GMM Grammy Public Company Limited is the largest media conglomerate entertainment company in Thailand. It claims a 70 percent share of the Thai entertainment industry. Grammy artists include Silly Fools and Loso. In addition to its music business, the company is involved in concert production, artist management and television production and publishing; the company has fifteen music subsidies: Genie Record Grammy Gold - Thai country. Grammy Big Sanamluang Music UP^G White Music Music Cream Nevermind Records Werk Gang Grand Musik Halo Society MBO GMMTV RECORDS GMM A Exact MusicGMMTV RECORDS and GMM A are under GMM Channel Digital TV department and Exact Music are under GMM One Digital TV department. Manufacturing and distribution comes under MGA Co. Ltd. while the Imagine record store chain is a company-owned retailer. Music publishing is handled by GMM Music Publishing International Co. Ltd. while GMM Grammy licensed karaoke music and equipment is handled by Clean Karaoke. Current and past artists in the GMM Grammy label include: GDH 559 Co. Ltd. is GMM Grammy's film production company.
It was formed on 5 January 2016 to replace its successful predecessor GMM Tai Hub, which dissolved due to internal conflicts. GMM Z Co. Ltd. is a subsidiary of GMM Grammy that produces and distributes satellite television set-top boxes airing free-to-air channels and its own content. It operated Z PAY TV, a pay television platform offering premium and exclusive content such as German Bundesliga, UEFA Euro 2012, channels from FOX International Channels before it was sold to CTH. GMM Grammy has 2 digital television channel: One31 Channel 31 GMM 25 Channel 25 Production marques, studios which produces lakorns, TV series, TV shows, game shows and variety shows. Including: A-Time Media The One Enterprise GMM Channel GDH 559 GMMTV GMM BRAVO Atime Media, a subsidiary of GMM Grammy, operates the following stations: Chill FM Online EFM 94 Green Wave 106.5 FM Hot 91.5 Magazines produced by GMM Grammy include: Image - Fashion, society news. Madame Figaro Magazine - Fashion and beauty "targeting sophisticated and educated women who do not need'how to'".
Her World - The Thai edition of the popular Singaporean women's magazine. Maxim - The Thai edition of the popular lad mag. Attitude - The Thai edition of the British gay lifestyle magazine. In Magazine - Fashion and Entertainment GMM Grammy has partial stakes in the Bangkok Post and the Matichon Group, which publishes several Thai-language dailies, including Matichon and Khao Sod. Se-Education PLC - A chain of university bookstores. Media of Thailand List of record labels: 0-9 Corporate website GMMTV GDH559 – GDH 559. ฟังเพลง – GMM Grammy's Entertainment Web Portal. GMM Grammy at the Stock Exchange of Thailand
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Thai Airways International Public Company Limited, trading as THAI is the flag carrier airline of Thailand. Formed in 1988, the airline has its corporate headquarters in Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Chatuchak District and operates from Suvarnabhumi Airport. THAI is a founding member of the Star Alliance; the airline is the second-largest shareholder of the low-cost carrier Nok Air with a 21.80 per cent stake, it launched a regional carrier under the name Thai Smile in the middle of 2012 using new Airbus A320 aircraft. From its hub at Suvarnabhumi Airport and secondary hub at Phuket International Airport, Thai flies to 84 destinations in 37 countries, using a fleet of over 90 aircraft; the airline was once the operator of two of the world's longest non-stop routes between Bangkok and Los Angeles and New York City, but due to high fuel prices, the withdrawal of aircraft, luggage weight limits and rising airfares, the airline abandoned all non-stop US services in 2012 indefinitely. As of 2013, services between Bangkok and Los Angeles were served via Incheon International Airport near Seoul, however, it ended its service to the US on 25 October 2015.
Thai's route network is dominated by flights to Europe, East Asia, South/Southwest Asia, though the airline serves five cities in Oceania. Thai was the first Asia-Pacific airline to serve London Heathrow Airport. Among Asia-Pacific carriers, the company has one of the largest passenger operations in Europe; as of the end of 2018, it employed about 1,300 pilots across all of its routes.. Thai Airways has its origins in 1960 as a joint venture between Scandinavian Airlines, which held a 30 per cent share of the new company valued at two million Thai baht, Thailand's domestic carrier, Thai Airways Company; the purpose of the joint venture was to create an international wing for the domestic carrier Thai Airways Company. SAS provided operational and marketing expertise, with training assistance aimed at building a independent national airline within the shortest possible time. Thai nationals, through training and experience, were able to assume full managerial responsibility and the number of expatriate staff duly decreased, with expatriates accounting for less than one per cent of staff based in Thailand in 1987.
The carrier's first revenue flight was on 1 May 1960. Flights were operated to nine overseas Asian destinations from Bangkok; the airline's first intercontinental services using Douglas DC-8s started in 1971 to Australia, to Europe the following year. A number of the larger Douglas DC-10 wide-body tri-jet was acquired in the 1970s. Services to North America commenced in 1980. On 1 April 1977, after 17 years of capital participation by SAS, the Thai government bought out the remaining 15 per cent of SAS-owned shares and Thai became an airline owned by the Thai government. In 2016, the company is 51 per cent owned by the Thai Ministry of Finance. Forty-seven per cent of its shares trade on the Stock Exchange of Thailand. On 1 April 1988, then-Prime Minister Gen. Prem Tinsulanonda, in seeking to have a single national carrier, merged the international and domestic operations of the two companies to form the present company, Thai Airways International. On 25 June 1991, the new Thai listed its shares on the Stock Exchange of Thailand and offered them to the public.
The Thai public offering of shares is the largest undertaken in the country. In 1997 Thai Airways planned the first in Thai history. On 14 May 1997, THAI, along with Lufthansa, Air Canada, SAS, United Airlines, founded the world's first and largest airline alliance, Star Alliance. Throughout the 2000s, Thai aggressively continued its route network expansion with new services to Chengdu, Chennai, Milan, Islamabad, Hyderabad and Oslo. Using the Airbus A340-500s it acquired in 2005, Thai commenced non-stop flights from Bangkok to New York, its first non-stop services to North America; the airline converted existing one-stop services to Los Angeles into non-stop services using the same aircraft type. Citing high fuel costs, Thai discontinued the New York service in July 2008 though the airline had been able to fill 80 per cent of the seats; the service to Los Angeles was again reverted to one-stop service via Seoul on 1 May 2012, leaving the airline without a non-stop service between Thailand and North America.
The A340s used have been phased out using the Boeing 777-200ER for the Bangkok–Seoul–Los-Angeles route. Although the previous A340 used for non-stop services was not subject to ETOPS, the phasing in of the 777 with one-stop service will be indefinite for years to come. In 2006, THAI moved its hub operations to the new Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport. Coinciding with the arrival of new aircraft during the mid-2000s, as well as its new hub airport in Bangkok, the airline launched a brand renewal by introducing a new aircraft livery, new aircraft seating, revamped ground and air services; the 2000s saw Thai expanding its route network beyond its Bangkok hub. The airline launched non-stop flights from Phuket to Hong Kong. During the late-2000s, Thai's aggressive growth was hampered by a combination of internal and external factors, including a spike in fuel prices, domestic political conflict in Thailand, the global economic crisis of the late-2000s. In 2008, after achieving profitability for the previous 40 years, THAI recorded a
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep; the city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance. Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which grew and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam renamed Thailand, during the late-19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West; the city was at the centre of Thailand's political struggles throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule, underwent numerous coups and several uprisings.
The city grew during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand's politics, education and modern society. The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok; the city is now a regional force in business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, has emerged as a centre for the arts and entertainment; the city is known for cultural landmarks, as well as its red-light districts. The Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world's top tourist destinations, has been named the world's most visited city in several rankings. Bangkok's rapid growth coupled with little urban planning has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure. An inadequate road network, despite an extensive expressway network, together with substantial private car usage, have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion, which caused severe air pollution in the 1990s.
The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve the problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; the history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, when it was a village on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, under the rule of Ayutthaya. Because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town increased in importance. Bangkok served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, was the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam. After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly crowned King Taksin established his capital at the town, which became the base of the Thonburi Kingdom. In 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern bank's Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom; the City Pillar was erected on 21 April 1782, regarded as the date of foundation of the present city.
Bangkok's economy expanded through international trade, first with China with Western merchants returning in the early to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siam's modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late-19th century; the reigns of Kings Mongkut and Chulalongkorn saw the introduction of the steam engine, printing press, rail transport and utilities infrastructure in the city, as well as formal education and healthcare. Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932. Allied with Japan in World War II, it was subjected to Allied bombing, but grew in the post-war period as a result of US aid and government-sponsored investment. Bangkok's role as a US military R&R destination boosted its tourism industry as well as establishing it as a sex tourism destination. Disproportionate urban development led to increasing income inequalities and migration from rural areas into Bangkok.
Following the US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973, Japanese businesses took over as leaders in investment, the expansion of export-oriented manufacturing led to growth of the financial market in Bangkok. Rapid growth of the city continued through the 1980s and early 1990s, until it was stalled by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. By many public and social issues had emerged, among them the strain on infrastructure reflected in the city's notorious traffic jams. Bangkok's role as the nation's political stage continues to be seen in strings of popular protests, from the student uprisings in 1973 and 1976, anti-military demonstrations in 1992, successive anti-government demonstrations by opposing groups from 2008 on. Administration of the city was first formalized by King Chulalongkorn in 1906, with the establishment of Monthon Krung Thep Phra Maha Nakhon as a national subdivision. In 1915 the monthon was split into several provinces, the administrative boundaries of which have since further changed.
The city in its current form was created in 1972 with the formation of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, following the merger of Phra Nakhon Province on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya and Thonburi Province on the west during the previous year. The origin of th
The baht is the official currency of Thailand. It is subdivided into 100 satang; the issuance of currency is the responsibility of the Bank of Thailand. According to SWIFT, as of February 2017, the Thai baht is ranked as the 10th most used world payment currency. According to a report in the South China Morning Post, the China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation produces at least some Thai banknotes and coins; the Thai baht, like the pound, originated from a traditional unit of mass. Its currency value was expressed as that of silver of corresponding weight, was in use as early as the Sukhothai period in the form of bullet coins known in Thai as phot duang; these were pieces of solid silver cast to various weights corresponding to a traditional system of units related by simple fractions and multiples, one of, the baht. These are listed in the following table: That system was in use up until 1897, when the decimal system devised by Prince Jayanta Mongkol, in which one baht = 100 satang, was introduced by his half-brother King Chulalongkorn.
However, coins denominated in the old units were issued until 1910, the amount of 25 satang is still referred to as a salueng, as is the 25-satang coin. Until 27 November 1902, the baht was fixed on a purely silver basis, with 15 grams of silver to the baht; this caused the value of the currency to vary relative to currencies on a gold standard. In 1857, the values of certain foreign silver coins were fixed by law, with the one baht = 0.6 Straits dollar and five baht = seven Indian rupees. Before 1880 the exchange rate was fixed at eight baht per pound sterling, falling to 10 to the pound during the 1880s. In 1902, the government began to increase the value of the baht by following all increases in the value of silver against gold but not reducing it when the silver price fell. Beginning at 21.75 baht = one pound sterling, the currency rose in value until, in 1908, a fixed peg to the British pound sterling was established of 13 baht = one pound. This was revised to 12 baht in 1919 and after a period of instability, to 11 baht in 1923.
During World War II, the baht was fixed at a value of one Japanese yen. From 1956 until 1973, the baht was pegged to the U. S. dollar at an exchange rate of 20.8 baht = one dollar and at 20 baht = 1 dollar until 1978. A strengthening US economy caused Thailand to re-peg its currency at 25 to the dollar from 1984 until 2 July 1997, when the country was affected by the 1997 Asian financial crisis; the baht was floated and halved in value, reaching its lowest rate of 56 to the dollar in January 1998. It has since risen to about 30 per dollar; the baht was known to foreigners by the term tical, used in English language text on banknotes until 1925. Rama III was the first king to consider the use of a flat coin, he did so not for the convenience of traders, but because he was disturbed that the creatures living in the cowrie shells were killed. When he learned of the use of flat copper coins in Singapore in 1835, he contacted a Scottish trader, who had two types of experimental coins struck in England.
The king rejected both designs. The name of the country put on these first coins was Muang Thai, not Siam. Cowrie shells from the Mekong River had been used as currency for small amounts since the Sukhothai period. Before 1860, Thailand did not produce coins using modern methods. Instead, a so-called "bullet" coinage was used, consisting of bars of metal, thicker in the middle, bent round to form a complete circle on which identifying marks were stamped. Denominations issued included 1⁄128, 1⁄64, 1⁄32, 1⁄16, 1⁄8, 1⁄2, 1, 1 1⁄2, 2, 2 1⁄2, 4, 4 1⁄2, 8, 10, 20, 40, 80 baht in silver and 1⁄32, 1⁄16, 1⁄8, 1⁄2, 1, 1 1⁄2, 2, 4 baht in gold. One gold baht was worth 16 silver baht. Between 1858 and 1860, foreign trade coins were stamped by the government for use in Thailand. In 1860, modern style coins were introduced; these were silver 1 sik, 1 fuang, 1 and 2 salung, 1, 2, 4 baht, with the baht weighing 15.244 grams and the others weight related. Tin 1 solot and 1 att followed in 1862, with gold 2 1⁄2, 4, 8 baht introduced in 1863 and copper 2 and 4 att in 1865.
Copper replaced tin in the 1 solot and 1 att in 1874, with copper 4 att introduced in 1876. The last gold coins were struck in 1895. In 1897, the first coins denominated in satang were introduced, cupronickel 2 1⁄2, 5, 10, 20 satang. However, 1 solot, 1 and 2 att coins were struck until 1905 and 1 fuang coins were struck until 1910. In 1908, holed 1, 5, 10 satang coins were introduced, with the 1 satang in bronze and the 5 and 10 satang in nickel; the 1 and 2 salung were replaced by 25 and 50 satang coins in 1915. In 1937, bronze 1⁄2 satang were issued. In 1941, a series of silver coins was introduced in denominations of 5, 10, 20 satang, due to a shortage of nickel caused by World War II; the next year, tin coins were introduced for 1, 5, 10 satang, followed by 20 satang in 1945 and 25 and 50 satang in 1946. In 1950, aluminium-bronze 5, 10, 25, 50 satang were introduced whilst, in 1957, bronze 5 and 10 satang were issued, along with 1 baht coins struck in an unusual alloy of copper, nickel and zinc.
Several Thai coins were issued for many years without changing the date. These include the tin 1942 1 satang and the 1950 5 and 10 satang, struck until 1973, the tin 1946 25 satang struck until 1964, the tin 50 satang struck until 1957, the aluminium bronze 1957 5, 10, 25, 50 satang struck until the 1970s. Cupronickel 1 baht coins were introduced in 1962 and struck without date change until 1982. In 1972, cupronickel 5 baht coins were introduced, switching to cupronickel-cl
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an ore body, vein, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package, of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, oil shale, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or water. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. De Re Metallica, Georgius Agricola, 1550, Book I, Para. 1Mining operations create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed.
Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, modern practices have improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products. Due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves. Since the beginning of civilization, people have used stone and metals found close to the Earth's surface; these were used to make early weapons. Flint mines have been found in chalk areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by shafts and galleries; the mines at Grimes Graves and Krzemionki are famous, like most other flint mines, are Neolithic in origin. Other hard rocks mined or collected for axes included the greenstone of the Langdale axe industry based in the English Lake District; the oldest-known mine on archaeological record is the Ngwenya Mine in Swaziland, which radiocarbon dating shows to be about 43,000 years old.
At this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre. Mines of a similar age in Hungary are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined flint for weapons and tools. Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi. At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Between 2613 and 2494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi Maghareh in order to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself. Quarries for turquoise and copper were found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna. Mining in Egypt occurred in the earliest dynasties; the gold mines of Nubia were among the largest and most extensive of any in Ancient Egypt. These mines are described by the Greek author Diodorus Siculus, who mentions fire-setting as one method used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. One of the complexes is shown in one of the earliest known maps.
The miners crushed the ore and ground it to a fine powder before washing the powder for the gold dust. Mining in Europe has a long history. Examples include the silver mines of Laurium. Although they had over 20,000 slaves working them, their technology was identical to their Bronze Age predecessors. At other mines, such as on the island of Thassos, marble was quarried by the Parians after they arrived in the 7th century BC; the marble was shipped away and was found by archaeologists to have been used in buildings including the tomb of Amphipolis. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, captured the gold mines of Mount Pangeo in 357 BC to fund his military campaigns, he captured gold mines in Thrace for minting coinage producing 26 tons per year. However, it was the Romans who developed large scale mining methods the use of large volumes of water brought to the minehead by numerous aqueducts; the water was used for a variety of purposes, including removing overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted, or crushed and driving simple machinery.
The Romans used hydraulic mining methods on a large scale to prospect for the veins of ore a now-obsolete form of mining known as hushing. They built numerous aqueducts to supply water to the minehead. There, the water stored in large tanks; when a full tank was opened, the flood of water sluiced away the overburden to expose the bedrock underneath and any gold veins. The rock was worked upon by fire-setting to heat the rock, which would be quenched with a stream of water; the resulting thermal shock cracked the rock, enabling it to be removed by further streams of water from the overhead tanks. The Roman miners used similar methods to work cassiterite deposits in Cornwall and lead ore in the Pennines; the methods had been developed by the Romans in Spain in 25 AD to exploit large alluvial gold deposits, the largest site being at Las Medulas, where seven long aqueducts tapped local rivers and sluiced the deposits. Spain was one of the most important mining regions, but all regions of the Roman Empire were exploited.
In Great Britain the natives had mined minerals for millennia, but after the Roman conquest, the scale of the operations increased as the Romans needed Britannia's resources gold, silver
Phang Nga Province
Phang Nga is one of the southern provinces of Thailand, on the shore of the Andaman Sea to the west and Phang Nga Bay to the south. Neighboring provinces are Ranong, Surat Thani, Krabi. To the south is the Phuket Province, connected by the Sarasin Bridge; the province is on the west side of the Malay Peninsula, includes the many islands of the Phang Nga Bay. The most famous one is the so-called James Bond Island, a needle formed limestone rock in the sea, which featured in the 1974 movie The Man with the Golden Gun. Ao Phang Nga National Park was established in 1981 to protect the many islands; the Similan Islands and Surin Islands, two of Thailand's main diving destinations, are part of Phang Nga Province. Phang Nga is the modern Thai transliteration of the archaic Malay word pangan, literally'jungle'; the phrase orang pangan denotes'heathen, primitive people', in reference to a generalised tribe or people inhabiting jungle areas of the Malay Peninsula and its offshore islands. During the reign of King Rama II, nearby areas were occupied by the Burmese and so many people fled to Kraphu Nga.
In 1824 when Siamese troops defeated the Burmese and they were expelled, King Rama III renamed the area adjacent to the bay phang-nga. This bastardisation of Malay pangan offers indicates that the entire region may have been populated by Orang Asli or other aboriginal peoples. In 1933 the town was promoted to provincial status. On the morning of 26 December 2004 the Andaman Sea coastline of the province was devastated by a tsunami and thousands lost their lives; the Khura Buri District Ko Phra Thong, has been called a "smuggler's paradise" and thus a key entry point into Thailand for human trafficking, Rohingya and Syrian refugees particularly. The provincial seal shows the Phu Khao Chang mountains in the background, with city hall in front, it shows a dredge to represent the tin mining in the province. The provincial slogan is, "Massive mining industry, Ban Klang Nam'floating house', delightful caves, strangely shaped hills, Jampun flower, rich in resources"; the provincial tree is the Cinnamomum porrectum, the provincial flower is Anaxagorea javanica.
Phang Nga is divided into eight districts, which are further subdivided into 48 communes and 314 villages. Roads: Hwy 4 is the main route that connects all districts in Phang Nga. Hwy 401 connects Phang Nga to Surat Thani. Hwy 402 connects Phang Nga to Phuket Province. Hwy 4090 connects Muang to Kapong District. Railways: There is no rail system in Phang Nga Province; the nearest railway station is at Surat Thani Province. Bus: There are frequent buses to Bangkok and other provinces. There are non air conditioned intra-provincial buses. Public transit: songthaews are the most popular mode of public transportation in Phang Nga. Motorbike-taxi: These are found in Phang Nga town and are used for short distances. Charges correspond to distance traveled. Airport: There is no airport in Phang Nga Province; the nearest airport is Phuket International Airport. Ao Phang Nga National Park was declared a national park in 1981, it has scenic views and features mass limestone formations scattered around in the sea near the shore.
The same factors contribute to the density of caves in the area. The park is fertile with mangroves and there are a number of islands in the vicinity. Mu Ko Similan National Park was declared a national park in 1982. Similan is a group of nine islands. Off-season is 16 May–31 October. Mu Ko Surin National Park is an archipelago of five islands: Ko Surin Nuea, Ko Surin Tai, Ko Ri, Ko Khai, Ko Klang, it was declared a national park on 9 July 1981. The archipelago is near the Thai-Burmese oceanic border. Khao Lak–Lam Ru National Park was declared a national park in August 1991; the park occupies an area of 150 square kilometers and covers Thai Mueang District, Kapong District, Takua Pa District, Mueang District. The interesting attractions are: Khao Lak, which has the Chao Pho Khao Lak Shrine, Laem Pakarang which has groves of pine, making it good for camping and relaxation, Namtok Ton Chong Fa or Ton Chong Fa Waterfall. Khao Lampi–Hat Thai Mueang National Park The park occupies an area of 18,000 acres.
It was declared a national park on 14 April 1988. Interesting attractions in the park include: Namtok Lampi is a 6-tiered waterfall that runs all year round. Phang Nga travel guide from Wikivoyage Provincial website