Pedagogy refers more broadly to the theory and practice of education, how this influences the growth of learners. Pedagogy, taken as an academic discipline, is the study of how knowledge and skills are exchanged in an educational context, it considers the interactions that take place during learning. Pedagogies vary as they reflect the different social, cultural contexts from which they emerge. Pedagogy is the act of teaching. Theories of pedagogy identify the student as an agent, the teacher as a facilitator. Conventional western pedagogies, view the teacher as knowledge holder and student as the recipient of knowledge; the pedagogy adopted by teachers shape their actions and other teaching strategies by taking into consideration theories of learning, understandings of students and their needs, the backgrounds and interests of individual students. Its aims may include furthering liberal education to the narrower specifics of vocational education. Instructive strategies are governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher.
One example would be the Socratic method. The teaching of adults, as a specific group, is referred to as andragogy; the word is a derivative of the Greek παιδαγωγία, from παιδαγωγός, itself a synthesis of ἄγω, "I lead", παῖς "child": hence, "to lead a child". It is pronounced variously, as, or. Negative connotations of pedantry have sometimes been intended, or taken, at least from the time of Samuel Pepys in the 1650s; the educational philosophy and pedagogy of Johann Friedrich Herbart highlighted the correlation between personal development and the resulting benefits to society. In other words, Herbart proposed that humans become fulfilled once they establish themselves as productive citizens. Herbartianism refers to the movement underpinned by Herbart's theoretical perspectives. Referring to the teaching process, Herbart suggested five steps as crucial components; these five steps include: preparation, association and application. Herbart suggests that pedagogy relates to having assumptions as an educator and a specific set of abilities with a deliberate end goal in mind.
A hidden curriculum is a side effect of an education, " which are learned but not intended" such as the transmission of norms and beliefs conveyed in the classroom and the social environment. Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in which teaching and learning occur; the term is used as a more definitive alternative to "classroom," but it may refer to an indoor or outdoor location, either actual or virtual. Learning spaces are diverse in use, learning styles, configuration and educational institution, they support a variety of pedagogies, including quiet study, passive or active learning, kinesthetic or physical learning, vocational learning, experiential learning, others. Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how knowledge is absorbed and retained during learning. Cognitive and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.
Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via post. Today it involves online education. Courses that are conducted are blended or 100 % distance learning. Massive open online courses, offering large-scale interactive participation and open access through the World Wide Web or other network technologies, are recent developments in distance education. A number of other terms are used synonymously with distance education. Critical pedagogy is both a broader social movement. Critical pedagogy acknowledges that educational practices are contested and shaped by history, schools are not politically neutral spaces and teaching is political. Decisions regarding the curriculum, disciplinary practices, student testing, textbook selection, the language used by the teacher, more can empower or disempower students, it recognises that educational practices favour some students over others and some practices harm all students.
It recognises that educational practices favour some voices and perspectives while marginalising or ignoring others. Another aspect examined is the power the teacher holds over the implications of this, its aims include empowering students to become active and engaged citizens, who are able to improve their own lives and their communities. Critical pedagogical practices may include, listening to and including students’ knowledge and perspectives in class, making connections between school and the broader community, posing problems to students that encourage them to question assumed knowledge and understandings; the goal of problem posing to students is to enable them to begin to pose their own problems. Teachers acknowledge their position of authority and exhibit this authority through their actions that support students. Dialogic learning is learning, it is the result of ega
John William DiMaggio is an American voice actor and comedian. His gruff voice features as Bender in Futurama, Jake the Dog on Adventure Time, Marcus Fenix in Gears of War, Dr. Drakken on Kim Possible, Brother Blood on Teen Titans and Hammerhead on The Spectacular Spider-Man, Aquaman in Batman: The Brave and the Bold, the Scotsman on Samurai Jack, Schnitzel on Chowder, Rico in The Penguins of Madagascar and King Zøg on Disenchantment. A native of North Plainfield, New Jersey, DiMaggio graduated from North Plainfield High School. DiMaggio attended Rutgers University. DiMaggio is known for his role as Bender on Futurama, as well as playing such roles as Marcus Fenix in the Gears of War franchise, Dr. Drakken on Kim Possible, Jake the Dog on Adventure Time, Niblet on Pound Puppies, he is a former comedian, appearing on stage as part of a comic duo named "Red Johnny and the Round Guy" and has several on-screen credits, such as Steve Ballmer in Pirates of Silicon Valley and as Dr. Sean Underhill, a recurring character on Chicago Hope.
In 2013, he was the executive producer/narrator of I Know That Voice, a documentary about the world of voice acting, along with producer Tommy Reid and director Lawrence Shapiro. DiMaggio lives in California, he is married to voice actress Kate Miller. Beck, Jerry; the Animated Movie Guide:. Chicago Review Press. 386pp. ISBN 9781569762226. Brooks, Tim; the Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows 1946–Present. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 9780307483201. Terrace, Vincent. Encyclopedia of Television Shows, 1925 through 2010. McFarland. ISBN 9780786486410. Terrace, Vincent. Internet Horror, Science Fiction and Fantasy Television Series, 1998-2013. McFarland. ISBN 9781476616452. Perlmutter, David. America Toons In: A History of Television Animation. McFarland. ISBN 9781476614885. John DiMaggio on Twitter John DiMaggio on IMDb HoboTrashcan – One on One with John DiMaggio – interview with audio highlights Interview on PMPNetwork
Tress MacNeille is an American voice actress and singer who has voiced various characters in shows such as The Simpsons, Hey Arnold!, Tiny Toon Adventures, Rugrats and Disney's House of Mouse. MacNeille was born in Illinois, she loved cartoons as a child and wanted to be a voice actress from the age of eight, but instead chose a "practical" career, feeling she would never be able to realize her ambition. She graduated from the University of California and attended broadcasting school, becoming a disc jockey. MacNeille worked in a variety of jobs and had numerous minor voiceover roles before becoming a regular on an animated TV show. In her words, "I'd been doing radio spots, some TV, sound-alikes, industrial narrations -- anything that came my way for about two years." She was a member of the improvisational comedy group The Groundlings for ten years. MacNeille took acting workshops and worked as a casting assistant for voice acting talent agent Bob Lloyd in what she calls "The University of Voice-over."
Lloyd and fellow agent Rita Vennari got MacNeille her first role on an animated show: a part in an episode of the 1979 Scooby-Doo and Scrappy-Doo. She sang and appeared in the music video for "Weird Al" Yankovic's song "Ricky", based on the I Love Lucy television show and parodied the song "Mickey" by Toni Basil. MacNeille appeared on Yankovic's 1999 album Running with Scissors, on the tracks "Pretty Fly for a Rabbi" and "Jerry Springer." MacNeille was cast as Babs Bunny in Tiny Toon Adventures. Writer Paul Dini said that MacNeille was good for the role because she could do both Babs' voice and the voices of her impressions. MacNeille commented: "The best part of doing Babs is that she's a mimic, like me... In the show I do Babs doing Billie Burke, Bette Davis and Cher. I have her doing Jessica Rabbit." The success of Tiny Toon Adventures led to the series Animaniacs. MacNeille was brought in to voice Dot Warner, one of the show's three main characters, because Dot's character was similar to Babs Bunny.
Andrea Romano, the voice director and caster for Animaniacs, said that the casters had "no trouble" choosing the role of Dot: "Tress MacNeille was just hilarious And yet that edge." MacNeille was nominated for an Annie Award for her performance on the show in 1995. She has provided voices for numerous films, television shows, video games and commercials, garnering over 200 credits. MacNeille says: "The characters that I do all come from people in my own life--as well as the material I've stolen from my friends!" Her TV roles include characters on The Simpsons, where she voices Agnes Skinner, Brandine Spuckler and Lindsey Naegle, Futurama, in which her main role is the character Mom. MacNeille has provided voices on many other television shows and cartoons such as Rugrats, Chip'n Dale Rescue Rangers, Hey Arnold, as well as dubbing work on English language anime translations, she is the current voice of Wilma Flintstone. MacNeille appeared as an angry anchorwoman in Elvira, Mistress of the Dark and served as the voice of Elvira's Great-Aunt Morganna Talbot.
She provided voice acting for the 2003 Wile E. Coyote and The Road Runner short feature The Whizzard of Ow. Agnes Skinner, Seymour Skinner's elderly, overbearing mother Lindsey Naegle, generic businesswoman or television network executive in "The Itchy & Scratchy & Poochie Show", "Girly Edition", "You Kent Always Say What You Want", other episodes Dolph, one of the three hooligan/ruffians. Brandine Spuckler, Cletus Spuckler's wife/cousin/sister Cookie Kwan, a territorial Asian-American realtor with a heavy accent, who threatens anyone who tries to sell houses on "the west side". Ms. Albright, the Sunday School Teacher seen in "Homer's Triple Bypass" and "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment". Mrs. Glick, the elderly shut-in lady Bernice Hibbert, the recovering alcoholic wife of Julius Hibbert Mona Simpson, Homer Simpson's mother Brunella Pommelhorst, the stern school gym teacher Poor Violet, the Dickensian little orphan girl Crazy Cat Lady, the psychotic, old woman surrounded by pet cats she hurls Gino Terwilliger, Sideshow Bob's son seen in the season 17 episode, "The Italian Bob" and the season 19 episode "Funeral for a Fiend".
Lunchlady Doris in the season 17 episode, "The Mook, the Chef, the Wife, Her Homer" and the season 19 episode, "The Debarted", replacing Doris Grau. Manjula Nahasapeemapetilon, Apu's wife Belle, the burlesque house Madam, first appeared in "Bart After Dark" Mrs. Muntz, Nelson Muntz's mother Colin, an Irish boy in The Simpsons Movie Medicine Woman, in The Simpsons Movie Maya, a beautiful woman with dwarfism whom Moe Szyslak meets over the Internet in the season 20 episode "Eeny Teeny Maya Moe". Kumiko Nakamura, a Japanese manga artist who becomes the Comic Book Guy's wife in "Married to the Blob". Barbara "Booberella" Lelavinsky is an ample-chested vampire-looking woman and a local TV personality in Springfield. Various other characters Mom, the owner of Mom's Friendly Robot Company and series antagonist. Linda, the cohost of Good Morning, Earth Hattie McDoogal, the crazy, old cat lady Tinny Tim, a Tiny Ti
William Bletcher was an American actor and voice actor. He is well known for his role as the voice of Pete in the Mickey Mouse short films from 1932 to 1954. Bletcher appeared on-screen in films and television from the 1910s to the 1970s, including appearances in several Our Gang and The Three Stooges comedies, he was most active as a voice actor. His voice was a deep and booming baritone. Bletcher provided the voices of various characters for Walt Disney Animation Studios, he auditioned to play one of the dwarfs in the Seven Dwarfs. However, Walt Disney disapproved for fear that people would recognize Bletcher from the studio's Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck short subjects, his booming voice can be heard as "Dom Del Oro" the Yacqi Indian god in the 1939 Republic serial, Zorro's Fighting Legion. He provided voice work for Ub Iwerks as the Pincushion man in the 1935 animated short Balloon Land, as well as Owl Jolson's disciplinarian violinist father in the 1936 Warner Bros. short subject based on the song I Love to Singa and the menacing spider in Bingo Crosbyana.
In 1939, Billy Bletcher and Pinto Colvig were hired to perform ADR work for the Munchkins in The Wizard of Oz. In MGM films, he voiced Spike the Bulldog and on some occasions Tom and Jerry, in Tom and Jerry, in Warner Bros. many characters, most notably the Papa Bear of Chuck Jones' The Three Bears. He portrayed the villainous wolf in Little Red Riding Rabbit. Bletcher did voice acting for the 1944 Private Snafu World War II training film "Gas", where Bletcher plays the villainous Gas Cloud. Bletcher played The Captain in Captain and the Kids with MGM cartoons. In 1950, he played several characters on The Lone Ranger radio program as well as appearing in episode 27 of the TV series. In 1971, Bletcher played one of his final roles, Pappy Yokum in a television adaptation of Lil Abner. In 1978, he was hired to voice the Weed on The Plastic Man Comedy/Adventure Show, but had to drop out due to illness. Bletcher married actress Arlyn H. Roberts in 1915, they remained married until Bletcher's death in 1979.
Bletcher died at the age of 84 on January 5, 1979 in Los Angeles, California, he was survived by his wife Arlyn and their daughter Barbra. Bletcher's wife Arlyn, passed away thirteen years on July 3, 1992 at the age of 99. Billy Bletcher on IMDb Billy Bletcher at Find a Grave Billy Bletcher at AllMovie
A diaper or a nappy is a type of underwear that allows the wearer to defecate or urinate without the use of a toilet, by absorbing or containing waste products to prevent soiling of outer clothing or the external environment. When diapers become soiled, they require changing by a second person such as a parent or caregiver. Failure to change a diaper on a sufficiently regular basis can result in skin problems around the area covered by the diaper. Diapers are made of cloth or synthetic disposable materials. Cloth diapers are composed of layers of fabric such as cotton, bamboo, microfiber, or plastic fibers such as PLA or PU, can be washed and reused multiple times. Disposable diapers are thrown away after use. Diapers are worn by infants, toddlers who are not yet potty trained, by children who experience bedwetting, they are used by adults with incontinence, in certain circumstances where access to a toilet is unavailable or for psychological reasons. These can include those of advanced age, patients bed-bound in a hospital, individuals with certain types of physical or mental disability, diaper fetishists, people working in extreme conditions, such as astronauts.
It is not uncommon for people to wear diapers under dry suits. The Middle English word diaper referred to a type of cloth rather than the use thereof; the first cloth diapers consisted of a specific type of soft tissue sheet, cut into geometric shapes. This type of pattern was called diapering and gave its name to the cloth used to make diapers and to the diaper itself, traced back to 1590s England; this usage stuck in the United States and Canada following the British colonization of North America, but in the United Kingdom the word "nappy" took its place. Most sources believe nappy is a diminutive form of the word napkin, which itself was a diminutive. In the 19th century, the modern diaper began to take shape and mothers in many parts of the world used cotton material, held in place with a fastening—eventually the safety pin. Cloth diapers in the United States were first mass-produced in 1887 by Maria Allen. In the UK, nappies were made out of terry towelling with an inner lining made out of soft muslin.
Here is an extract from'The Modern Home Doctor' written by physicians in the UK in 1935. Nice old, soft bits of good Turkish towelling, properly washed, will make the softest of diaper coverings, inside which specially absorbent napkins, see below at 1A, soft and washed, are contained; these should be soiled once regular habits have been inculcated during the night period in which it is most important to prevent habit formation 1A - Wool pants, or, once available, rubber pants, were sometimes used over the cloth diaper to prevent leakage. Doctors believed that rubber pants were harmful because they thought the rubber acted as a poultice and damaged the skin of infants; the constant problem to be overcome was diaper rash, the infection thereof. The concern was. While lack of air circulation is a factor, it was found that poor hygiene involving inefficiently washed diapers and infrequent changes of diapers, along with allowing the baby to lie for prolonged periods of time with fecal matter in contact with the skin, were the two main causes of these problems.
In the 20th century, the disposable diaper was conceived. In the 1930s, Robinsons of Chesterfield had what were labeled "Destroyable Babies Napkins" listed in their catalogue for the wholesale market. In 1944, Hugo Drangel of the Swedish paper company Pauliström suggested a conceptual design which would entail the placing of sheets of paper tissue inside the cloth diaper and rubber pants. However, cellulose wadding was rough against the skin and crumbled into balls when exposed to moisture. In 1946, Marion Donovan used a shower curtain from her bathroom to create the "Boater", a diaper cover made from army surplus nylon parachute cloth. First sold in 1949 at Saks Fifth Avenue's flagship store in New York City, patents were issued in 1951 to Donovan, who sold the rights to the waterproof diaper for $1 million. Donovan designed a paper disposable diaper, but was unsuccessful in marketing it. In 1947, Scottish housewife Valerie Hunter Gordon started developing and making Paddi, a 2-part system consisting of a disposable pad worn inside an adjustable plastic garment with press-studs/snaps.
She used old parachutes for the garment. She applied for the patent in April 1948, it was granted for the UK in October 1949; the big manufacturers were unable to see the commercial possibilities of disposable nappies. In 1948, Gordon made over 400 Paddis herself using her sewing machine at the kitchen table, her husband had unsuccessfully approached several companies for help until he had a chance meeting with Sir Robert Robinson at a business dinner. In November 1949 Valerie Gordon signed a contract with Robinsons of Chesterfield who went into full production. In 1950, Boots UK agreed to sell Paddi in all their branches. In 1951 the Paddi patent was granted for the worldwide. Shortly after that and several other large international companies tried unsuccessfully to buy out Paddi from Robinsons. Paddi was successful for man
Melvin Jerome Blanc was an American voice actor and radio personality. After beginning his over-60-year career performing in radio, he became known for his work in animation as the voices of Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Tweety Bird, Sylvester the Cat, Yosemite Sam, Foghorn Leghorn, Marvin the Martian, Pepé Le Pew, Speedy Gonzales, Wile E. Coyote, Road Runner, the Tasmanian Devil, many of the other characters from the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies theatrical cartoons during the golden age of American animation, he voiced all of the major male Warner Bros. cartoon characters except for Elmer Fudd, whose voice was provided by fellow radio personality Arthur Q. Bryan, although Blanc voiced Fudd, as well, after Bryan's death, he voiced characters for Hanna-Barbera's television cartoons, including Barney Rubble on The Flintstones and Mr. Spacely on The Jetsons. Blanc was the original voice of Woody Woodpecker for Universal Pictures and provided vocal effects for the Tom and Jerry cartoons directed by Chuck Jones for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, replacing William Hanna.
During the golden age of radio, Blanc frequently performed on the programs of famous comedians from the era, including Jack Benny and Costello, Burns and Allen and Judy Canova. Having earned the nickname The Man of a Thousand Voices, Blanc is regarded as one of the most influential people in the voice acting industry. Blanc was born in San Francisco, California, to Russian-Jewish parents Frederick and Eva Blank, the younger of two children, he grew up in the Western Addition neighborhood in San Francisco, in Portland, where he attended Lincoln High School. Growing up, he had a fondness for voices and dialect, which he began voicing at the age of 10, he claimed that he changed the spelling of his name when he was 16, from "Blank" to "Blanc", because a teacher told him that he would amount to nothing and be like his name, a "blank". Blanc joined the Order of DeMolay as a young man, was inducted into its Hall of Fame. After graduating from high school in 1927, he split his time between leading an orchestra, becoming the youngest conductor in the country at the age of 19, performing shtick in vaudeville shows around Washington and northern California.
Blanc began his radio career at the age of 19 in 1927, when he made his acting debut on the KGW program The Hoot Owls, where his ability to provide voices for multiple characters first attracted attention. He moved to Los Angeles in 1932, where he met Estelle Rosenbaum, whom he married a year before returning to Portland, he moved to KEX in 1933 to produce and co-host his Cobweb and Nuts show with his wife Estelle, which debuted on June 15. The program played Monday through Saturday from 11:00 pm to midnight, by the time the show ended two years it appeared from 10:30 pm to 11:00 pm. With his wife's encouragement, Blanc returned to Los Angeles and joined Warner Bros.–owned KFWB in Hollywood in 1935. He joined The Johnny Murray Show, but the following year switched to CBS Radio and The Joe Penner Show. Blanc was a regular on the NBC Red Network show The Jack Benny Program in various roles, including voicing Benny's Maxwell automobile, violin teacher Professor LeBlanc, Polly the Parrot, Benny's pet polar bear Carmichael, the train announcer.
The first role came from a mishap when the recording of the automobile's sounds failed to play on cue, prompting Blanc to take the microphone and improvise the sounds himself. The audience reacted so positively that Benny decided to dispense with the recording altogether and have Blanc continue in that role. One of Blanc's most memorable characters from Benny's radio programs was "Sy, the Little Mexican", who spoke one word at a time; the famous "Sí... Sy... Sue... sew" routine was so effective that no matter how many times it was performed, the laughter was always there, thanks to the comedic timing of Blanc and Benny. Blanc continued to work with him on radio until the series ended in 1955 and followed the program into television from Benny's 1950 debut episode through guest spots on NBC specials in the 1970s, they last appeared together on a Johnny Carson Tonight Show in January 1974. A few months Blanc spoke of Benny on a Tom Snyder Tomorrow show special aired the night of the comedian's death.
By 1946, Blanc appeared on over 15 radio programs in supporting roles. His success on The Jack Benny Program led to his own radio show on the CBS Radio Network, The Mel Blanc Show, which ran from September 3, 1946, to June 24, 1947. Blanc played himself as the hapless owner of a fix-it shop, as well as his young cousin Zookie. Blanc appeared on such other national radio programs as The Abbott and Costello Show, the Happy Postman on Burns and Allen, as August Moon on Point Sublime. During World War II, he appeared as Private Sad Sack on various radio shows, including G. I. Journal. Blanc recorded a song titled "Big Bear Lake". In December 1936, Mel Blanc joined Leon Schlesinger Productions, producing theatrical cartoon shorts for Warner Bros. After sound man Treg Brown was put in charge of cartoon voices, Carl Stalling became music director, Brown introduced Blanc to animation directors Tex Avery, Bob Clampett, Friz Freleng, Frank Tashlin, who loved his voices; the first cartoon Blanc worked on was Picador Porky as the voice of a drunken bull.
He soon after received his first starring role when he replaced Joe Dougherty as Porky Pig's voice in Porky's Duck Hunt, which marked the debut of Daffy Duck voiced by Blanc. Following this, Blanc became a prominent vocal artist for Warner Bros. voicing a wide variety of the "Looney Tunes" characters. Bugs Bunny, whom Blanc made his debut as in A Wild Hare, was