Epic Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, Inc. the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. The label was founded predominantly as a jazz and classical music label in 1953, but expanded its scope to include a more diverse range of genres, including pop, R&B, hip hop. Epic Records has released music by artists including Glenn Miller, Tammy Wynette, George Michael, The Yardbirds, Shakin Stevens, Cheap Trick, Meat Loaf, Stevie Ray Vaughan, Ted Nugent, Sly & the Family Stone, The Hollies, Celine Dion, ABBA, Culture Club, Dave Clark Five, Gloria Estefan, Pearl Jam, Rage Against the Machine, Michael Jackson. Along with Arista, Columbia and RCA Records, Epic is one of Sony Music Entertainment's four flagship record labels. Artists who have signed to Epic Records include French Montana, Fiona Apple, Sara Bareilles, Jennifer Lopez, Keyshia Cole, Hardwell, Fifth Harmony, Jennifer Hudson, Zara Larsson, Mariah Carey, Ozzy Osbourne, Judas Priest, Busta Rhymes, Rick Ross, 21 Savage, Travis Scott, DJ Khaled, Meghan Trainor, Camila Cabello, Swizz Beatz and Louis Tomlinson.
Epic Records was launched in 1953 by the Columbia Records unit of CBS for the purpose of marketing jazz and classical music that did not fit the theme of its more mainstream Columbia Records label. Initial classical music releases were from Philips Records which distributed Columbia product in Europe. Pop talent on co-owned Okeh Records were transferred to Epic which made Okeh a rhythm and blues label. Epic's bright-yellow and blue logo became a familiar trademark for many jazz and classical releases; this has included such notables as the Berlin Philharmonic, Charles Rosen, the Juilliard String Quartet, Antal Doráti conducting the Hague Philharmonic and George Szell conducting the Cleveland Orchestra. By 1960, Epic became better known for its signing of newer, fledgling acts. By the end of the 1960s, Epic earned its first gold records and had evolved into a formidable hit-making force in rock and roll, R&B and country music. Among its many acts, it included Roy Hamilton, Bobby Vinton, The Dave Clark Five, The Hollies, Tammy Wynette, The Yardbirds, July, Helen Shapiro and Jeff Beck.
Several of the British artists on the Epic roster during the 1960s were the result of CBS's Epic/Okeh units' international distribution deal with EMI. Epic was involved in a notable "trade" of artists. Graham Nash was signed to Epic because of his membership in The Hollies; when the newly formed Crosby, Stills & Nash wanted to sign with Atlantic Records, Ahmet Ertegün worked out a deal with Clive Davis whereby Richie Furay's new band Poco would sign with Epic. Epic's commercial success continued to grow in the 1970s with releases from ABBA in the UK, Cheap Trick, The Clash, Charlie Daniels, Heart, The Isley Brothers, The Jacksons, George Jones, Meat Loaf, Johnny Nash, Ted Nugent, REO Speedwagon, Minnie Riperton, Charlie Rich, Sly & the Family Stone, Steve Vai, Edgar Winter. Contributing to the label's success was its distribution of Philadelphia International Records, which produced additional hit records by acts such as The Three Degrees and McFadden and Whitehead. During the 1960s, Epic oversaw the smaller subsidiary CBS labels including Okeh Records and Date Records.
In 1968, Epic recordings began being distributed in the UK by CBS after the distribution deal with EMI expired that year. Sony Corporation bought CBS Records in 1987, the company was renamed Sony Music in 1991, it began splitting European operations into two separate labels and Columbia, in 1992, in 1997, Sony Music Australia and New Zealand followed suit. In 2004, Sony merged with music distributor BMG, bringing Arista Records, Columbia Records, Epic Records, J Records, Jive Records, RCA Records, Zomba Group of Companies to one parent company known as Sony BMG Music Entertainment. In 2008, Sony bought out BMG for $1.2 billion, bringing all affiliated labels together as Sony Music Entertainment International, SMEI. The merger was approved by the European Union in 2009. Epic's 1980s and 1990s mainstream success were fueled by its signing and releasing of albums by notable acts such as Michael Jackson, Culture Club, the Miami Sound Machine and Gloria Estefan and George Michael, Adam Ant, Living Colour, Dead or Alive, Cyndi Lauper, Ozzy Osbourne, Pearl Jam, Luther Vandross, Stevie Ray Vaughan, Rage Against the Machine, Céline Dion, Oasis among others.
One of the label's greatest financial payoffs came via the release of Thriller, the 1982 album by Michael Jackson, which went on to achieve 51–65 million in worldwide sales, becoming the biggest selling album in history. Epic Soundtrax was founded in 1992, it was central to Epic's 1990s success, with 11 releases cumulatively selling more than 40 million records over a three-year period. Notable releases included soundtrack albums for Honeymoon in Vegas, Sleepless in Seattle, Forrest Gump and Judgement Night. In July 2011, L. A. Reid became the CEO of Epic Records, signing artists such as TLC, Toni Braxton, Cher Lloyd, Avril Lavigne, Future, Yo Gotti, Meghan Trainor, DJ Khaled and Travis Scott. Epic signed the winners of The X Factor during the seasons that Reid appeared on the show. In 2013, Sylvia Rhone, former president of Universal Motown, launched the imprint Vested In Culture through Epic Records. A year she was named president of the label. In November 2014, Mosley Music Group created
ARP Instruments, Inc. was an American manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, founded by Alan Robert Pearlman in 1969. Best known for its line of synthesizers that emerged in the early 1970s, ARP closed its doors in 1981 due to financial difficulties; the company earned a reputation for producing excellent sounding, innovative instruments and was granted several patents for the technology it developed. In 2015, the ARP Odyssey was revived by Korg. Alan Pearlman was an engineering student at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Massachusetts in 1948 when he foresaw the coming age of electronic music and synthesizers, he wrote: "The electronic instrument's value is chiefly as a novelty. With greater attention on the part of the engineer to the needs of the musician, the day may not be too remote when the electronic instrument may take its place... as a versatile and expressive instrument."Following 21 years of experience in electronic engineering and entrepreneurship, Alan Pearlman founded ARP Instruments in 1969 with US$100,000 of personal funds and a matching amount from investors, with fellow engineering graduate David Friend on board from the beginning as the co-founder of the company.
Throughout the 1970s, ARP was the main competitor to Moog Music and surpassed Moog to become the world's leading manufacturer of electronic musical instruments. There were two main camps among synthesizer musicians — the Minimoog players and the ARP Odyssey/ARP 2600 players — with most proponents dedicated to their choice, although some players decided to pick and choose between the two for specific effect, as well as many who dabbled with products produced by other manufacturers. Notably, the ARP 2500 was featured in the hit movie Close Encounters of the Third Kind; the demise of ARP Instruments was influenced by the ill-fated decision to invest a significant amount of capital in the development of the ARP Avatar, a synthesizer module identical to the ARP Odyssey sans keyboard and intended to be played by a solid body electric guitar via a specially-mounted hexaphonic guitar pickup whose signals were processed through discrete pitch-to-voltage converters. Although an excellent, groundbreaking instrument by all accounts, the Avatar failed to sell well.
ARP Instruments was never able to recoup the research and development costs associated with the Avatar project and, after several more attempts to produce successful instruments such as the ARP Quadra, ARP 16-Voice & 4-Voice Pianos, the ARP Solus, the company declared bankruptcy in 1981. During the liquidation process, the company's assets and the rights to the manufacture of the 4-Voice Piano and the prototype ARP Chroma - the company's most sophisticated instrument design to date - were sold to CBS Musical Instruments for the total sum of $350,000; the project was completed at CBS R&D, the renamed Rhodes Chroma was produced from 1982 to late 1983. The instrument is notable for a flexible voice architecture. In 2015 three and a half decades after it closed its doors, the company's second flagship instrument, the ARP Odyssey, was brought back into production by Korg, working in collaboration with David Friend, Alan Pearlman's co-founder at ARP; the popular ARP2600 and Arp Odyssey have both been recreated as virtual instruments.
1969 - ARP 2002 1970 - ARP 2500. 1970 - ARP Soloist 1971 - ARP 2600 1972 - ARP Odyssey 1972 - ARP Pro Soloist 1974 - ARP String Ensemble 1974 - ARP Explorer 1975 - ARP Little Brother 1975 - ARP Omni 1975 - ARP Axxe 1975 - ARP String Synthesizer 1976 - ARP Sequencer 1977 - ARP Pro/DGX 1977 - ARP Omni 2 1977 - ARP Avatar 1978 - ARP Quadra 1979 - ARP Quartet 1979 - ARP 16-Voice Electronic Piano / ARP 4-Voice Electronic Piano 1980 - ARP Solus 1981 - ARP Chroma (microproces
Beck Hansen, better known by his stage name Beck, is an American singer and record producer. He rose to fame in the early 1990s with his experimental and lo-fi style, became known for creating musical collages of wide genre styles. Today, he musically encompasses folk, soul, hip hop, alternative rock and psychedelia, he has released a book of sheet music. Born in Los Angeles in 1970, Beck grew towards hip-hop and folk in his teens and began to perform locally at coffeehouses and clubs, he moved to New York City in 1989 and became involved in the city's small and fiery anti-folk movement. Returning to Los Angeles in the early 1990s, he cut his breakthrough single "Loser," which became a worldwide hit in 1994, released his first major album, Mellow Gold, the same year. Odelay, released in 1996, topped critic polls and won several awards, he released the psychedelic Mutations in 1998, the funk-infused Midnite Vultures in 1999. The soft-acoustic Sea Change in 2002 showcased a more serious Beck, 2005's Guero returned to Odelay's sample-based production.
The Information in 2006 was inspired by electro-funk, hip hop, psychedelia. His thirteenth studio album, was released in October 2017 after a long production process, won awards for Best Alternative Album and Best Engineered Album at the 61st Annual Grammy Awards. With a pop art collage of musical styles and ironic lyrics, postmodern arrangements incorporating samples, drum machines, live instrumentation and sound effects, Beck has been hailed by critics and the public throughout his musical career as being among the most idiosyncratically creative musicians of 1990s and 2000s alternative rock. Two of Beck's most popular and acclaimed recordings are Odelay and Sea Change, both of which were ranked on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time; the four-time platinum artist has collaborated with several artists and has made several contributions to soundtracks. Beck was born Bek David Campbell in Los Angeles, California, on July 8, 1970, his father, Canadian arranger and conductor David Campbell, worked on hundreds of albums and numerous films.
His mother, American visual artist Bibbe Hansen, grew up amid New York's Andy Warhol Factory art scene of the 1960s, where she was a Warhol superstar, but moved to California at age 17, where she met Beck's father. Bibbe's maternal grandmother was Jewish, while her father, artist Al Hansen, was of Norwegian descent and was a pioneer in the avant-garde Fluxus movement. Beck has said. Beck began life in a rooming house near downtown Los Angeles; as a child, he lived in a declining neighborhood near Hollywood Boulevard. He recalled, "By the time we left there, they were ripping out miles of houses en masse and building low-rent, giant apartment blocks." The lower-class family struggled financially, moving to Hoover and Ninth Street, a neighborhood populated by Koreans and Salvadorian refugees. He was sent for a time to live with his paternal grandparents in Kansas remarking that he thought "they were kind of concerned" about his "weird" home life. Since his paternal grandfather was a Presbyterian minister, Beck grew up influenced by church music and hymns.
He spent time in Europe with his maternal grandfather. After his parents separated when he was 10, Beck stayed with his mother and brother Channing in Los Angeles, where he was influenced by the city's diverse musical offerings—everything from hip hop to Latin music and his mother's art scene—all of which would reappear in his work. Beck obtained his first guitar at 16 and became a street musician playing Lead Belly covers at Lafayette Park. During his teens, Beck discovered the music of Sonic Youth, Pussy Galore, X, but remained uninterested in most music outside the folk genre until many years into his career; the first contemporary music that made a direct connection with Beck was hip hop, which he first heard on Grandmaster Flash records in the early 1980s. Growing up in a predominantly Latin district, he found himself the only white child at his school, learned how to breakdance; when he was 17, Beck grew fascinated after hearing a Mississippi John Hurt record at a friend's house, spent hours in his room trying to emulate Hurt's finger picking techniques.
Shortly thereafter, Beck explored blues and folk music further, discovering Woody Guthrie and Blind Willie Johnson. Feeling like "a total outcast", Beck dropped out of school after junior high, he said that although he felt school was important, he felt unsafe there. When he applied to the new performing arts high school downtown, he was rejected, his brother took him to post-Beat jazz places in Silver Lake. He hung out at the Los Angeles City College, perusing records and old sheet music in its library, he used a fake I. D. to sit in on classes there, he befriended a literature instructor and his poet wife. He worked including loading trucks and operating a leaf blower. Beck began as a folk musician, switching between country blues, Delta blues and more traditional rural folk music in his teens, he began performing on city buses covering Mississippi John Hurt alongside original, sometimes improvisational compositions. "I'd get on the bus and start playing Mississippi John Hurt with improvised lyrics.
Some drunk would start calling me Axl Rose. So I'd start singing about Axl
Macy Gray is an American R&B and soul singer-songwriter, record producer and actress. She is known for her distinctive raspy voice and a singing style influenced by Billie Holiday. Gray has released six studio albums, received five Grammy Award nominations, winning one, she has appeared in a number of films, including Training Day, Spider-Man, Scary Movie 3, Lackawanna Blues, For Colored Girls, The Paperboy. Gray is best known for her international hit single "I Try", taken from her multi-platinum debut album On How Life Is. In 2016, Gray made a large artistic leap by changing labels to record an album produced with binaural sound. Stripped marked the singer's first steps into the world of audiophile recordings. Natalie McIntyre was born in Canton, the daughter of Laura McIntyre, a math schoolteacher, Otis Jones who left when she was a baby, her stepfather was a steelworker, she has a sister who would become a biology teacher. She began piano lessons at age seven. A childhood bicycle mishap resulted in her noticing a mailbox of a man named Macy Gray.
Gray attended school with Brian Warner. She attended more than one high school, including a boarding school which asked her to leave due to her behavior, she graduated from Canton South High School in 1985. She studied scriptwriting. While attending the University of Southern California, she agreed to write songs for a friend. A demo session was scheduled for the songs to be recorded by another singer, but the vocalist failed to appear, so Gray recorded them herself. I started forming bands and writing songs just for fun and I got into it and got attached to it. A friend of mine asked me to be a singer in his jazz band, he gave me all these jazz CDs and I studied all these different singers and I kind of taught myself how to sing for a gig, but I didn't take it until later. She met writer-producer Joe Solo while working as a cashier in Beverly Hills. Together, they recorded them in Solo's studio; the demo tape gave Gray the opportunity to sing at jazz cafés in Los Angeles. Although Gray did not consider her unusual voice desirable for singing, Atlantic Records signed her.
She began recording her debut record but was dropped from the label upon the departure of A&R man Tom Carolan, who had signed her to the label. Macy returned to Ohio but in 1997 Los Angeles based Zomba Publishing Senior VP A&R man Jeff Blue, convinced her to return to music and signed her to a development deal, recording new songs based on her life experiences, with a new sound, began shopping her to record labels. In 1998, she landed a record deal with Epic Records, she performed on "Love", a song on the Black Eyed Peas' debut album Behind the Front. Gray worked on her debut album in 1999 with producer Darryl Swann. Released in the summer of 1999, On How Life Is became a worldwide smash. Despite the first single "Do Something" stalling on the charts, the release of the second single "I Try" made the album a success for Gray. "I Try" was one of the biggest singles of 1999, subsequent singles "Still" and "Why Didn't You Call Me" ensured the album became triple platinum in the US and quadruple platinum in the UK.
In 2001, Gray won the Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance for "I Try", nominated for "song of the year" and "record of the year". She collaborated with Fatboy Slim, the Black Eyed Peas, Slick Rick, as well as acting for the first time, in the thriller Training Day. In August 2001, Gray was booed off the field at the Pro Football Hall of Fame exhibition game after forgetting the lyrics to the American national anthem. Gray's The Id featured appearances by John Frusciante and Erykah Badu on the single "Sweet Baby"; the album peaked at number eleven on the Billboard 200. It fared better in the UK, where it reached number one on the UK Albums Chart and was certified gold by the BPI; the underperformance in the United States, compared to her debut album, may have been due to The Id being released just a week after the September 11, 2001 attacks. In 2002, she appeared in Spider-Man and contributed a remix of her song "My Nutmeg Phantasy" to its accompanying soundtrack. Gray worked with Santana on the track "Amoré", for his album Shaman.
In 2002, she appeared on the Red Hot Organization's compilation CD in tribute to Nigerian Afropop pioneer Fela Kuti, Red Hot and Riot. She appeared on a remake of Kuti's classic track "Water No Get Enemy" alongside prominent neo soul, hip hop and R&B artists, D'Angelo, the Soultronics, Nile Rodgers, Roy Hargrove, Kuti's son, Femi Kuti, she recorded a duet with Zucchero called "Like the Sun", which featured Jeff Beck on guitar released in 2004 on Zu & Co. a duets collection. Her song "Time of My Life" was included in the soundtrack to 8 Mile. A cartoon based on Gray's childhood was being developed. In 2003, Gray released The Trouble with Being Myself, to rave reviews; the lead single, "When I See You", became a radio hit in the US and a top forty hit in the UK, although the album was not as well received by fans. It became Gray's third top twenty album in the UK. A greatest hits collection and a live album were subsequently
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Troy Donald Jamerson, better known by his stage name Pharoahe Monch, is an American rapper from Queens, New York. He is known for his complex lyrics, intricate delivery, internal and multisyllabic rhyme schemes. Monch released three albums as part of the rap duo Organized Konfusion with partner Prince Poetry: The self-titled Organized Konfusion, Stress: The Extinction Agenda and The Equinox; the duo handled a large amount of production on these albums themselves. All albums moderate sales; as a result, the duo split up after recording their final album The Equinox in 1997. Prince Poetry has since denied the possibility of an Organized Konfusion reunion. Pharoahe Monch signed to Rawkus Records, an indie label. After making several guest appearances on albums like the best-selling Rawkus compilation Soundbombing II, Monch's much-hyped debut, Internal Affairs was released in 1999; the first single of the album, "Simon Says", became a hit single, peaking at No. 97 on the Billboard Hot 100. It was featured in the 2000 cinematic releases Charlie's Angels and Boiler Room.
Despite its success, the song caused controversy when Monch was sued for the song's use of a sample from Akira Ifukube's Gojira Tai Mosura in the hook. The uncleared sample use caused a halting in his album's distribution. After Internal Affairs and the controversy over its hit song, Pharoahe would not release another solo project for several years, he did still make some songs and guest appearances however. In 2000 he featured with Mos Def and Nate Dogg on the hit song "Oh No" from the Rawkus compilation record Lyricist Lounge 2, he contributed the song "Fuck You" to the Training Day soundtrack in 2001, rapped the theme song to Madden NFL 2002. He provided vocals on the track "Last Dayz" on the 2001 Adam F Album Kaos: The Anti-Acoustic Warfare and remixes of the track on the follow-up Drum & Bass Warfare, released the following year. In 2003 Pharoahe released his final single through Rawkus Records, "Agent Orange", a war inspired song which revisited the 1991 Organized Konfusion track "Releasing Hypnotical Gases".
There were rumors his next album, at first tentatively titled Innervisions, was to be released under Denaun Porter's new Shady Records imprint Runyon Ave. They reached out to Stevie Wonder and were at the beginning processes of recording the album but the deal fell through. On December 19, 2006, Pharoahe Monch released his first and only official mixtape, The Awakening, hosted by Clinton Sparks, DJ Boogie Brown. In June 2007, Monch released his second solo album Desire to critical acclaim. Monch said about the album; the album's lead single was the self-produced track "Push", with "Let's Go" as its B-Side. The song's music video and single were released in late September 2006. Pharoahe Monch released a second music video entitled "When the Gun Draws" at a Brooklyn music festival in February 2007; the track was inspired by a song he did with Prince Po entitled "Stray Bullet", featured on the Stress: The Extinction Agenda album. A final video was made for the title track "Desire" in late 2007, it was directed by New Zealand director Andy Morton and shot on the Rock the Bells tour with full band.
The video features both Showtyme. On July 9, 2009, Pharoahe Monch allowed hip hop website HipHopDX.com to leak a song from his forthcoming album W. A. R.. The song was called "Shine" and featured vocals by MeLa Machinko and was produced by Diamond D. On February 14, 2010, another song from Monch was leaked, called "Clap," produced by M-Phazes. Pharoahe Monch released his third solo album W. A. R. in March 2011. It featured guest appearances from Jill Scott, Styles P, Citizen Cope, Jean Grae, Royce da 5'9", Immortal Technique, Vernon Reid, Phonte, Mr. Porter, Mela Machinko, Showtyme & DJ Boogie Blind. Pharoahe revealed that the album is a "throwback to 1993,'94 hip-hop" and featured production by Exile, Marco Polo, M-Phazes, Diamond D, Mike Loe, Adam Deitch, Eric Krasno and Pharoahe Monch himself. Four singles have been released from the album: "Shine", "Clap", "Black Hand Side", "Assassins". A ten-year anniversary re-issue of Internal Affairs will be released featuring a documentary about the making of the album.
In 2011, Pharoahe Monch was a judge on the Ultimate MC TV show alongside Royce da 5'9", Sean Price, Planet Asia, Organik. Pharoahe Monch made his second appearance on an R&B song - the first being "It Ain't The Money" on Macy Gray's 2003 album The Trouble With Being Myself - performing on Eric Roberson's album track "The Cycle" from Roberson's 2014 album The Box. Pharoahe released his fourth album, PTSD: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, on April 15, 2014, under his independent label, W. A. R. Media; the album is a conceptual follow up to his third album, W. A. R.. The album featured two singles, "Damage" and "Bad M. F.", both produced by Lee Stone. In late 2017 Pharoahe Monch was featured in a song by Keyon Harrold titled "Her Beauty Through My Eyes" from Keyon's latest album Mugician. Pharoahe Monch is acclaimed for his complex rapping technique - AllMusic says he has, "a reputation as one of underground hip hop's pre-eminent lyricists, crafting intricate and intelligent raps." Kool Moe Dee ranks him at 26 in his best MCs of all-time list, from his book, There's a God on the Mic, noting: "Pharoahe Monch is like an eloquent linguistics professor moonlighting as a rhyme serial killer terrorist, challenging the listeners' I.
Q. while daring him or her to keep up."Monch compares writing and record
Spin is an American music magazine founded in 1985 by publisher Bob Guccione, Jr. The magazine stopped running in print in 2012 and runs as a webzine, owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group division of Valence Media. Spin was established in 1985. In its early years, the magazine was known for its broad music coverage with an emphasis on college rock, indie rock, the ongoing emergence of hip-hop; the magazine was bold, if sometimes haphazard. It pointedly provided a national alternative to Rolling Stone's more establishment-oriented style. Spin prominently placed newer artists such as R. E. M. Prince, Run-D. M. C. Eurythmics, Beastie Boys, Talking Heads on its covers and did lengthy features on established figures such as Bob Dylan, Keith Richards, Miles Davis, Lou Reed, Tom Waits, John Lee Hooker—Bart Bull's article on Hooker won the magazine its first major award. On a cultural level, the magazine devoted significant coverage to punk, alternative country, electronica and world music, experimental rock, jazz of the most adventurous sort, burgeoning underground music scenes, a variety of fringe styles.
Artists such as the Ramones, Patti Smith, Blondie, X, Black Flag, the former members of the Sex Pistols, The Clash, the early punk and New Wave movements were featured in Spin's editorial mix. Spin's extensive coverage of hip-hop music and culture that of contributing editor John Leland, was notable at the time. Editorial contributions by musical and cultural figures included Lydia Lunch, Henry Rollins, David Lee Roth and Dwight Yoakam; the magazine reported on cities such as Austin, Texas, or Glasgow, Scotland, as cultural incubators in the independent music scene. A 1990 article on the contemporary country blues scene brought R. L. Burnside to national attention for the first time. Coverage of American cartoonists, Japanese manga, monster trucks, the AIDS crisis, outsider artists, Twin Peaks, other non-mainstream cultural phenomena distinguished the magazine's dynamic early years. In late 1987, publisher Bob Guccione Jr.'s father, Bob Guccione Sr. abruptly shut the magazine down despite the fact that the two-year-old magazine was considered a success, with a newsstand circulation of 150,000.
Guccione Jr. was able to rally much of his staff, partner with former MTV president and David H. Horowitz, locate additional new investors and offices and after missing a month's publication, returned with a combined November–December issue. During this time, it was published by Camouflage Associates. In 1997, Guccione sold Spin to Miller Publishing. In 1994, two journalists working for the magazine were killed by a landmine while reporting on the Bosnian War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A third, William T. Vollmann, was injured. In February 2006, Miller Publishing sold the magazine to a San Francisco-based company called the McEvoy Group LLC, the owner of Chronicle Books; that company formed Spin Media LLC as a holding company. The new owners replaced editor-in-chief Sia Michel with a former editor at Blender; the first issue to be published under his brief command was the July 2006 issue—sent to the printer in May 2006—which featured Beyoncé on the cover. Pemberton and Spin parted ways the next month, in June 2006.
The following editor, Doug Brod, was executive editor during Michel's tenure. For Spin's 20th anniversary, it published a book chronicling the prior two decades in music; the book has essays on grunge and emo, among other genres of music, as well as pieces on musical acts including Marilyn Manson, Tupac Shakur, R. E. M. Nirvana, Nine Inch Nails, Limp Bizkit, the Smashing Pumpkins. In February 2012, Spin relaunched the magazine in a larger, bi-monthly format and expanded its online presence, which covered reviews, extended editorials and features on up-and-coming talent. In July 2012, Spin was sold to Buzzmedia, which renamed itself SpinMedia; the September/October 2012 issue of Spin was the magazine's last print edition. In December 2016, Eldridge Industries acquired SpinMedia via the Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group for an undisclosed amount. In 1995, Spin produced its first book, entitled Spin Alternative Record Guide, it compiled writings by 64 music critics on recording artists and bands relevant to the alternative music movement, with each artist's entry featuring their discography and albums reviewed and rated a score between one and ten.
According to Pitchfork Media's Matthew Perpetua, the book featured "the best and brightest writers of the 80s and 90s, many of whom started off in zines but have since become major figures in music criticism," including Rob Sheffield, Byron Coley, Ann Powers, Simon Reynolds, Alex Ross. Although the book was not a sales success, "it inspired a disproportionate number of young readers to pursue music criticism." After the book was published, its entry on 1960s folk artist John Fahey, written by Byron Coley, helped renew interest in Fahey's music, leading to interest from record labels and the alternative music scene. Contributors to Spin have included: SPIN began compiling year-end lists in 1990. Note: The 2000 album of the year was awarded to "your hard drive", acknowledging the impact that filesharing had on the music listening experience in 2000. Kid A was listed as the highest ranking given to an actual album. 1994 roadside attack on Spin magazine journalists Anon.. "Bibliography". In Ray, Michael.
Alternative, Hip-Hop and More: Music from the 1980s to Today. Britannica Educational Publishing. ISBN 1615309101. Mazmanian, Adam. "Library Journal". In White, William. Buyer's Guide. Bowker. Johnston, Maura. "Never Mind The Anglophilia, Here's The Queens Brothers". Idolator. Retrieved Jul