Alexander Kelly McClure was an American politician, newspaper editor and writer from Pennsylvania who served as a Republican member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1858 to 1859, the Pennsylvania State Senate for the 18th district in 1861, the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1865 to 1866 and the Pennsylvania Senate, 4th district from 1873 to 1874. He was a prominent supporter and biographer of President Abraham Lincoln, he was the editor of the Franklin Repository newspaper in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and of the Philadelphia Times. The borough of McClure and the Alexander K. McClure School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania are named in his honor. McClure was born on January 9, 1828 in Sherman's Valley,Perry County, Pennsylvania to Alexander and Isabella Anderson McClure, he received little formal education. At the age of fourteen, he traveled to Philadelphia and apprenticed as a tanner, he returned to Pennsylvania after failing in the tannery business. He worked as a printer at the Perry County Freeman and the Juniata Sentinel in Mifflintown, Pennsylvania.
He became editor and publisher of the Sentinel in 1846, became known for his Whig political views. McClure was appointed to the staff of the first Whig governor of Pennsylvania, William F. Johnston, with the honorary rank of colonel. In 1850, Millard Fillmore appointed McClure deputy United States Marshal for Juniata County, he purchased the Franklin Repository newspaper. He studied law and was admitted to the Franklin County, Pennsylvania bar in 1856. McClure was an outspoken abolitionist. In 1857, he was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and re-elected in 1858 and 1859. At the 1860 Republican National Convention McClure became a well-known political figure, opposing fellow Pennsylvanian Simon Cameron's bid for the Republican nomination for the presidency. McClure and Andrew G. Curtin helped swing the state's vote away from Cameron and William Seward to Abraham Lincoln. After Lincoln's election, McClure became chairman of the Republican state committee and helped to elect Curtin governor of Pennsylvania.
He served in the Pennsylvania Senate for the 18th district in 1861 and for the 4th district in 1873. When the Civil War began, McClure rallied support for the war as Chairman of the Senate Committee of Military Affairs, he assisted Governor Curtin in planning a meeting of fourteen Northern state governors known as the "Loyal War Governors of the North", in Altoona, Pennsylvania in order to secure their continued support of the war. McClure was commissioned by President Lincoln as an assistant adjutant general with the rank of major on September 6, 1862, he was tasked with raising seventeen Pennsylvania regiments for induction into the U. S. Army and served until he resigned his commission on February 27, 1863. During the U. S. Civil War, Confederate forces threatened McClure's home in Chambersburg several times. McClure was captured but released when General J. E. B. Stuart entered Chambersburg on his raid around McClellan's army in October 1862; the following July, Confederates under Colonel Eppa Hunton crossed the Potomac River and destroyed railroad property in Chambersburg en route to the Battle of Gettysburg, but noted McClure's hospitality.
Days before the battle of Gettysburg, Confederate General Albert Jenkins was a guest at McClure's house. McClure met with Robert E. Lee during the second occupancy of Chambersburg by the Confederate army. In 1864, during the Confederacy's third occupation of Chambersburg, when the town was unable to pay ransom demanded by General Jubal Early, Confederates burned McClure's home, Norland along with much of the rest of the town, The home was rebuilt and sold to Wilson College; the building that housed the Franklin Repository newspaper operations was destroyed in the blaze. In 1864, McClure moved to Philadelphia, opened a law office and helped Lincoln carry Pennsylvania again in the general election. In 1865, McClure was elected again to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives as a Union Party member. After the war, McClure traveled extensively in the Western United States to recoup personal wealth lost during the war, he became an investor and officer of the Philadelphia-based Montana Gold and Silver Mining Company and was superintendent of one of the company's mills at the Oro Cache vein in the Montana Territory.
He collaborated with former Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin as an incorporator of the McClure-Curtin Oil Company in Venango County, Pennsylvania. He returned to Philadelphia in 1868 after supporting Ulysses S. Grant at the Republican National Convention. By the time of Grant's reelection bid, McClure had left the Republican Party and threw his support to Horace Greeley and the Liberal Republican Party. In 1867, McClure published "Three Thousand Miles Through the Rocky Mountains" and it became a resource by many interested in traveling in the West. In 1873, McClure was elected to the Pennsylvania Senate for the 4th district. In 1874, he lost by only 900 votes. McClure returned to newspaper editing by founding the Philadelphia Times in 1875, he continued as The Philadelphia Times' editor until 1901, when he sold the newspaper to Adolph Ochs. He lost much of his fortune in the stock market but was able to obtain an appointment as a law clerk of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, he worked to heal sectional divisions between Union and former Confederate forces, including participating at the unveiling of the monument to Confederate General George Pickett at the Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia.
In 1886 McClure wrote The South: Its Industrial, F
Adolph Simon Ochs was an American newspaper publisher and former owner of The New York Times and The Chattanooga Times. Ochs was born to a Jewish family in Cincinnati, Ohio, on March 12, 1858, his parents, Julius Ochs and Bertha Levy, were both German immigrants. His father had left Bavaria for the United States in 1846. Julius was a educated man and fluent in six languages that he taught at schools throughout the South, though he supported the Union during the Civil War. Ochs' mother Bertha had come to the United States in 1848 as a refugee from the revolution in Rhenish Bavaria, had lived in the South before her 1853 marriage with Julius, sympathized with the South, though their differing sympathies didn't separate their household. After the war, the family moved to Tennessee. In Knoxville, Adolph studied during his spare time delivered newspapers. At 11, he went to work at the Knoxville Chronicle as office boy to William Rule, the editor, who became a mentor. In 1871 he was a grocer's clerk at Rhode Island, attending a night school meanwhile.
He returned to Knoxville, where he was a druggist's apprentice for some time. In 1872, he returned to the Chronicle as a "printer's devil," who looked after various details in the composing room of the paper, his siblings worked at the newspaper to supplement the income of their father, a lay religious leader for Knoxville's small Jewish community. The Chronicle was the only Republican, pro-Reconstruction, newspaper in the city, but Ochs counted Father Ryan, the Poet-Priest of the Confederacy, among his customers. At the age of 19, he borrowed $250 from his family to purchase a controlling interest in the Chattanooga Times Free Press, becoming its publisher; the following year he founded. He served as president. In 1896, at the age of 38, he was advised by The New York Times reporter Henry Alloway that the paper could be bought at a reduced price due to its financial losses and wide range of competitors in New York City. After borrowing money to purchase The New York Times for $75,000, he formed the New York Times Co. placed the paper on a strong financial foundation, became the majority stockholder.
In 1904, he hired Carr Van Anda as his managing editor. Their focus on objective journalism, in a time when newspapers were and partisan, a well-timed price decrease led to its rescue from near oblivion; the paper's readership increased from 9,000 at the time of his purchase to 780,000 by the 1920s. He added the Times' well-known masthead motto: "All the News That's Fit to Print."In 1904, Ochs moved the New York Times to a newly built building on Longacre Square in Manhattan, which the City of New York renamed as Times Square. On New Year's Eve 1904, he had pyrotechnists illuminate his new building at One Times Square with a fireworks show from street level. On August 18, 1921, the 25th anniversary of reorganization, the staff of The New York Times numbered 1,885, it was classified as an independent Democratic publication, opposed William Jennings Bryan in his presidential campaigns. By its fairness in the presentation of news, editorial moderation and ample foreign service, it secured a high place in American journalism, becoming read and influential throughout the United States.
Beginning with 1896, there was issued weekly a supplement called The New York Times Book Review and Magazine. Other auxiliary publications were added: The Annalist, a financial review appearing on Mondays; the New York Times Index was published quarterly. In 1901, Ochs became proprietor and editor of the Philadelphia Times merged in the Philadelphia Public Ledger, of which he was sole owner from 1902 to 1912, when he sold it to Cyrus H. K. Curtis. According to Wolfgang Disch, it was during this time in 1916 that Ochs relayed one of his most famous quotes "I affirm that more than 50% of money spent on advertising is squandered and is a sheer waste of printers' ink." This quote might be the origin of the common marketing saying "I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, but I can never find out which half", attributed to John Wanamaker. In 1884, Ochs married Effie Wise, the daughter of Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise of Cincinnati, the leading exponent of Reform Judaism in America and the founder of Hebrew Union College.
In 1928 Ochs built the Mizpah Congregation Temple in Chattanooga in memory of his parents and Bertha Ochs. The Georgian colonial building was designated as a Tennessee Historical Preservation Site in 1979. Ochs was engaged in crusading against anti-Semitism, he was active in the early years of the Anti-Defamation League, serving as an executive board member, used his influence as publisher of the New York Times to convince other newspapers nationwide to cease the unjustified caricaturing and lampooning of Jews in the American press. Ochs died on April 1935, during a visit to Chattanooga, he is buried at the Temple Israel Cemetery in Westchester County, New York. His only daughter, Iphigene Bertha Ochs, married Arthur Hays Sulzberger, who became publisher of the Times after Adolph died, her son-in-law Orvil Dryfoos was publisher from 1961–63, followed by her son Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger. Her daughter, Ruth Holmberg, became publisher of The Chattanooga Times. Ruth Holmberg's son is author of Memoirs of a Geisha.
Ochs' great-grandson Arthu
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Philadelphia Evening Telegraph
The Philadelphia Evening Telegraph was a newspaper published in Philadelphia, from 1864 to 1918. The paper was started on January 1864, by James Barclay Harding and Charles Edward Warburton. Warburton served as publisher until 1896, when he passed the newspaper and the publisher's job to Barclay Harding Warburton I. In 1911, Barclay Warburton sold the paper to Rodman Wanamaker, who ran it until it closed in 1918. Bought out by Cyrus Curtis, owner of the Public Ledger, Curtis merged the Telegraph into the Ledger and thus acquired an Associated Press membership; the Ledger carried the full name of Evening Public Ledger and The Evening Telegraph through the end of 1918, dropped the Telegraph addition. Archives at Chronicling America
Public Ledger (Philadelphia)
The Public Ledger was a daily newspaper in Philadelphia, published from March 25, 1836 to January 1942. Its motto was "Virtue Liberty and Independence". For a time, it was Philadelphia's most popular newspaper, it operated a syndicate, the Ledger Syndicate, from 1915 until 1946. Founded by William Moseley Swain, Arunah S. Abell, Azariah H. Simmons, edited by Swain, the Public Ledger was the first penny paper in Philadelphia. At that time most papers sold for five cents or more, a high price which limited their appeal to only the reasonably well-off. Swain and Abell drew on the success of the New York Herald, one of the first penny papers and decided to use a one cent cover price to appeal to a broad audience, they mimicked the Herald's use of bold headlines to draw sales. The formula was a success and the Ledger posted a circulation of 15,000 in 1840, growing to 40,000 a decade later. To put this into perspective, the entire circulation of all newspapers in Philadelphia was estimated at only 8,000 when the Ledger was founded.
The Ledger was a technological innovator as well. It was the first daily to make use of a pony express, among the first papers to use the electromagnetic telegraph. From 1846, it was printed on the first rotary printing press. By the early 1860s, The Ledger was a money-losing operation, squeezed by rising paper and printing costs, it had lost circulation by supporting the Copperhead Policy of opposing the American Civil War and advocating an immediate peace settlement with the Confederate States of America. Most readers in Philadelphia at the time supported the Union, although there was a strong contingent of Southern sympathizers and families with ties to the South, as Southerners had long had second homes in Philadelphia and sent their daughters to finishing schools there. In the face of declining circulation, publishers were reluctant to increase the one-cent subscription cost, although it was needed to cover the costs of production. In December 1864, the paper was sold to George William Childs and Anthony J. Drexel for a reported $20,000.
Upon buying the paper, Childs changed its policy and methods. He changed the editorial policy to the Loyalist line, raised advertising rates, doubled the cover price to two cents. After an initial drop, circulation rebounded and the paper resumed profitability. Childs was involved in all operations of the paper, from the press room to the composing room, he intentionally upgraded the quality of advertisements appearing in the publication to suit a higher-end readership. Childs's efforts bore fruit and the Ledger became one of the most influential journals in the country. Circulation growth led the firm to outgrow its facilities. Designed by architect John McArthur, Jr. the building had at its corner a larger-than-life-sized statue of Benjamin Franklin by Joseph A. Bailly, which Childs had commissioned; the quality and profitability of the Ledger improved dramatically. By 1894, The New York Times described it as "...the finest newspaper office in the country." Toward the end of Child's leadership, the Ledger was estimated to generate profits of $500,000 per year.
In 1870, Mark Twain mocked the Ledger for its rhyming obituaries, in a piece entitled "Post-Mortem Poetry", in his column for The Galaxy: There is an element about some poetry, able to make physical suffering and death cheerful things to contemplate and consummations to be desired. In 1902, Adolph Ochs, owner of The New York Times, bought the paper from Drexel's estate for a reported $2.25 million. He merged it with the Philadelphia Times, installed his brother George as editor. Oakes served as editor until 1914. In 1913, Cyrus H. K. Curtis purchased the paper from Ochs for $2 million and hired his step son-in-law John Charles Martin as editor. Curtis was owner of Ladies' Home Journal and The Saturday Evening Post, his intention was to establish the Ledger as Philadelphia's premier newspaper, which he achieved by buying and closing several competing papers: the Philadelphia Evening Telegraph, the Philadelphia North American, The Philadelphia Press among them. Philadelphia went from a peak of 13 papers in 1900 to seven in 1920, a time when the newspaper industry in the United States was consolidating in general.
Under Curtis' ownership, the conservative appearance of the Ledger was increased: it avoided bold headlines and printed photographs on the front page. Its conservative format has been compared by scholars to the Wall Street Journal or New York Times of the twentieth century. Curtis built the Ledger's foreign news service and syndicated it to other papers via his Ledger Syndicate. From 1918 to 1921, former President William Howard Taft was on staff as an editorial contributor. To broaden the market, compete against The Evening Bulletin, in 1914 Curtis began publishing the Evening Public Ledger, a bolder paper designed to appeal to a broader public; the Ledger suffered by competition from an ascendant The Evening Bulletin, which under publisher William L. McLean grew in size from 12 pages in 1900 to 28 pages in 1920, from circulation of 6,000 to a leadership position of over 500,000 readers in the same time; the Bulletin's bolder and more commercial approach attracted additional advertising, which in turn drew more readers.
Advertising, which comprised only 1/3 of the Bulletin in 1900, grew to nearly 3/4 of its pages in 1920. At the same time, the circulation at the Ledger stagnated. Curtis built a new Public Ledger
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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