The brown bear is a bear, found across much of northern Eurasia and North America. In North America the population of brown bears are called grizzly bears, it is one of the largest living terrestrial members of the order Carnivora, rivaled in size only by its closest relative, the polar bear, much less variable in size and larger on average. The brown bear's principal range includes parts of Russia, Central Asia, Canada, the United States and the Carpathian region Romania and the Caucasus; the brown bear is recognized as a national and state animal in several European countries. While the brown bear's range has shrunk and it has faced local extinctions, it remains listed as a least concern species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature with a total population of 200,000; as of 2012, this and the American black bear are the only bear species not classified as threatened by the IUCN. However, the California, North African and Mexican subspecies were hunted to extinction in the 19th and early 20th centuries and many of the southern Asian subspecies are endangered.
One of the smaller-bodied subspecies, the Himalayan brown bear, is critically endangered, occupying only 2% of its former range and threatened by uncontrolled poaching for its body parts. The Marsican brown bear of central Italy is one of several isolated populations of the Eurasian brown bear, believed to have a population of just 40 to 50 bears; the brown bear is sometimes referred to from Middle English. This name originated in the fable, History of Reynard the Fox, translated by William Caxton, from Middle Dutch bruun or bruyn, meaning brown. In the mid-19th century United States, the brown bear was termed "Old Ephraim" and sometimes as "Moccasin Joe"; the scientific name of the brown bear, Ursus arctos, comes from the Latin "ursus", meaning "bear", Άρκτος "arctos", from the Greek word for bear. Brown bears are thought to have evolved from Ursus etruscus in Asia; the brown bear, per Kurten, has been stated as "clearly derived from the Asian population of Ursus savini about 800,000 years ago.
A genetic analysis indicated that the brown bear lineage diverged from the cave bear species complex 1.2–1.4 million years ago, but did not clarify if U. savini persisted as a paraspecies for the brown bear before perishing. The oldest fossils positively identified as from this species occur in China from about 0.5 million years ago. Brown bears entered North Africa shortly after. Brown bear remains from the Pleistocene period are common in the British Isles, where it is thought they might have outcompeted giant cave bears; the species entered Alaska 100,000 years ago. It is speculated that brown bears were unable to migrate south until the extinction of the much larger giant short-faced bear. Several paleontologists suggest the possibility of two separate brown bear migrations: inland brown bears known as grizzlies, are thought to stem from narrow-skulled bears which migrated from northern Siberia to central Alaska and the rest of the continent, while Kodiak bears descend from broad-skulled bears from Kamchatka, which colonized the Alaskan peninsula.
Brown bear fossils discovered in Ontario, Ohio and Labrador show the species occurred farther east than indicated in historic records. In North America, two types of the subspecies Ursus arctos horribilis are recognized—the coastal brown bear and the inland grizzly bear. There are many methods used by scientists to define bear species and subspecies as no one method is always effective. Brown bear taxonomy and subspecies classification has been described as "formidable and confusing" with few authorities listing the same specific set of subspecies. Genetic testing is now the most important way to scientifically define brown bear relationships and names. Genetic testing uses the word clade rather than species because a genetic test alone cannot define a biological species. Most genetic studies report on how related the bears are. There are hundreds of obsolete brown bear subspecies, each with its own name, this can become confusing. However, recent DNA analysis has identified as few as five main clades which contain all extant brown bears, while a 2017 phylogenetic study revealed nine clades, including one representing polar bears.
As of 2005, 15 extant or extinct subspecies were recognized by the general scientific community. As well as the exact number of overall brown bear subspecies, its precise relationship to the polar bear remains in debate; the polar bear is a recent offshoot of the brown bear. The point at which the polar bear diverged from the brown bear is unclear, with estimations based on genetics and fossils ranging from 400,000 to 70,000 years ago, but most recent analysis has indicated that the polar bear split somewhere between 250,000 and 130,000 years ago. Under some definitions, the brown bear can be construed as the paraspecies for the polar bear. DNA analysis shows that, apart from recent human-caused population fragmentation, brown bears in North America are part of a single interconnected population system, with the exception of the population in the Kodiak Archipelago, isolated since the end of the last ice age; these data demonstrate that U. a. gyas, U. a. horribilis, U. a. sitkensis and U. a. stikeene
Melvin Jerome Blanc was an American voice actor and radio personality. After beginning his over-60-year career performing in radio, he became known for his work in animation as the voices of Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Tweety Bird, Sylvester the Cat, Yosemite Sam, Foghorn Leghorn, Marvin the Martian, Pepé Le Pew, Speedy Gonzales, Wile E. Coyote, Road Runner, the Tasmanian Devil, many of the other characters from the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies theatrical cartoons during the golden age of American animation, he voiced all of the major male Warner Bros. cartoon characters except for Elmer Fudd, whose voice was provided by fellow radio personality Arthur Q. Bryan, although Blanc voiced Fudd, as well, after Bryan's death, he voiced characters for Hanna-Barbera's television cartoons, including Barney Rubble on The Flintstones and Mr. Spacely on The Jetsons. Blanc was the original voice of Woody Woodpecker for Universal Pictures and provided vocal effects for the Tom and Jerry cartoons directed by Chuck Jones for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, replacing William Hanna.
During the golden age of radio, Blanc frequently performed on the programs of famous comedians from the era, including Jack Benny and Costello, Burns and Allen and Judy Canova. Having earned the nickname The Man of a Thousand Voices, Blanc is regarded as one of the most influential people in the voice acting industry. Blanc was born in San Francisco, California, to Russian-Jewish parents Frederick and Eva Blank, the younger of two children, he grew up in the Western Addition neighborhood in San Francisco, in Portland, where he attended Lincoln High School. Growing up, he had a fondness for voices and dialect, which he began voicing at the age of 10, he claimed that he changed the spelling of his name when he was 16, from "Blank" to "Blanc", because a teacher told him that he would amount to nothing and be like his name, a "blank". Blanc joined the Order of DeMolay as a young man, was inducted into its Hall of Fame. After graduating from high school in 1927, he split his time between leading an orchestra, becoming the youngest conductor in the country at the age of 19, performing shtick in vaudeville shows around Washington and northern California.
Blanc began his radio career at the age of 19 in 1927, when he made his acting debut on the KGW program The Hoot Owls, where his ability to provide voices for multiple characters first attracted attention. He moved to Los Angeles in 1932, where he met Estelle Rosenbaum, whom he married a year before returning to Portland, he moved to KEX in 1933 to produce and co-host his Cobweb and Nuts show with his wife Estelle, which debuted on June 15. The program played Monday through Saturday from 11:00 pm to midnight, by the time the show ended two years it appeared from 10:30 pm to 11:00 pm. With his wife's encouragement, Blanc returned to Los Angeles and joined Warner Bros.–owned KFWB in Hollywood in 1935. He joined The Johnny Murray Show, but the following year switched to CBS Radio and The Joe Penner Show. Blanc was a regular on the NBC Red Network show The Jack Benny Program in various roles, including voicing Benny's Maxwell automobile, violin teacher Professor LeBlanc, Polly the Parrot, Benny's pet polar bear Carmichael, the train announcer.
The first role came from a mishap when the recording of the automobile's sounds failed to play on cue, prompting Blanc to take the microphone and improvise the sounds himself. The audience reacted so positively that Benny decided to dispense with the recording altogether and have Blanc continue in that role. One of Blanc's most memorable characters from Benny's radio programs was "Sy, the Little Mexican", who spoke one word at a time; the famous "Sí... Sy... Sue... sew" routine was so effective that no matter how many times it was performed, the laughter was always there, thanks to the comedic timing of Blanc and Benny. Blanc continued to work with him on radio until the series ended in 1955 and followed the program into television from Benny's 1950 debut episode through guest spots on NBC specials in the 1970s, they last appeared together on a Johnny Carson Tonight Show in January 1974. A few months Blanc spoke of Benny on a Tom Snyder Tomorrow show special aired the night of the comedian's death.
By 1946, Blanc appeared on over 15 radio programs in supporting roles. His success on The Jack Benny Program led to his own radio show on the CBS Radio Network, The Mel Blanc Show, which ran from September 3, 1946, to June 24, 1947. Blanc played himself as the hapless owner of a fix-it shop, as well as his young cousin Zookie. Blanc appeared on such other national radio programs as The Abbott and Costello Show, the Happy Postman on Burns and Allen, as August Moon on Point Sublime. During World War II, he appeared as Private Sad Sack on various radio shows, including G. I. Journal. Blanc recorded a song titled "Big Bear Lake". In December 1936, Mel Blanc joined Leon Schlesinger Productions, producing theatrical cartoon shorts for Warner Bros. After sound man Treg Brown was put in charge of cartoon voices, Carl Stalling became music director, Brown introduced Blanc to animation directors Tex Avery, Bob Clampett, Friz Freleng, Frank Tashlin, who loved his voices; the first cartoon Blanc worked on was Picador Porky as the voice of a drunken bull.
He soon after received his first starring role when he replaced Joe Dougherty as Porky Pig's voice in Porky's Duck Hunt, which marked the debut of Daffy Duck voiced by Blanc. Following this, Blanc became a prominent vocal artist for Warner Bros. voicing a wide variety of the "Looney Tunes" characters. Bugs Bunny, whom Blanc made his debut as in A Wild Hare, was
Tress MacNeille is an American voice actress and singer who has voiced various characters in shows such as The Simpsons, Hey Arnold!, Tiny Toon Adventures, Rugrats and Disney's House of Mouse. MacNeille was born in Illinois, she loved cartoons as a child and wanted to be a voice actress from the age of eight, but instead chose a "practical" career, feeling she would never be able to realize her ambition. She graduated from the University of California and attended broadcasting school, becoming a disc jockey. MacNeille worked in a variety of jobs and had numerous minor voiceover roles before becoming a regular on an animated TV show. In her words, "I'd been doing radio spots, some TV, sound-alikes, industrial narrations -- anything that came my way for about two years." She was a member of the improvisational comedy group The Groundlings for ten years. MacNeille took acting workshops and worked as a casting assistant for voice acting talent agent Bob Lloyd in what she calls "The University of Voice-over."
Lloyd and fellow agent Rita Vennari got MacNeille her first role on an animated show: a part in an episode of the 1979 Scooby-Doo and Scrappy-Doo. She sang and appeared in the music video for "Weird Al" Yankovic's song "Ricky", based on the I Love Lucy television show and parodied the song "Mickey" by Toni Basil. MacNeille appeared on Yankovic's 1999 album Running with Scissors, on the tracks "Pretty Fly for a Rabbi" and "Jerry Springer." MacNeille was cast as Babs Bunny in Tiny Toon Adventures. Writer Paul Dini said that MacNeille was good for the role because she could do both Babs' voice and the voices of her impressions. MacNeille commented: "The best part of doing Babs is that she's a mimic, like me... In the show I do Babs doing Billie Burke, Bette Davis and Cher. I have her doing Jessica Rabbit." The success of Tiny Toon Adventures led to the series Animaniacs. MacNeille was brought in to voice Dot Warner, one of the show's three main characters, because Dot's character was similar to Babs Bunny.
Andrea Romano, the voice director and caster for Animaniacs, said that the casters had "no trouble" choosing the role of Dot: "Tress MacNeille was just hilarious And yet that edge." MacNeille was nominated for an Annie Award for her performance on the show in 1995. She has provided voices for numerous films, television shows, video games and commercials, garnering over 200 credits. MacNeille says: "The characters that I do all come from people in my own life--as well as the material I've stolen from my friends!" Her TV roles include characters on The Simpsons, where she voices Agnes Skinner, Brandine Spuckler and Lindsey Naegle, Futurama, in which her main role is the character Mom. MacNeille has provided voices on many other television shows and cartoons such as Rugrats, Chip'n Dale Rescue Rangers, Hey Arnold, as well as dubbing work on English language anime translations, she is the current voice of Wilma Flintstone. MacNeille appeared as an angry anchorwoman in Elvira, Mistress of the Dark and served as the voice of Elvira's Great-Aunt Morganna Talbot.
She provided voice acting for the 2003 Wile E. Coyote and The Road Runner short feature The Whizzard of Ow. Agnes Skinner, Seymour Skinner's elderly, overbearing mother Lindsey Naegle, generic businesswoman or television network executive in "The Itchy & Scratchy & Poochie Show", "Girly Edition", "You Kent Always Say What You Want", other episodes Dolph, one of the three hooligan/ruffians. Brandine Spuckler, Cletus Spuckler's wife/cousin/sister Cookie Kwan, a territorial Asian-American realtor with a heavy accent, who threatens anyone who tries to sell houses on "the west side". Ms. Albright, the Sunday School Teacher seen in "Homer's Triple Bypass" and "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment". Mrs. Glick, the elderly shut-in lady Bernice Hibbert, the recovering alcoholic wife of Julius Hibbert Mona Simpson, Homer Simpson's mother Brunella Pommelhorst, the stern school gym teacher Poor Violet, the Dickensian little orphan girl Crazy Cat Lady, the psychotic, old woman surrounded by pet cats she hurls Gino Terwilliger, Sideshow Bob's son seen in the season 17 episode, "The Italian Bob" and the season 19 episode "Funeral for a Fiend".
Lunchlady Doris in the season 17 episode, "The Mook, the Chef, the Wife, Her Homer" and the season 19 episode, "The Debarted", replacing Doris Grau. Manjula Nahasapeemapetilon, Apu's wife Belle, the burlesque house Madam, first appeared in "Bart After Dark" Mrs. Muntz, Nelson Muntz's mother Colin, an Irish boy in The Simpsons Movie Medicine Woman, in The Simpsons Movie Maya, a beautiful woman with dwarfism whom Moe Szyslak meets over the Internet in the season 20 episode "Eeny Teeny Maya Moe". Kumiko Nakamura, a Japanese manga artist who becomes the Comic Book Guy's wife in "Married to the Blob". Barbara "Booberella" Lelavinsky is an ample-chested vampire-looking woman and a local TV personality in Springfield. Various other characters Mom, the owner of Mom's Friendly Robot Company and series antagonist. Linda, the cohost of Good Morning, Earth Hattie McDoogal, the crazy, old cat lady Tinny Tim, a Tiny Ti
William Bletcher was an American actor and voice actor. He is well known for his role as the voice of Pete in the Mickey Mouse short films from 1932 to 1954. Bletcher appeared on-screen in films and television from the 1910s to the 1970s, including appearances in several Our Gang and The Three Stooges comedies, he was most active as a voice actor. His voice was a deep and booming baritone. Bletcher provided the voices of various characters for Walt Disney Animation Studios, he auditioned to play one of the dwarfs in the Seven Dwarfs. However, Walt Disney disapproved for fear that people would recognize Bletcher from the studio's Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck short subjects, his booming voice can be heard as "Dom Del Oro" the Yacqi Indian god in the 1939 Republic serial, Zorro's Fighting Legion. He provided voice work for Ub Iwerks as the Pincushion man in the 1935 animated short Balloon Land, as well as Owl Jolson's disciplinarian violinist father in the 1936 Warner Bros. short subject based on the song I Love to Singa and the menacing spider in Bingo Crosbyana.
In 1939, Billy Bletcher and Pinto Colvig were hired to perform ADR work for the Munchkins in The Wizard of Oz. In MGM films, he voiced Spike the Bulldog and on some occasions Tom and Jerry, in Tom and Jerry, in Warner Bros. many characters, most notably the Papa Bear of Chuck Jones' The Three Bears. He portrayed the villainous wolf in Little Red Riding Rabbit. Bletcher did voice acting for the 1944 Private Snafu World War II training film "Gas", where Bletcher plays the villainous Gas Cloud. Bletcher played The Captain in Captain and the Kids with MGM cartoons. In 1950, he played several characters on The Lone Ranger radio program as well as appearing in episode 27 of the TV series. In 1971, Bletcher played one of his final roles, Pappy Yokum in a television adaptation of Lil Abner. In 1978, he was hired to voice the Weed on The Plastic Man Comedy/Adventure Show, but had to drop out due to illness. Bletcher married actress Arlyn H. Roberts in 1915, they remained married until Bletcher's death in 1979.
Bletcher died at the age of 84 on January 5, 1979 in Los Angeles, California, he was survived by his wife Arlyn and their daughter Barbra. Bletcher's wife Arlyn, passed away thirteen years on July 3, 1992 at the age of 99. Billy Bletcher on IMDb Billy Bletcher at Find a Grave Billy Bletcher at AllMovie
Stan Freberg was an American author, recording artist, voice artist, radio personality and advertising creative director, whose career began in 1943. He remained active in the industry into his late 80s, more than 70 years after entering it, his best-known works include "St. George and the Dragonet", Stan Freberg Presents the United States of America, his role on the television series Time for Beany, a number of classic television commercials. Freberg was born Stanley Friberg in Pasadena, the son of Evelyn Dorothy, a housewife, Victor Richard Friberg, a Baptist minister. Freberg was a Christian and of Irish descent. Freberg's work reflected both his gentle sensitivity and his refusal to accept alcohol and tobacco manufacturers as sponsors—an impediment to his radio career when he took over for Jack Benny on CBS radio; as Freberg explained to Rusty Pipes: After I replaced Jack Benny in 1957, they were unable to sell me with spot announcements in the show. That would mean. So I said, "Forget it.
I want to be sponsored by one person", like Benny was, by American Tobacco or State Farm Insurance, except that I wouldn't let them sell me to American Tobacco. I refused to let them sell me to any cigarette company. Freberg's first wife, died in 2000, he had two children from Donna Jean and Donavan. He married Betty Hunter in 2001. Freberg began his career doing impersonations on Cliffie Stone's radio show in 1943. Freberg was employed as a voice actor in animation shortly after graduating from Alhambra High School, he began at Warner Brothers in 1944 by getting on a bus and asking the driver to let him off "in Hollywood". As he describes in his autobiography, It Only Hurts When I Laugh, he got off the bus and found a sign that said "talent agency", he walked in, the agents there arranged for him to audition for Warner Brothers cartoons where he was promptly hired. Thus began Freberg's professional career in entertainment, which lasted for more than 70 years, all the way up to his death, his first notable cartoon voice work was in a Warner Brothers cartoon called For He's a Jolly Good Fala, recorded but never filmed, followed by Roughly Squeaking as Bertie.
He found himself paired with Mel Blanc while at Warner Bros. where the two men performed such pairs as the mice Hubie and Bertie and Spike the Bulldog and Chester the Terrier. In 1950, he was the voice of Friz Freleng's "Dumb Dog" in "Foxy by Proxy", who meets up with a disguised Bugs Bunny wearing a fox suit, he was the voice of Pete Puma in the 1952 cartoon Rabbit's Kin, in which he did an impression of an early Frank Fontaine characterization. Freberg is credited with voicing the character of Junyer Bear in Bugs Bunny and the Three Bears, but, actor Kent Rogers. After Rogers was killed during World War II, Freberg assumed the role of Junyer Bear in Chuck Jones' Looney Tunes cartoon What's Brewin', Bruin?, featuring Jones' version of The Three Bears. He succeeded Rogers as the voice of Beaky Buzzard. Freberg was heard in many Warner Brothers cartoons, but his only screen credit on one was Three Little Bops, his work as a voice actor for Walt Disney Productions included the role of Mr. Busy the Beaver in Lady and the Tramp and did voice work in Susie the Little Blue Coupe and Lambert the Sheepish Lion.
Freberg provided the voice of Sam, the orange cat paired with Sylvester in the Academy Award-nominated short Mouse and Garden. He voiced the father of Wile E. Coyote, in the 2000 short Little Go Beep. Freberg was cast to sing the part of the Jabberwock in the song "Beware the Jabberwock" for Disney's Alice in Wonderland, with the Rhythmaires and Daws Butler. Written by Don Raye and Gene de Paul, the song was a musical rendering of the poem "Jabberwocky" from Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass; the song was not included in the final film, but a demo recording was included in the 2004 and 2010 DVD releases of the movie. Freberg made his movie debut as an on-screen actor in the comedy Callaway Went Thataway, a satirical spoof on the marketing of Western stars. Freberg costarred with Mala Powers in Geraldine as sobbing singer Billy Weber, enabling him to reprise his satire on vocalist Johnnie Ray. In 1963's It's a Mad, Mad, Mad World, Freberg appeared in a non-speaking role as the Deputy Sheriff and acted as the voice of a dispatcher.
Contrary to popular belief George Lucas called upon Freberg, not Mel Blanc, to audition for the voice of the character C-3PO for the 1977 film Star Wars. After he and many others auditioned for the part, Freberg suggested that Lucas use mime actor Anthony Daniels' voice. Freberg began making satirical recordings for Capitol Records, beginning with the February 10, 1951, release of "John and Marsha", a soap opera parody that consisted of the title characters doing nothing but repeating each other's names; some radio stations refused to play "John & Marsha," believing it to be an actual romantic conversation between two real people. In a 1954 follow-up, he used pedal steel guitarist Speedy West to satirize the 1953 Ferlin Husky country hit, "A Dear
An animator is an artist who creates multiple images, known as frames, which give an illusion of movement called animation when displayed in rapid sequence. Animators can work in a variety of fields including film and video games. Animation is related to filmmaking and like filmmaking is labor-intensive, which means that most significant works require the collaboration of several animators; the methods of creating the images or frames for an animation piece depend on the animators' artistic styles and their field. Other artists who contribute to animated cartoons, but who are not animators, include layout artists, storyboard artists, background artists. Animated films share some film crew positions with regular live action films, such as director, sound engineer, editor, but differ radically in that for most of the history of animation, they did not need most of the crew positions seen on a physical set. In hand-drawn Japanese animation productions, such as in Hayao Miyazaki's films, the key animator handles both layout and key animation.
Some animators in Japan such as Mitsuo Iso take full responsibility for their scenes, making them become more than just the key animator. Animators specialize. One important distinction is between special effects animators. In large-scale productions by major studios, each animator has one or more assistants, "inbetweeners" and "clean-up artists", who make drawings between the "key poses" drawn by the animator, re-draw any sketches that are too made to be used as such. A young artist seeking to break into animation is hired for the first time in one of these categories, can advance to the rank of full animator; the creation of animation was a long and arduous process. Each frame of a given scene was hand-drawn transposed onto celluloid, where it would be traced and painted; these finished "cels" were placed together in sequence over painted backgrounds and filmed, one frame at a time. Animation methods have become far more varied in recent years. Today's cartoons could be created using any number of methods using computers to make the animation process cheaper and faster.
These more efficient animation procedures have made the animator's job less tedious and more creative. Audiences find animation to be much more interesting with sound. Voice actors and musicians, among other talent, may contribute vocal or music tracks; some early animated films asked the vocal and music talent to synchronize their recordings to already-extant animation. For the majority of animated films today, the soundtrack is recorded first in the language of the film's primary target market and the animators are required to synchronize their work to the soundtrack. Animation is the art of creating moving images; this line of work is all about creating a series of individual ‘frames’, which make images come to life when they are flicked through in rapid succession. Animation was done manually, with animators drawing multiple frames to depict a single action, i.e. the kind of animation that you witnessed during a typical scene from the Hanna-Barbera cartoon and Jerry. Today, computer-generated imagery has replaced manual animation, but a significant amount of artistic talent is still required.
Animators are employed in various segments of the entertainment industry,including film and video games. As a result of the ongoing transition from traditional 2D to 3D computer animation, the animator's traditional task of redrawing and repainting the same character 24 times a second has now been superseded by the modern task of developing dozens of movements of different parts of a character in a virtual scene; because of the transition to computer animation, many additional support positions have become essential, with the result that the animator has become but one component of a long and specialized production pipeline. Nowadays, visual development artists will design a character as a 2D drawing or painting hand it off to modelers who build the character as a collection of digital polygons. Texture artists "paint" the character with colorful or complex textures, technical directors set up rigging so that the character can be moved and posed. For each scene, layout artists set up rough blocking.
When a character's bugs have been worked out and its scenes have been blocked, it is handed off to an animator who can start developing the exact movements of the character's virtual limbs and facial expressions in each specific scene. At that point, the role of the modern computer animator overlaps in some respects with that of his or her predecessors in traditional animation: namely, trying to create scenes storyboarded in rough form by a team of story artists, synchronizing lip or mouth movements to dialogue prepared by a screenwriter and recorded by vocal talent. Despite those constraints, the animator is still capable of exercising significant artistic skill and discretion in developing the character's movements to accomplish the objective of each scene. There is an obvious analogy here between the art of animation and the art of acting