The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park
Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, established on August 1, 1916, is an American national park located in the U. S. state of Hawaii on the island of Hawaii. The park encompasses two active volcanoes: Kīlauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, Mauna Loa, the world's most massive shield volcano; the park provides scientists with insight into the birth and development of the Hawaiian Islands, ongoing studies into the processes of volcanism. For visitors, the park offers dramatic volcanic landscapes, as well as glimpses of rare flora and fauna. In recognition of its outstanding natural values, Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park was designated as an International Biosphere Reserve in 1980 and a World Heritage Site in 1987. In 2012, the park was depicted on the 14th quarter of the America the Beautiful Quarters series. On May 11, 2018, the park was closed to the public in the Kīlauea volcano summit area, including the visitor center and park headquarters, due to explosions and toxic ash clouds from the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, as well as earthquakes and road damage.
Portions of the park, including the visitor center, reopened to the public on September 22, 2018. As of 2019, most of the park is open. Eruptive activity, ground collapses and explosions in the park ceased in early August, the lull in eruptive activity at Kīlauea continues; the park includes 323,431 acres of land. Over half of the park is designated the Hawaii Volcanoes Wilderness area, providing solitude for hiking and camping; the park encompasses diverse environments from sea level to the summit of the Earth's most massive active volcano, Mauna Loa, at 13,679 feet. Climates range to the arid and barren Kaʻū Desert. Eruptive sites include the main caldera of Kīlauea and a more active but remote vent called Puʻu ʻŌʻō; the main entrance to the park is from the Hawaii Belt Road. The Chain of Craters Road leads to the coast; the road had continued to another park entrance near the town of Kalapana, but that portion is covered by a lava flow. Kīlauea and its Halemaʻumaʻu caldera were traditionally considered the sacred home of the volcano goddess Pele, Hawaiians visited the crater to offer gifts to the goddess.
In 1790, a party of warriors, along with women and children who were in the area, were caught in an unusually violent eruption. Many were killed and others left footprints in the lava that are still visible; the first western visitors to the site, English missionary William Ellis and American Asa Thurston, went to Kīlauea in 1823. Ellis wrote of his reaction to the first sight of the erupting volcano: A spectacle and appalling, presented itself before us.'We stopped and trembled.' Astonishment and awe for some moments rendered us mute, like statues, we stood fixed to the spot, with our eyes riveted on the abyss below. The volcano became a tourist attraction in the 1840s, local businessmen such as Benjamin Pitman and George Lycurgus ran a series of hotels at the rim. Volcano House is the only restaurant located within the borders of the national park. Lorrin A. Thurston, grandson of the American missionary Asa Thurston, was one of the driving forces behind the establishment of the park after investing in the hotel from 1891 to 1904.
William R. Castle first proposed the idea in 1903. Thurston, who owned The Honolulu Advertiser newspaper, printed editorials in favor of the park idea. In 1907, the territory of Hawaii paid for fifty members of Congress and their wives to visit Haleakalā and Kīlauea, including a dinner cooked over lava steam vents. In 1908, Thurston entertained Secretary of the Interior James Rudolph Garfield, another congressional delegation the following year. Governor Walter F. Frear proposed a draft bill in 1911 to create Kilauea National Park for $50,000. Thurston and local landowner William Herbert Shipman proposed boundaries, but ran into some opposition from ranchers. Thurston printed endorsements from John Muir, Henry Cabot Lodge, former President Theodore Roosevelt. After several attempts, the legislation introduced by delegate Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole passed to create the park. House Resolution 9525 was signed by Woodrow Wilson on August 1, 1916. Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park became the eleventh national park in the United States, the first in a territory.
Within a few weeks, the National Park Service Organic Act created the National Park Service to run the system. Called Hawaii National Park, the park was renamed Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park after being split from Haleakalā National Park on September 22, 1961. An accessible lava tube was named for the Thurston family. An undeveloped stretch of the Thurston Lava Tube extends an additional 1,100 ft beyond the developed area and dead-ends into the hillside, but it is closed to the general public. In 2004, an additional 115,788 acres of the Kahuku Ranch were added to the park, the largest land acquisition in Hawaii's history; the park was enlarged by 56% with the newly acquired land, west of the town of Waiʻōhinu and east of Ocean View. The land was purchased for $21.9 million from the estate of Samuel Mills Damon, with financing from The Nature Conservancy. National park superintendents: Several of the National Register of Historic Places listings on the island of Hawaii are located within the park: 1790 Footprints Ainahou Ranch Ainapo Trail Kīlauea Crater Puna-Kāʻu Historic District Volcano House Whitney Seismograph Vault No. 29 at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Wilkes Campsite The main visitor center, located just within the park entrance at 19°25′46
Leicester is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, the county town of Leicestershire. The city close to the eastern end of the National Forest; the 2016 mid year estimate of the population of the City of Leicester unitary authority was 348,300, an increase of 18,500 from the 2011 census figure of 329,839, making it the most populous municipality in the East Midlands region. The associated urban area is the 11th most populous in England and the 13th most populous in the United Kingdom. Leicester is at the intersection of two major railway lines—the north/south Midland Main Line and the east/west Birmingham to London Stansted CrossCountry line. Leicester is the home to football club Leicester City and rugby club Leicester Tigers; the name of Leicester is recorded in the 9th-century History of the Britons as Cair Lerion, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as Ligora-ceastre. In the Domesday Book of 1086, it is recorded as Ledecestre; the first element of the name, Ligora or Legora, is explained as a Brittonic river name, in a suggestion going back to William Somner an earlier name of the River Soar, cognate with the name of the Loire.
The second element of the name comes from the Latin castrum, reflected in both Welsh cair and Anglo-Saxon ceastre. Based on the Welsh name, Geoffrey of Monmouth proposes a king Leir of Britain as an eponymous founder in his Historia Regum Britanniae. Leicester is one of the oldest cities in England, with a history going back at least two millennia; the native Iron Age settlement encountered by the Romans at the site seems to have developed in the 2nd or 1st centuries BC. Little is known about this settlement or the condition of the River Soar at this time, although roundhouses from this era have been excavated and seem to have clustered along 8 hectares of the east bank of the Soar above its confluence with the Trent; this area of the Soar was split into two channels: a main stream to the east and a narrower channel on the west, with a marshy island between. The settlement seems to have controlled a ford across the larger channel; the Roman name was a latinate form of the Brittonic word for "ramparts", suggesting the site was an oppidum.
The plural form of the name suggests it was composed of several villages. The Celtic tribe holding the area was recorded as the "Coritanians" but an inscription recovered in 1983 showed this to have been a corruption of the original "Corieltauvians"; the Corieltauvians are believed to have ruled over the area of the East Midlands. It is believed that the Romans arrived in the Leicester area around AD 47, during their conquest of southern Britain; the Corieltauvian settlement lay near a bridge on the Fosse Way, a Roman road between the legionary camps at Isca and Lindum. It remains unclear whether the Romans fortified and garrisoned the location, but it developed from around the year 50 onwards as the tribal capital of the Corieltauvians under the name Ratae Corieltauvorum. In the 2nd century, it received a bathhouse. In 2013, the discovery of a Roman cemetery found just outside the old city walls and dating back to AD 300 was announced; the remains of the baths of Roman Leicester can be seen at the Jewry Wall.
Knowledge of the town following the Roman withdrawal from Britain is limited. There is some continuation of occupation of the town, though on a much reduced scale in the 5th and 6th centuries, its memory was preserved as the Cair Lerion of the History of the Britons. Following the Saxon invasion of Britain, Leicester was occupied by the Middle Angles and subsequently administered by the kingdom of Mercia, it was elevated to a bishopric in either 679 or 680. Their settlement became one of the Five Burghs of the Danelaw, although this position was short-lived; the Saxon bishop, fled to Dorchester-on-Thames and Leicester did not become a bishopric again until the Church of St Martin became Leicester Cathedral in 1927. The settlement was recorded under the name Ligeraceaster in the early 10th century. Following the Norman conquest, Leicester was recorded by William's Domesday Book as Ledecestre, it was noted as a city but lost this status in the 11th century owing to power struggles between the Church and the aristocracy and did not become a legal city again until 1919.
Geoffrey of Monmouth composed his History of the Kings of Britain around the year 1136, naming a King Leir as an eponymous founder figure. According to Geoffrey's narrative, Cordelia had buried her father beneath the river in a chamber dedicated to Janus and his feast day was an annual celebration; when Simon de Montfort became Lord of Leicester in 1231, he gave the city a grant to expel the Jewish population "in my time or in the time of any of my heirs to the end of the world". He justified his action as being "for the good of my soul, for the souls of my ancestors and successors". Leicester's Jews were allowed to move to the eastern suburbs, which were controlled by de Montfort's great-aunt and rival, Countess of Winchester, after she took advice from the scholar and cleric Robert Grosseteste. There is evidence that Jews remained there until 1253, enforcement of the banishment within the city was not rigorously enforced. De Montfort however issued a second edict for the expulsion of Leicester's Jews in 1253, after Grosseteste's death.
De Montfort's m
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Surf music is a subgenre of rock music associated with surf culture as found in Southern California. It was popular from 1962 to 1964 in two major forms; the first is instrumental surf, distinguished by reverb-drenched electric guitars played to evoke the sound of crashing waves pioneered by Dick Dale and the Del-Tones. The second is vocal surf, which took elements of the original surf sound and added vocal harmonies, a movement led by the Beach Boys. Dick Dale developed the surf sound from instrumental rock, where he added Middle Eastern and Mexican influences, a spring reverb, the rapid alternate picking characteristics, his regional hit "Let's Go Trippin'" launched the surf music craze, inspiring many others to take up the approach. The genre reached national exposure when it was represented by vocal groups such as the Beach Boys and Jan and Dean. Dale is quoted on such groups: "They were surfing sounds surfing lyrics. In other words, the music wasn't surfing music; the words made them surfing songs....
That was the difference... the real surfing music is instrumental."At the height of its popularity, surf music rivaled girl groups and Motown for top American popular music trends. It is sometimes referred to interchangeably with the California Sound. During the stages of the surf music craze, many of its groups started to write songs about cars and girls. Surf music emerged in the late 1950s as instrumental rock and roll music always in straight 4/4 time, with a medium to fast tempo; the sound was dominated by electric guitars which were characterized by the extensive use of the "wet" spring reverb, incorporated into Fender amplifiers from 1961, thought to emulate the sound of the waves. The outboard separate Fender Reverb Unit, developed by Fender in 1961 was the actual first "wet" surf reverb tone; this unit is the reverb effect heard on Dick Dale records, others such as "Pipeline" by the Chantays and "Point Panic" by the Surfaris. It had more of a wet "plucky" tone than the "built in" amp reverb, due to a different circuitry.
Guitarists made use of the vibrato arm on their guitar to bend the pitch of notes downward, electronic tremolo effects and rapid tremolo picking. Guitar models favored included those made by Fender, Teisco, or Danelectro with single coil pickups. Surf music was one of the first genres to universally adopt the electric bass the Fender Precision Bass. Classic surf drum kits tended to be Rogers, Gretsch or Slingerland; some popular songs incorporated a tenor or baritone saxophone, as on The Lively Ones' "Surf Rider" and The Revels' "Comanche". An electric organ or an electric piano featured as backing harmony. By the early 1960s, instrumental rock and roll had been pioneered by performers such as Link Wray, The Ventures and Duane Eddy; this trend was developed by Dick Dale, who added Middle Eastern and Mexican influences, the distinctive reverb, the rapid alternate picking characteristic of the genre. His performances at the Rendezvous Ballroom in Balboa, California during the summer of 1961, his regional hit "Let's Go Trippin'" that year, launched the surf music craze, which he followed up with hits like "Misirlou".
Like Dale and his Del-Tones, most early surf bands were formed in Southern California, with Orange County in particular having a strong surf culture, the Rendezvous Ballroom in Balboa hosted many surf-styled acts. Groups such as The Bel-Airs, The Challengers and Eddie & the Showmen followed Dale to regional success; the Chantays scored a top ten national hit with "Pipeline", reaching number 4 in May 1963. The single-most famous surf tune hit was "Wipe Out" by the Surfaris, with its intro of a wicked laugh; the group had two other global hits, "Surfer Joe" and "Point Panic". The growing popularity of the genre led groups from other areas to try their hand; these included The Astronauts, from Boulder, Colorado. The Atlantics, from Sydney, were not surf musicians, but made a significant contribution to the genre, the most famous example being their hit "Bombora". From Sydney were The Denvermen, whose lyrical instrumental "Surfside" reached number 1 in the Australian charts. Another Australian surf band who were known outside their own country's surf scene was The Joy Boys, backing band for singer Col Joye.
European bands around this time focused more on the style played by British instrumental rock group The Shadows. A notable example of European surf instrumental is Spanish band Los Relámpagos' rendition of "Misirlou"; the Dakotas, who were the British backing band for Merseybeat singer Billy J. Kramer, gained some attention as surf musicians with "Cruel Sea", covered by The Ventures, other instrumenta
A combo organ, so-named and classified by popular culture due to its original intended use by small, touring jazz and dance groups known as "combo bands", as well as some models having "Combo" as part of their brand or model names, is an electronic organ of the frequency divider type produced between the early 1960s and the late 1970s. This type of organ predated, contributed to, the development of modern synthesizers; the combo organ concept, at least in the context of mass-production, is thought to have arisen from popular demand, when smaller home organs were seen in music stores. Combo organs were originally developed in the United Kingdom, based on the Univox polyphonic version of the Clavioline, some models included the inner-workings of Italian-made transistor accordions, they were the brainchild of necessity for portable organs of simple design for use in these small groups. Combo organs ended up having a major impact on the music scene of the mid- and late 1960s on rock and roll of that era.
A combo organ is an electronic portable organ transistorized, designed for use on stage in the context of a band or group. A combo organ is supported on a removable or folding stand or legs. Combo organs were best known for their reedy sound. Most such instruments have no built-in amplification. A typical combo organ has one manual, covering four or five octaves, though a few models had two manuals of three or four octaves. A number of different pitches and tone-colours were featured using rocker-switches, tabs or drawbars to function as "stops" to select them. Although the sounds may bear such names as "flute", "string" or "horn", they are not intended to sound like their orchestral namesakes - the nomenclature is borrowed from pipe organ tradition; some instruments allow the keyboard to be split, the lowest octave or two producing a pedal-like bass tone. Most combo organs offer vibrato as a special effect. A volume pedal is used to vary the volume while playing. Less an optional set of bass pedals could be attached.
Soundwise, combo organs are similar to each other, although there are definite discernible tonal characteristics that differ between models that might be considered "default" for each model. For instance, the Vox Continental tends toward having somewhat of a Hammond-like, or "sine wave"-like sound. To collectors and enthusiasts, the visual aesthetic is as important as the sound; the instruments were available in bright and unusual colors with showy chrome legs, multi-colored stop-tabs, reverse-colored or gray-and-white keys. Towards the mid-1970s, combo organs began to take on a more muted appearance, with woodgrain or black covering and conventional keyboard colors. Many combo organs were produced in such countries as Italy or Japan, yet some more common models used by major acts were manufactured in the United Kingdom or the United States. Organs that are intended to emulate the sound and characteristics of a Hammond organ are not regarded as combo organs. Well-known combo organs include: Vox Continental Vox Jaguar Philicorda by Philips Farfisa Combo Compact series Farfisa Professional, VIP and FAST series Yamaha A3 and YC series Doric Organ Ace Tone "TOP" series Gibson G-101 Fender Contempo The combo organ's greatest popularity was during the 1960s, when it was featured on hits by The Doors, The Animals, Iron Butterfly, Manfred Mann, Strawberry Alarm Clock, many others and it was the main instrument of Pink Floyd's Richard Wright, from 1966 to 1973.
Although the instrument fell from favor during the 1970s there was a resurgence about 1977 when new wave artists such as Blondie, Elvis Costello, Talking Heads and XTC used them. More vintage combo organs have been used by The Horrors, Pulp, Kaiser Chiefs and Arctic Monkeys. Combo Organ Heaven Site about combo organ manufacturers and models Combo Organ Nation Forum for combo organ owners