New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India. The foundation stone of the city was laid by Emperor George V during the Delhi Durbar of 1911, it was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin. Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi; the National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire NCT along with adjoining districts in neighboring states. Calcutta was the capital of India during the British Raj, until December 1911. Calcutta had become the centre of the nationalist movements since the late nineteenth century, which led to the Partition of Bengal by Viceroy of British India, Lord Curzon; this created massive political and religious upsurge including political assassinations of British officials in Calcutta.
The anti-colonial sentiments amongst the public led to complete boycott of British goods, which forced the colonial government to reunite Bengal and shift the capital to New Delhi. Old Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient India and the Delhi Sultanate, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire, as India was named, from Calcutta on the east coast, to Delhi; the Government of British India felt that it would be logistically easier to administer India from Delhi, in the centre of northern India. The land for building the new city of Delhi was acquired under the Land Acquisition Act 1894. During the Delhi Durbar on 12 December 1911, George V Emperor of India, along with Queen Mary, his consort, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while laying the foundation stone for the Viceroy's residence in the Coronation Park, Kingsway Camp.
The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by King George V and Queen Mary at the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on 15 December 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens, who first visited Delhi in 1912, Herbert Baker, both leading 20th-century British architects; the contract was given to Sobha Singh. The original plan called for its construction in Tughlaqabad, inside the Tughlaqabad fort, but this was given up because of the Delhi-Calcutta trunk line that passed through the fort. Construction began after World War I and was completed by 1931; the city, dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi" was inaugurated in ceremonies beginning on 10 February 1931 by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy. Lutyens designed the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations. Soon Lutyens started considering other places. Indeed, the Delhi Town Planning Committee, set up to plan the new imperial capital, with George Swinton as chairman, John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted reports for both North and South sites.
However, it was rejected by the Viceroy when the cost of acquiring the necessary properties was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate, was meant to be a north-south axis linking the Viceroy's House at one end with Paharganj at the other. Owing to space constraints and the presence of a large number of heritage sites in the North side, the committee settled on the South site. A site atop the Raisina Hill Raisina Village, a Meo village, was chosen for the Rashtrapati Bhawan known as the Viceroy's House; the reason for this choice was that the hill lay directly opposite the Dinapanah citadel, considered the site of Indraprastha, the ancient region of Delhi. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911–1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood, embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretariat; the Rajpath known as King's Way, stretched from the India Gate to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat building, the two blocks of which flank the Rashtrapati Bhawan and houses ministries of the Government of India, the Parliament House, both designed by Baker, are located at the Sansad Marg and run parallel to the Rajpath.
In the south, land up to Safdarjung's Tomb was acquired to create what is today known as Lutyens' Bungalow Zone. Before construction could begin on the rocky ridge of Raisina Hill, a circular railway line around the Council House, called the Imperial Delhi Railway, was built to transport construction material and workers for the next twenty years; the last stumbling block was the Agra-Delhi railway line that cut right through the site earmarked for the hexagonal All-India War Memorial and Kingsway, a problem because the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city at that time. The line was shifted to run along the Yamuna river, it began operating in 1924; the New Delhi Railway Station opened in 1926, with a single platform at Ajmeri Gate near Paharganj, was completed in time for the city's inauguration in 1931. As construction of the Viceroy's House, Central Secretariat, Parliament House, All-India War Memorial was winding down, the building of a shopping district and a new plaza, Connaught Place, began in 1929, was completed by 1933.
Named after Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught, it was designed by Robert Tor Russell, chief architect to the P
Ganashakti Patrika is an Indian Bengali daily newspaper published from Kolkata, West Bengal, India. The paper is an organ of the Communist Party of India West Bengal State Committee, it first appeared as a fortnightly in 1967 and it started as an evening daily for quite some time and converted into a full-fledged daily newspaper. Presently Ganashakti has 3 editions in Kolkata and Siliguri having a daily circulation of 2,30,000; the principal catalyst behind transformation of Ganashakti was Saroj Mukherjee, a freedom fighter and CPI's state secretary during the 1980s. After Mukherjee's death his efforts were carried on by Anil Biswas. Ganashakti reached its highest circulation at the time of Biswas's editorship. Ganashakti in Bengali
Harish Khare is an Indian journalist. He served as the Media Advisor to the Indian Prime Minister Prime Minister's Office from June 2009 to January 2012. On 19 January 2012 he resigned from his post. Khare has worked as chief of bureau with The Hindu in New Delhi, India. On 14 November 2012, he was awarded the Jawarharlal Nehru Fellowship for his project "Governing India in the 21st Century: Reinventing Nehruvian Executive Leadership Mode." He was the Editor-in-Chief of the Tribune Group of publications from on 1 June 2015 until 15 March 2018. Khare is married to the social worker Renana Jhabvala. "Media has become accomplice of the terrorists: Harish Khare". TwoCircles.net. 17 October 2008. "Harish Khare appointed as PM's media adviser". The Economic Times. 20 June 2009
Ambala, is a city and a municipal corporation in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, located on the border with the Indian state of Punjab and in proximity to both states capital Chandigarh. Politically, it has a large Indian Indian Air Force presence within its cantonment area. Ambala separates the Ganges river network from the Indus river network and is surrounded by two rivers – Ghaggar and Tangri – to the north and to the south. Due to its geographical location, the Ambala district plays an important role in local tourism, being located 47 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital, 148 km southwest of Shimla, 198 km north of New Delhi and 260 km southeast of Amritsar. Gurudwara Manji Sahib is situated in Ambala; the town is said to derive its name from Amba Rajput who founded it during the 14th century CE. According to another version, it is named after goddess "Bhawani Amba" whose temple still exists in Ambala city. Third version mentions that the name is a corruption of Amba Wala meaning the mango-village, from mango groves which existed in its immediate neighborhood.
Archaeological Surveyor C. J Rodgers found Indo-Parthian Kingdom coins as well as coins of Hunas and Toramana which indicated that after the disintegration of the Mauryan empire, the area was taken over by Indo-Parthians and was incorporated in the domain of the Hunas. In 1709, Battle of Ambala was fought and Sikhs captured Ambala from mughals. Ambala Army Cantonment was established in 1843 after the British were forced to leave its Karnal Cantonment following the malaria epidemic of 1841–42 in as there were not any known effective means to control malaria epidemic in those days; the cantonment houses one of the three Strike Corps of the Indian Army. Ambala Air Force Base is one of the oldest and largest airbases that were inherited from the British by the IAF, it was from this airbase that Spitfires and Harvards flown by Instructors of the Advanced Flying Training School took part in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948. Subsequently, Ambala was the front line airfield for many years, it was home to various aircraft.
Vampires, Hunters, etc. all flew from this base. The airbase was attacked in 1965 by B-57 bombers of the Pakistan Air Force. Today, the Airbase houses the' 7 Wing' with squadrons of MiG-21 Bisons. A unit of the French-made Dassault Rafale will be based at Ambala air base. Ambala Cantonment is location of historic European Cemetery. Ambala was given the status of a district in 1847, formed by the merging of the jagir estates of hitherto independent chieftains whose territories had lapsed or had been confiscated by the British Indian Government. In its 160 years of existence as a district, Ambala has witnessed many changes in its boundaries, it extended across tehsils of Ambala, Jagadhri, Kharar and Nalagarh. Kalka-cum-Kurari State, Mani Majra, Kasauli & Sanawar were merged into the district at different times. For their participation in first war of independence, the Chaudharys and Lambardars of villages who participated in rebellion were deprived of their land and property, including 368 people of Hisar and Gurugram were hanged or transported for life, fine was imposed on the people of Thanesar and Rohtak.
In November 1949 Mahatma Gandhi's assassin, Nathuram Godse was hanged at Ambala Central Jail along with Narayan Apte, a co-conspirator. Ambala Cantt is mentioned in Kim by Rudyard Kipling; as of 2011 India census, Ambala UA had a population of 207,934 consisting of 112,840 males and 95,094 females, a ratio of 843. There were 20,687 children 0-6 and Ambala had an average literacy rate of 89.31%, with 91.76% of males and 86.41% of females literate. "Cloth Market" is the charm of the city. The cloth market has a dense cluster of 900-1000 wholesale shops; the market possesses a wide range of cloth items: Hand-loom Silk and Sarees Suitings and Shirtings All kinds of dress materialThe areas surrounding the market thrive on this market for occupation. Market provides all kinds of cloth tailoring related and other transportation occupations to semi-urban areas around; this market remains closed on Thursday, Republic Day, Independence Day and Dussehra are the only other days the market remains closed. Himachal Pradesh and Punjab are major parts.
Silk and Sarees are one of the major type of cloth sold by volume. Ambala used to be a hub of hand-loom factories, man operated industry, which has vanished; this market is regarded as the largest cloth trading market in the sub-continent. Ambala has a large number of colleges. Notable colleges include:- Convent of Jesus and Mary, Ambala E-Max School of Engineering and Applied Research Government Polytechnic College, Ambala Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana Sanatan Dharma College Shri Atmanand Jain Institute of Management and Technology Philadelphia Hospital & School of Nursing, Ambala Ambala is connected to all of the other major cities of north India including Delhi, Kaithal, Ludhiana and Shimla, it is a big interchange for various commuters for all neighbouring states. The Ambala Cantt bus stand witnesses 50,000 commuters daily. National highway NH 1 popularly known as GT road passes through Ambala and connects it to National capital Delhi, Panipat and Amrits
Dainik Janambhumi is an Indian Assamese-language daily newspaper. This newspaper is published by Janambhumi Group of Publications from Nehru Park, Tulshi Narayan Sharma Path, Jorhat; the newspaper was first launched in 1972, the second and the third editions were launched from Guwahati and Tinsukia in 2004. The newspaper is now published from Jorhat and Tinsukia. Niyomiya Barta Official website
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana. The city is unique as it is not a part of either of the two states but is governed directly by the Union Government, which administers all such territories in the country. Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the west and the south, to the state of Haryana to the east, it is considered to be a part of the Chandigarh capital region or Greater Chandigarh, which includes Chandigarh, the city of Panchkula and cities of Kharar, Mohali, Zirakpur. It is located 260 km north of 229 km southeast of Amritsar, it was one of the early planned cities in post-independent India and is internationally known for its architecture and urban design. The master plan of the city was prepared by Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier, which transformed from earlier plans created by the Polish architect Maciej Nowicki and the American planner Albert Mayer. Most of the government buildings and housing in the city, were designed by the Chandigarh Capital Project Team headed by Le Corbusier, Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry.
In 2015, an article published by BBC named Chandigarh as one of the perfect cities of the world in terms of architecture, cultural growth and modernisation. Chandigarh’s Capitol Complex was in July 2016 declared by UNESCO as World Heritage at the 40th session of World Heritage Conference held in Istanbul. UNESCO inscription was under "The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier an outstanding contribution to the Modern Movement"; the Capitol Complex buildings include the Punjab and Haryana High Court and Haryana Secretariat and Punjab and Haryana Assembly along with monuments Open hand, Martyrs Memorial, Geometric Hill and Tower of Shadow and the Rock Garden The city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the country. The city was reported to be one of the cleanest in India based on a national government study; the union territory heads the list of Indian states and territories according to Human Development Index. In 2015, a survey by LG Electronics, ranked it as the happiest city in India over the happiness index.
The metropolitan area of Chandigarh–Mohali–Panchkula collectively forms a Tri-city, with a combined population of over 1,611,770. The name Chandigarh is a compound of Garh. Chandi refers to Hindu goddess Garh means fortress; the name is derived from Chandi Mandir, an ancient temple devoted to the Hindu Goddess Chandi, near the city in Panchkula District. The motif or sobriquet of "The City of Beauty " was derived from the City Beautiful movement, a popular philosophy in North American urban planning during the 1890s and 1900s. Architect Albert Mayer, the initial planner of Chandigarh, lamented the American rejection of City Beautiful concepts and declared "We want to create a beautiful city..." The phrase was used on as a logo in official publications in the 1970s, is now how the city describes itself. The city has a prehistoric past. Due to the presence of a lake, the area has fossil remains with imprints of a large variety of aquatic plants and animals, amphibian life, which were supported by that environment.
As it was a part of the Punjab region, it had many rivers nearby where the ancient and primitive settling of humans began. So, about 3000 years ago, the area was known to be a home to the Harappans. Chandigarh was the dream city of Jawaharlal Nehru. After the partition of India in 1947, the former British province of Punjab was split between East Punjab in India and West Punjab in Pakistan; the Indian Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which had become part of Pakistan during the partition. Therefore, an American planner and architect Albert Mayer was tasked to design a new city called "Chandigarh" in 1949; the government carved out Chandigarh of nearly 50 Puadhi speaking villages of the state of East Punjab, India. Shimla was the temporary capital of East Punjab until Chandigarh was completed in 1960. Albert Mayer, during his work on the development and planning of the new capital city of Chandigarh, developed a superblock-based city threaded with green spaces which emphasized cellular neighborhoods and traffic segregation.
His site plan used natural characteristics, using its gentle grade to promote drainage and rivers to orient the plan. Mayer discontinued his work on Chandigarh after developing a master plan for the city when his architect-partner Matthew Nowicki died in a plane crash in 1950. Government officials recruited Le Corbusier to succeed Mayer and Nowicki, who enlisted many elements of Mayer's original plan without attributing them to him. Le Corbusier designed many administration buildings, including the High Court, the Palace of Assembly and the Secretariat Building. Le Corbusier designed the general layout of the city, dividing it into sectors. Chandigarh hosts the largest of Le Corbusier's many Open Hand sculptures, standing 26 metres high; the Open Hand is a recurring motif in Le Corbusier's architecture, a sign for him of "peace and reconciliation. It is open to give and open to receive." It represents what Le Corbusier called the "Second Machine Age". Two of the six monuments planned in the Capitol Complex which has the High Court, the Assembly and the Secretariat, remain incomplete.
These include Martyrs Memorial. On 1 November 1966, the newly formed state of Haryana was carved out of the eastern portion of East Punjab, in order to create a new state for the majority Haryanvi-speaking people in that portion, while the western portion
Sakalbela was a Bengali daily newspaper published from Kolkata since 29 June 2010, owned by the now defunct Saradha Group. The newspaper was published from Kolkata, Durgapur, Agartala and New Delhi. Saradha Printing & Publication Pvt Ltd owned the English daily: The Bengal Post & Seven Sister's Post, a Hindi daily: Prabhat Barta, an Urdu daliy: Azad Hind. Mr Sudipta Sen was the chief-editor of all the newspapers. In April 2013 following the arrest of Mr. Sudipta Sen for chit fund scams, all the Saradha Group newspapers including Sakalbela closed down. List of newspapers in India