave in the lead role.
Greene wrote that Reed "has at last had his chance and magnificently taken it." He observed that "one forgets the casting altogether: he handles his players like a master, so that one remembers them only as people." The scripts of several of Reed's films in this period were written by Frank Launder and Sidney Gilliat, with the screenwriters and director working for producer Edward Black, who released through the British subsidiary of 20th Century Fox. The best known of these films are Night Train to Munich, with Rex Harrison; the film, although inaccurate, is set during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. From 1942, Reed served in the Royal Army Ordnance Corps: he was granted the rank of Captain and placed with the film unit, with the Directorate of Army Psychiatry. For the latter body a training film, The New Lot, was made, recounting the experiences of five new recruits, it had a script by Eric Ambler and Peter Ustinov, with contributions from Reed, was produced by Thorold Dickinson.
It was remade as The Way Ahead. Reed made his three most regarded films just after the war, beginning with Odd Man Out, with James Mason in the lead, it is the tale of an injured IRA leader's last hours in an unidentified Northern Irish city. In fact, Belfast was used for the location work, it was the producer Alexander Korda, to whom Reed was now signed, who introduced the director to the novelist Graham Greene. The next two films were made from screenplays by Greene: The Third Man; the Third Man was co-produced by David O. Selznick and Korda, with the American actors Orson Welles and Joseph Cotten in two of the leading roles. Reed insisted on casting Welles as Harry Lime, although Selznick had wanted Noël Coward for the role; the film required six weeks of location work in Vienna, during which time it was Reed himself who accidentally discovered Anton Karas, the zither player responsible for the film's music, in a courtyard outside a small Viennese restaurant. Reed once said: "A picture should end.
I don’t think anything in life ends'right'". While Greene wanted Holly Martins and Anna Schmidt to reconcile at the end of the film, after Lime, her lover, is killed by Martins, Reed insisted that Anna should ignore him and walk on. "The whole point of the Valli character in that film is that she’d experienced a fatal love – and comes along this silly American!"According to the film critic Derek Malcolm, The Third Man is the "best film noir made out of Britain". The film won the Grand Prix at the Cannes Film Festival, the predecessor of the Palme d'Or. Outcast of the Islands, based on a novel by Joseph Conrad, is thought to mark the start of his creative decline; the Man Between is dismissed as a rehash of The Third Man. It "makes no startling impact, such as we have learned to expect from its director, on either the mind or the heart", complained Virginia Graham in The Spectator. While the fable A Kid for Two Farthings, Re