Ignacy Jan Paderewski
Ignacy Jan Paderewski, GBE was a Polish pianist and composer and spokesman for Polish independence. He was a favorite of audiences around the world. His musical fame opened access to diplomacy and the media and he was the prime minister of Poland and Polands foreign minister in 1919, and represented Poland at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He served 10 months as prime minister, and soon thereafter left Poland, Paderewski was born to Polish parents in the village of Kuryłówka, Litin uyezd in the Podolia Governorate of the Russian Empire. The village today is part of the Khmilnyk raion of Vinnytsia Oblast in Ukraine and his father, Jan Paderewski, was an administrator of large estates. His mother, Poliksena, née Nowicka, died months after Paderewski was born. From his early childhood, Paderewski was interested in music while living at the estate near Żytomir. However, soon after his fathers arrest in connection with the January Uprising, after being released, Paderewskis father married again and moved to the town of Sudylkov, near Shepetovka.
Initially, he took lessons with a private tutor. At the age of 12, in 1872, he went to Warsaw and was admitted to the Warsaw Conservatory, after graduating in 1878, he was asked to become a tutor of piano classes at his alma mater, a position he accepted. In 1880, Paderewski married a student at the conservatory Antonina Korsakówna. The following year, their son was born handicapped, Antonina never recovered from childbirth. Paderewski decided to devote himself to music, he left his son in the care of friends, a chance meeting in 1884 with a famous Polish actress, Helena Modrzejewska, set him on a course of a career as a virtuoso pianist. Modrzejewska arranged for a concert and appearance together in Krakóws hotel Saski to raise funds for Paderewskis further piano study. The scheme was a success and he moved to Vienna. After three years of diligent study and an appointment in Strasbourg arranged for by Leschetizky, Paderewski made his concert debut in Vienna in 1887. He soon gained popularity and his subsequent appearances were major successes.
His brilliant playing created a furor that reached to almost extravagant lengths of admiration, a large part of his great success stemmed from his stage presence and his striking looks
Memorial Day is a federal holiday in the United States for remembering the people who died while serving in the countrys armed forces. It marks the start of the summer vacation season, while Labor Day marks its end. Many people visit cemeteries and memorials, particularly to honor those who have died in military service, many volunteers place an American flag on each grave in national cemeteries. Annual Decoration Days for particular cemeteries are held on a Sunday in late spring or early summer in rural areas of the American South. People gather on the day and put flowers on graves and renew contacts with relatives. There often is a service and a picnic-like dinner on the grounds. It is believed that this practice began before the American Civil War, the practice of decorating soldiers graves with flowers is an ancient custom. Soldiers graves were decorated in the U. S. before, following President Abraham Lincolns assassination in April 1865, there were a variety of events of commemoration. The sheer number of soldiers of both sides who died in the Civil War meant that burial and memorialization took on new cultural significance, under the leadership of women during the war, an increasingly formal practice of decorating graves had taken shape.
In 1865, the government began creating national military cemeteries for the Union war dead. The Richmond Times-Dispatch newspaper claimed in 1906 that Warrenton, was the location of the first Civil War soldiers grave ever to be decorated, there is documentation that women in Savannah, decorated Confederate soldiers graves in 1862. The 1863 cemetery dedication at Gettysburg, was, of course, in addition, local historians in Boalsburg, claim that ladies there decorated soldiers graves on July 4,1864, and Boalsburg promotes itself as the birthplace of Memorial Day. But more recent researches have pointed to the birthplace of Confederacy as the location of the first post-war Memorial Day type observance, but in 2012 Blight stated that he has no evidence that the event in Charleston inspired the establishment of Memorial Day across the country. Accordingly, Snopes labels Blights claims mostly false, despite this ongoing lively debate, there is an official birthplace. On May 26,1966, President Lyndon B.
Johnson signed the presidential proclamation naming Waterloo, New York, Snopes regards the Waterloo legend as apocryphal. Logan issued a proclamation calling for Decoration Day to be observed annually and it was observed for the first time that year on Saturday May 30, the date was chosen because it was not the anniversary of any particular battle. According to the White House, the May 30 date was chosen as the date for flowers to be in bloom. Memorial events were held in 183 cemeteries in 27 states in 1868, the northern states quickly adopted the holiday
New York Public Library
The New York Public Library is a public library system in New York City. With nearly 53 million items, the New York Public Library is the second largest public library in the United States and it is a private, non-governmental, independently managed, nonprofit corporation operating with both private and public financing. The library has branches in the boroughs of Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island, the City of New Yorks other two boroughs and Queens, are served by the Brooklyn Public Library and the Queens Library, respectively. The branch libraries are open to the public and consist of circulating libraries. The New York Public Library has four libraries which are open to the general public as well. At the behest of Joseph Cogswell, John Jacob Astor placed a codicil in his will to bequeath $400,000 for the creation of a public library. After Astors death in 1848, the board of trustees executed the wills conditions. The library created was a reference library, its books were not permitted to circulate.
An act of the New York State Legislature incorporated the Lenox Library in 1870, the library was built on Fifth Avenue, between 40th and 42nd streets, in 1877. Bibliophile and philanthropist James Lenox donated a vast collection of his Americana, art works, manuscripts, at its inception, the library charged admission and did not permit physical access to any literary items. Both the Astor and Lenox libraries were struggling financially, although New York City already had numerous libraries in the 19th century, almost all of them were privately funded and many charged admission or usage fees. On May 23,1895, Bigelow and representatives of the two agreed to create The New York Public Library, Astor and Tilden Foundations. The plan was hailed as an example of philanthropy for the public good. The newly established library consolidated with the grass-roots New York Free Circulating Library in February 1901, the trustees hired McKim, Mead & White, Carrère and Hastings, and Walter Cook to design all the branch libraries.
The notable New York author Washington Irving was a friend of Astor for decades and had helped the philanthropist design the Astor Library. They saw their role as protecting the librarys autonomy from politicians as well as bestowing upon it status, representative of many major board decisions was the purchase in 1931 of the private library of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich, uncle of the last tsar. This was one of the largest acquisitions of Russian books and photographic materials, at the time, the military drew extensively from the librarys map and book collections in the world wars, including hiring its staff. For example, the Map Divisions chief Walter Ristow was appointed as head of the section of the War Departments New York Office of Military Intelligence from 1942 to 1945
Maxwell Lemuel Max Roach was an American jazz percussionist and composer. A pioneer of bebop, Roach went on to work in other styles of music. He was inducted into the Down Beat Hall of Fame in 1980, Roach was born in the Township of Newland, Pasquotank County, North Carolina, which borders the southern edge of the Great Dismal Swamp, to Alphonse and Cressie Roach. Many confuse this with Newland Town in Avery County, although Roachs birth certificate lists his date of birth as January 10,1924, Roach has been quoted by Phil Schaap as having stated that his family believed he was born on January 8,1925. Roachs family moved to the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York when he was 4 years old and he grew up in a musical home, his mother being a gospel singer. He started to play bugle in parade orchestras at a young age, at the age of 10, he was already playing drums in some gospel bands. In 1942, as an 18-year-old fresh out of Boys High School, in 1942, Roach started to go out in the jazz clubs of the 52nd Street and at 78th Street & Broadway for Georgie Jays Taproom.
His first professional recording took place in December 1943, supporting Coleman Hawkins. He was one of the first drummers to play in the style, and performed in bands led by Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, Coleman Hawkins, Bud Powell. Roach played on many of Parkers most important records, including the Savoy November 1945 session, the drummers early brush work with Powells trio, especially at fast tempos, has been highly praised. Roach studied classical percussion at the Manhattan School of Music from 1950 to 1953, in 1952, Roach co-founded Debut Records with bassist Charles Mingus. This label released a record of a May 15,1953 concert, billed as the greatest concert ever, released on this label was the groundbreaking bass-and-drum free improvisation, Percussion Discussion. The group was a example of the hard bop style played by Art Blakey. This group was to be short-lived and Powell were killed in a car accident on the Pennsylvania Turnpike in June 1956, the first album Roach recorded after their deaths was Max Roach +4.
After Brown and Powells deaths, Roach continued leading a similarly configured group, with Kenny Dorham on trumpet, George Coleman on tenor, Roach expanded the standard form of hard-bop using 3/4 waltz rhythms and modality in 1957 with his album Jazz in 3/4 time. During this period, Roach recorded a series of albums for the EmArcy label featuring the brothers Stanley. In 1955, he was the drummer for vocalist Dinah Washington at several live appearances, in 1960 he composed and recorded the album We Insist. In 1962, he recorded the album Money Jungle, a collaboration with Mingus and this is generally regarded as one of the very finest trio albums ever made
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Midtown Manhattan, or Midtown, represents the central lengthwise portion of the borough and island of Manhattan in New York City. Along Manhattans north-south long axis, Midtown Manhattan separates Lower Manhattan from Upper Manhattan, the majority of New York Citys skyscrapers, including its tallest hotels and apartment towers, lie within Midtown. Midtown spans the island of Manhattan along an east-west axis, being bounded by the East River on its east. The Encyclopedia of New York City defines Midtown as being from 34th Street to 59th Street and it is sometimes broken into Midtown East and Midtown West, or north and south as in the New York City Police Departments Midtown North and Midtown South precincts. Midtown South can refer to the part of Midtown between 23rd Street and around 42nd Street, Midtown West can refer to the area between 34th and 59th Streets, and between 5th and 12th Avenues. Midtown East can refer to the area between 42nd and 59th Streets, and between 5th Avenue and the East River, in other sources these districts are referred to as separate central business districts.
Midtown Manhattan, along with Lower Manhattan, is one of the leading financial centers. Midtown Manhattan is the countrys largest central business district and it has the headquarters of major companies, including 4Kids Entertainment, Barnes & Noble, Bloomberg L. P. The New York Institute of Finance is located in Midtown Manhattan, Haier operates its United States offices in the Haier Building at 1356 Broadway, the building used to be a building of the Greenwich Savings Bank. Haier held the ceremony on March 4,2002. Sumitomo Corporation operates its New York Office, the headquarters of the corporations United States operations, el Als North American headquarters are in Midtown. The Air France USA regional headquarters are in 125 West 55th Street in Midtown Manhattan, hachette Book Group USA has its headquarters in 237 Park Avenue. In 1994 Alitalia considered moving its USA headquarters from Midtown to Lower Manhattan, global Infrastructure Partners has an office in Midtown Manhattan. Biotechnology is emerging in Midtown Manhattan, bolstered by the strength in academic scientific research and public.
Aer Lingus had its United States offices in Midtown, in 1997, Aer Lingus announced that it was moving its North American headquarters to Melville, New York, in Suffolk County. New York City Department of Education public schools in Midtown Manhattan include Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis High School, private schools include The Beekman School, Rebecca School, and a number of private language and music centers. The La Scuola dItalia Guglielmo Marconi Italian international school will move to West Midtown in 2016, in addition to its well-known Main Branch research library—now known as the Stephen A. Pennsylvania Station and Grand Central Terminal are major railroad stations located in Midtown Manhattan, the Port Authority Bus Terminal is in Midtown
Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Strauss was a prominent conductor in Western Europe and the Americas, enjoying quasi-celebrity status as his compositions became standards of orchestral and operatic repertoire. Strauss was born on 11 June 1864 in Munich, the son of Josephine and Franz Strauss, in his youth, he received a thorough musical education from his father. He wrote his first composition at the age of six and continued to write music almost until his death, during his boyhood Strauss attended orchestra rehearsals of the Munich Court Orchestra, where he received private instruction in music theory and orchestration from an assistant conductor. In 1872 he started receiving violin instruction at the Royal School of Music from Benno Walter, in 1874 Strauss heard his first Wagner operas and Tannhäuser. The influence of Wagners music on Strausss style was to be profound, but at first his musically conservative father forbade him to study it.
Indeed, in the Strauss household, the music of Richard Wagner was viewed with deep suspicion, in life, Strauss said that he deeply regretted the conservative hostility to Wagners progressive works. Nevertheless, Strausss father undoubtedly had a influence on his sons developing taste. In early 1882 in Vienna he gave the first performance of his Violin Concerto in D minor, playing a piano reduction of the part himself. The same year he entered Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, where he studied philosophy and art history, Strauss learned the art of conducting by observing Bülow in rehearsal. Bülow was very fond of the man and decided that Strauss should be his successor as conductor of the Meiningen Court Orchestra when Bülow resigned in 1885. Strausss compositions at time were indebted to the style of Robert Schumann or Felix Mendelssohn. 1, Op.11, is representative of this period and is a staple of modern horn repertoire, Strauss married soprano Pauline de Ahna on 10 September 1894. She was famous for being irascible, garrulous and outspoken, throughout his life, from his earliest songs to the final Four Last Songs of 1948, he preferred the soprano voice to all others, and all his operas contain important soprano roles.
The Strausses had one son, Franz, in 1897, Franz married Alice von Grab-Hermannswörth, daughter of a Jewish industrialist, in a Roman Catholic ceremony in 1924. Franz and Alice had two sons and Christian, some of Strausss first compositions were solo instrumental and chamber works. After 1890 Strauss composed very infrequently for chamber groups, his energies being almost completely absorbed with large-scale orchestral works and operas. Four of his pieces are actually arrangements of portions of his operas, including the Daphne-Etude for solo violin and the String Sextet
Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin was a Russian opera singer. He himself spelled his surname, French-style, Chaliapine in the West, in English texts, his given name is most usually rendered as Feodor or Fyodor, and his surname is most usually seen as Chaliapin. This spelling better reflects the fact that the name is pronounced with three syllables, not four, Feodor Chaliapin was born into a peasant family on February 1,1873 in Kazan, in the wing of merchant Lisitzins house on Rybnoryadskaya Street 10. This wing no longer exists, but the house with the yard where the wing was situated is still there, the next day, Candlemas, he was baptized in Epiphany Church on Bolshaya Prolomnaya street. His godparents were his neighbors, the shoemaker Nikolay Tonkov and Ludmila Kharitonova and his vocal teacher was Dmitri Usatov. Chaliapin began his career at Tbilisi and the Imperial Opera, St. Petersburg in 1894 and he was invited to sing at the Mamontov Private Opera, his first role there was as Mephistopheles in Gounods Faust, in which he was a considerable success.
At Mamontov he met Sergei Rachmaninoff, who was serving as an assistant conductor there, with Rachmaninoff he learned the title role of Mussorgskys Boris Godunov, which became his signature character. Chaliapin returned the favor by showing Rachmaninoff how he built each of his interpretations around a culminating moment or point, Rachmaninoff put this approach to considerable use when he became a full-time concert pianist after World War I. On the strength of his Mamontov appearances, the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow engaged Chaliapin, during the First World War, Chaliapin appeared regularly at the Zimin Private Opera in Moscow. At the end of his career, Toscanini observed that the Russian bass was the greatest operatic talent with whom he had ever worked. In 1925, while performing in New York, his piano accompanist was a young Harry Lubin, Chaliapin toured Australia in 1926, giving a series of recitals which were highly acclaimed. Privately, Chaliapins personal affairs were in a state of disarray as a consequence of the Russian Revolution of 1917, at first he was treated as a revered artist of the newly emerged Soviet Russia.
He still maintained, that he was not anti-Soviet, Chaliapin initially moved to Finland and lived in France. Cosmopolitan Paris, with its significant Russian émigré population, became his base, and ultimately and he was renowned for his larger-than-life carousing during this period, but he never sacrificed his dedication to his art. Chaliapins attachment to Paris did not prevent him pursuing a international operatic and concert career in England, the United States. In May 1931 he appeared in the Russian Season directed by Sir Thomas Beecham at Londons Lyceum Theatre and his most famous part was the title role of Boris Godunov. Chaliapin made one film for the director G. W. Pabst. The film was made in three different versions – French and German, as was sometimes the prevailing custom, Chaliapin starred in all three versions, each of which used the same script and costumes, but different supporting casts
Lily Pons was a French-American operatic soprano and actress who had an active career from the late 1920s through the early 1970s. As an opera singer she specialized in the soprano repertoire and was particularly associated with the title roles in Lakmé. She had a successful and lucrative career as a singer which continued until her retirement from performance in 1973. From 1935–37 she made three films for RKO Pictures. She made appearances on radio and on television, performing on variety programs like The Ed Sullivan Show, The Colgate Comedy Hour. In 1955 she topped the bill for the first broadcast of what became a television series. She made dozens of records, recording both classical and popular music and she was awarded the Croix de Lorraine and the Légion dhonneur by the Government of France. Pons was savvy at making herself into a cultural icon. Her opinions on fashion and home decorating were frequently reported in womens magazines, a town in Maryland named itself after her, and thereafter the singer contrived to have all her Christmas cards posted from Lilypons, Maryland.
Pons was born as Alice Joséphine Pons in Draguignan near Cannes, to a French father, Léonard Louis Auguste Antoine Pons, and she first studied piano at the Paris Conservatory, winning the First Prize at the age of 15. On October 15,1930, Pons married her first husband, August Mesritz, a successful publisher, the marriage would end in divorce on December 7,1933. In 1925, encouraged by soprano Dyna Beumer and Mesritz, who agreed to fund her singing career and she studied singing with Alice Zeppilli in New York. Pons successfully made her debut in the title role of Léo Delibes Lakmé at Mulhouse in 1928. She was discovered by the dramatic tenor/impresario Giovanni Zenatello, who took her to New York where she auditioned for Giulio Gatti-Casazza, the Met needed a star coloratura after the retirement of Amelita Galli-Curci in January,1930. Gatti-Casazza engaged Pons immediately and she signed a recording contract with RCA Victor. On January 3,1931, unknown in the U. S. made an unheralded Met debut as Lucia in Donizettis Lucia di Lammermoor and she became a star and inherited most of Galli-Curcis important coloratura roles.
Her career after this point was primarily in the United States and she became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1940. From 1938 to 1958, she was married to conductor André Kostelanetz, in 1955 they built a home in Palm Springs, California
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci