Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor
A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws of many vertebrates and used to break down food. Some animals carnivores use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes; the roots of teeth are covered by gums. Teeth hardness; the cellular tissues that become teeth originate from the embryonic germ layer, the ectoderm. The general structure of teeth is similar across the vertebrates, although there is considerable variation in their form and position; the teeth of mammals have deep roots, this pattern is found in some fish, in crocodilians. In most teleost fish, the teeth are attached to the outer surface of the bone, while in lizards they are attached to the inner surface of the jaw by one side. In cartilaginous fish, such as sharks, the teeth are attached by tough ligaments to the hoops of cartilage that form the jaw; some animals develop only one set of teeth. Sharks, for example, grow a new set of teeth. Rodent incisors grow and wear away continually through gnawing, which helps maintain constant length.
The industry of the beaver is due in part to this qualification. Many rodents such as voles and guinea pigs, but not mice, as well as leporidae like rabbits, have continuously growing molars in addition to incisors. Teeth are not always attached to the jaw. In many reptiles and fish, teeth are attached to the palate or to the floor of the mouth, forming additional rows inside those on the jaws proper; some teleosts have teeth in the pharynx. While not true teeth in the usual sense, the dermal denticles of sharks are identical in structure and are to have the same evolutionary origin. Indeed, teeth appear to have first evolved in sharks, are not found in the more primitive jawless fish – while lampreys do have tooth-like structures on the tongue, these are in fact, composed of keratin, not of dentine or enamel, bear no relationship to true teeth. Though "modern" teeth-like structures with dentine and enamel have been found in late conodonts, they are now supposed to have evolved independently of vertebrates' teeth.
Living amphibians have small teeth, or none at all, since they feed only on soft foods. In reptiles, teeth are simple and conical in shape, although there is some variation between species, most notably the venom-injecting fangs of snakes; the pattern of incisors, canines and molars is found only in mammals, to varying extents, in their evolutionary ancestors. The numbers of these types of teeth vary between species; the genes governing tooth development in mammals are homologous to those involved in the development of fish scales. Study of a tooth plate of a fossil of the extinct fish Romundina stellina showed that the teeth and scales were made of the same tissues found in mammal teeth, lending support to the theory that teeth evolved as a modification of scales. Teeth are among the most distinctive features of mammal species. Paleontologists use teeth to determine their relationships; the shape of the animal's teeth are related to its diet. For example, plant matter is hard to digest, so herbivores have many molars for chewing and grinding.
Carnivores, on the other hand, have canine teeth to tear meat. Mammals, in general, are diphyodont. In humans, the first set starts to appear at about six months of age, although some babies are born with one or more visible teeth, known as neonatal teeth. Normal tooth eruption at about six months can be painful. Kangaroos and manatees are unusual among mammals because they are polyphyodonts. In Aardvarks, teeth lack enamel and have many pulp tubules, hence the name of the order Tubulidentata. In dogs, the teeth are less than humans to form dental cavities because of the high pH of dog saliva, which prevents enamel from demineralizing. Sometimes called cuspids, these teeth are shaped like points and are used for tearing and grasping food Like human teeth, whale teeth have polyp-like protrusions located on the root surface of the tooth; these polyps are made of cementum in both species, but in human teeth, the protrusions are located on the outside of the root, while in whales the nodule is located on the inside of the pulp chamber.
While the roots of human teeth are made of cementum on the outer surface, whales have cementum on the entire surface of the tooth with a small layer of enamel at the tip. This small enamel layer is only seen in older whales where the cementum has been worn away to show the underlying enamel; the toothed whale is a suborder of the cetaceans characterized by having teeth. The teeth differ among the species, they may be numerous, with some dolphins bearing over 100 teeth in their jaws. On the other hand, the narwhals have a giant unicorn-like tusk, a tooth containing millions of sensory pathways and used for sensing during feeding and mating, it is the most neurologically complex tooth known. Beaked whales are toothless, with only bizarre teeth found in males; these teeth may be used for feeding but for demonstrating aggression and showmanship. In humans there are 20 primary teeth, 28 to 32 of what's known as permanent teeth, in addition to other four being third molars or wisdom teeth, each of which may or may not g
South Park (season 1)
The first season of the animated television series South Park ran for 13 episodes from August 13, 1997 to February 25, 1998 on the American network Comedy Central. The creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone wrote most of the season's episodes; the narrative revolves around four children—Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, Eric Cartman and Kenny McCormick—and their unusual experiences in the titular mountain town. South Park originated from Parker and Stone's 1992 animated short, Frosty; the low-budget, crudely made film featured prototypes of South Park's main characters and was followed in 1995 by another short film, Jesus vs. Santa; the latter became popular and was shared over the Internet, which led to talks for a series with representatives from Fox Network and Comedy Central. It debuted on the latter with an initial run of six episodes; the complete season was released on DVD in November 2002. The first season was a ratings success for Comedy Central; the Nielsen ratings rose from 1.3 to 6.4 from the first to the tenth episode.
Several episodes received award nominations, including for a 1998 Emmy Award in the "Outstanding Animated Program" and a GLAAD Award in the "Outstanding TV – Individual Episode" category for the episode "Big Gay Al's Big Gay Boat Ride". During the season, South Park won a CableACE Award for "Best Animated Series" and was nominated for a 1998 Annie Award in the "Outstanding Achievement in an Animated Primetime or Late Night Television Program"; the show was a financial success for Comedy Central and helped the network transform into "a cable industry power overnight". Despite this, critics gave the season mixed reviews. Parents Television Council rated it so offensive that it "shouldn't have been made": "it doesn't just push the envelope. Trey Parker as Stan Marsh, Eric Cartman, Randy Marsh, Mr. Garrison, Clyde Donovan, Mr. Hankey, Mr. Mackey, Stephen Stotch, Jimmy Valmer, Timmy Burch and Phillip. Matt Stone as Kyle Broflovski, Kenny McCormick, Butters Stotch, Gerald Broflovski, Stuart McCormick, Craig Tucker, Jimbo Kern, Tweek Tweak and Jesus.
Mary Kay Bergman as Liane Cartman, Sheila Broflovski, Shelly Marsh, Sharon Marsh, Mrs. McCormick and Wendy Testaburger. Isaac Hayes as Chef George Clooney as Sparky. Michael Buffer as Himself. Natasha Henstridge as Ms. Ellen. Robert Smith as Himself. Jay Leno as Kitty; the idea for South Park originated in 1992 when creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone met in a film class as students at the University of Colorado. They discussed filming a three-minute short film involving a boy who befriended a talking piece of feces named Mr. Hankey. Although such a short was never made and Stone created a Christmas-related animated short known as "Jesus vs. Frosty"; the crude, low-budget animation featured prototypes for the main characters of South Park, including Cartman and Kyle. Fox Broadcasting Company executive Brian Graden saw the film and in 1995 commissioned Parker and Stone for $1,200 to create a second short film that he could send to his friends as a Christmas video-card. Titled The Spirit of Christmas, but known as "Jesus vs.
Santa", the short resembled the style of the series more closely. In 1997, The Spirit of Christmas won the Los Angeles Films Critics Association award for "Best Animation", thus further bringing the two filmmakers to the attention of industry representatives; the "Jesus vs. Santa" video was copied and shared over the Internet. George Clooney was reported to have made 300 copies for his friends, the short was subsequently regarded as the first viral video; when the shorts began to generate interest for a possible television series and Stone conceived the idea of a South Park-like show with four child characters but planned to call it The Mr. Hankey Show by featuring a talking stool named Mr. Hankey as the main protagonist, they pitched the idea, but Brian Graden rejected it and said, according to Stone, "I'm not putting poo on my network." Parker and Stone adapted their original idea into a show revolving around four children in the South Park town, dropping Mr. Hankey as a protagonist but planning to use the character in the future in a minor supporting role.
Doug Herzog from Comedy Central saw the Jesus vs. Santa short and considered it to be "literally the funniest thing'd seen," and requested Parker and Stone to develop a show for his network. During the negotiations and Stone brought up the idea of a Mr. Hankey episode, with Parker claiming to have asked "one thing we have to know before we go any further: how do you feel about talking poo?" The network's executives were receptive to the idea, which would be one of the main reasons Parker and Stone decided to sign on with the channel. The first episode of the series, "Cartman Gets an Anal Probe", debuted on Comedy Central on August 13, 1997, while Mr. Hankey debuted a few months in the ninth episode, "Mr. Hankey, the Christmas Poo"; the pilot episode received poor results from test audiences. Parker conceded that regarding the language, he and Stone felt pressure to live up to their previous two shorts and "tried to push things... maybe further than we should." In contrast, they allowed subsequent episodes to "be more natural", focusing more on making fun of topics considered taboo "without just throwing a bunch of dirty words
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Matthew Richard Stone is an American animator, screenwriter and composer. He is known for co-creating South Park as well as co-writing the Tony Award-winning musical The Book of Mormon with his creative partner Trey Parker. Stone was interested in film and music as a child, attended the University of Colorado, Boulder following high school, where he met Parker; the two collaborated on various short films, starred in a feature-length musical, titled Cannibal! The Musical. Stone and Parker wrote their second film, Orgazmo. Before the premiere of the movie, South Park premiered on Comedy Central in August 1997; the duo, who possess full creative control of the show, have since produced music and video games based on the show, which continues to run. They worked on a feature film titled South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut, which received acclaim from both critics and fans. Alongside Parker, he has produced various feature films and television series, including Team America: World Police. After several years of development, The Book of Mormon, a musical co-written by Stone and composer Robert Lopez, premiered on Broadway and became immensely successful.
In 2013, he and Parker established Important Studios. Stone has been the recipient of various awards over the course of his career, including five Primetime Emmy Awards for his work on South Park, as well as three Tony Awards and one Grammy Award for The Book of Mormon. Matthew Richard Stone was born on May 26, 1971 in Houston, Texas, to economics professor Gerald Whitney Stone and Sheila Lois, he is of Irish-American heritage from his father's side and Jewish heritage from his mother's side. The South Park characters Gerald and Sheila Broflovski were named after them. Stone and his younger sister Rachel were raised in Littleton, Colorado, a suburb of Denver, where both attended Heritage High School, he graduated from the University of Colorado Boulder. In 1992, Parker, McHugh, Ian Hardin founded a production company named the Avenging Conscience; the company was named after the D. W. Griffith film by the same name Parker again employed the cutout paper technique on Avenging Conscience's first production, Jesus vs. Frosty, an animated short pitting the religious figure against Frosty the Snowman.
The quartet created a three-minute trailer for a fictional film titled Alferd Packer: The Musical. The idea was based on an obsession Parker had with Alfred Packer, a real nineteenth-century prospector accused of cannibalism. During this time, Parker had become engaged to long-time girlfriend Liaene Adamo, but their relationship fell apart shortly before production on the trailer began. "Horribly depressed", Parker funneled his frustrations with her into the project, naming Packer's "beloved but disloyal" horse after her. The trailer became something of a sensation among students at the school, leading Virgil Grillo, the chairman and founder of the university's film department, to convince the quartet to expand it to a feature-length film. Parker wrote the film's script, creating an Oklahoma!-style musical featuring ten original show tunes. The group began shooting the film; the movie was shot on Loveland Pass as winter was ending, the crew endured the freezing weather. Parker -- under the pseudonym Juan Schwartz -- was the film's director and co-producer.
Alferd Packer: The Musical premiered in Boulder in October 1993. The group submitted the movie to the Sundance Film Festival. Parker told McHugh he had a "vision" they needed to be at the festival, which resulted in the group renting out a conference room in a nearby hotel and putting on their own screenings. MTV did a short news segment on The Big Picture regarding the film, they made industry connections through the festival, they intended to sell video rights to the film for $1 million and spend the remaining $900,000 to create another film. The film was instead sold to Troma Entertainment in 1996 where it was retitled Cannibal! The Musical, upon the duo's success, it became their biggest-selling title, it has since been labeled a "cult classic" and adapted into a stage play by community theater groups and high schools nationwide. Following the film's success, the group, without Hardin, moved to Los Angeles. Upon arrival, they met a lawyer for the William Morris Agency who connected them with producer Scott Rudin.
As a result, the duo acquired a lawyer, an agent, a script deal. Despite believing themselves to be on the verge of success, the duo struggled for several years. Stone slept on dirty laundry for upwards of a year because he could not afford to purchase a mattress, they unsuccessfully pitched a children's program titled Time Warped to Fox Kids, which would have involved fictionalized stories of people in history. The trio created two separate pilots, spaced a year apart, despite the approval of development executive Pam Brady, the network disbanded the Fox Kids division. While at Fox, executive Brian Graden cut Parker and Stone a personal check of a few thousand dollars to produce a video greeting card he could deliver to friends. Graden sent the film on a VHS to several industry executives in Hollywood; as Jesus vs. Santa became more popular and Stone began talks of developing the short into
South Park (season 2)
The second season of South Park, an American animated television series created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, began airing on April 1, 1998. The second season concluded after 18 episodes on January 20, 1999. While most of the episodes were directed by series creator Trey Parker, Season 2 includes two episodes directed by Eric Stough. Trey Parker as Stan Marsh, Eric Cartman, Randy Marsh, Mr. Garrison, Clyde Donovan, Mr. Hankey, Mr. Mackey, Stephen Stotch, Jimmy Valmer, Timmy Burch and Phillip. Matt Stone as Kyle Broflovski, Kenny McCormick, Butters Stotch, Gerald Broflovski, Stuart McCormick, Craig Tucker, Jimbo Kern, Tweek Tweak and Jesus. Mary Kay Bergman as Liane Cartman, Sheila Broflovski, Shelly Marsh, Sharon Marsh, Mrs. McCormick and Wendy Testaburger. Isaac Hayes as Chef Henry Winkler as the Kid-Eating Monster. Jay Leno as Himself. Brent Musburger as Scuzzlebutt's leg. Jonathan Katz as Dr. Katz Dian Bachar as the Cow Days' announcer Multiple musicians and bands made guest appearances in the episode "Chef Aid".
These include: Joe Strummer Rancid Ozzy Osbourne Ween Primus Elton John Meat Loaf Rick James DMX Devo Special FeaturesIntroductions by Trey Parker and Matt Stone in 12 episodes. Documentary: "Goin' Down to South Park" "Chocolate Salty Balls" music videoRegion 1 – June 3, 2003 Region 2 – October 22, 2007 Region 4 – October 4, 2007 South Park Studios – official website with streaming video of full episodes; the Comedy Network – full episodes for Canada
South Park (season 11)
The eleventh season of South Park, an American animated television series created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, began airing on March 7, 2007. The 11th season concluded after 14 episodes on November 14, 2007; this is the first season to have uncensored episodes available for DVD release. This is the season featuring the three-part, Emmy Award-winning episode "Imaginationland". Parker was the writer of this eleventh season. Imaginationland: The Movie was released in 2008, which compiled the three episodes into a standalone film. South Park Studios - official website with streaming video of full episodes; the Comedy Network - full episodes for Canada