The Twilight Zone is an American anthology television series created and presented by Rod Serling, which ran for five seasons on CBS from 1959 to 1964. Each episode presents a stand-alone story in which characters find themselves dealing with disturbing or unusual events, an experience described as entering "the Twilight Zone," with a surprise ending and a moral. Although predominantly science-fiction, the show's paranormal and Kafkaesque events leaned the show towards fantasy and horror; the phrase “twilight zone,” inspired by the series, is used to describe surreal experiences. The series featured both established stars and younger actors who would become much better known later. Serling served as executive head writer, he was the show's host and narrator, delivering monologues at the beginning and end of each episode. Serling's opening and closing narrations summarize the episode's events encapsulating how and why the main character had entered the Twilight Zone. In 1997, the episodes "To Serve Man" and "It's a Good Life" were ranked at 11 and 31 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time.
Serling himself stated that his favorite episodes of the series were "The Invaders" and "Time Enough at Last". In 2016, the series was ranked No. 7 on Rolling Stone's list of the 100 greatest shows of all time. In 2002, The Twilight Zone was ranked No. 26 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. In 2004, it was ranked. In 2013, the Writers Guild of America ranked it as the third best-written TV series and TV Guide ranked it as the fourth greatest drama, the second greatest sci-fi show and the fifth greatest show of all time. By the late 1950s, Rod Serling was a prominent name in American television, his successful television plays included Patterns and Requiem for a Heavyweight, but constant changes and edits made by the networks and sponsors frustrated Serling. In Requiem for a Heavyweight, the line "Got a match?" had to be struck because the sponsor sold lighters. According to comments in his 1957 anthology Patterns, Serling had been trying to delve into material more controversial than his works of the early 1950s.
This led to Noon on Doomsday for the United States Steel Hour in 1956, a commentary by Serling on the defensiveness and total lack of repentance he saw in the Mississippi town where the murder of Emmett Till took place. His original script paralleled the Till case was moved out of the South and the victim changed to a Jewish pawnbroker, watered down to just a foreigner in an unnamed town. Despite bad reviews, activists sent numerous wires protesting the production. Serling thought that a science-fictional setting, with robots and other supernatural occurrences, would give him more freedom and less interference in expressing controversial ideas than more realistic settings. "The Time Element" was Serling's 1957 pilot pitch for his show, a time travel adventure about a man who travels back to Honolulu in 1941 and unsuccessfully tries to warn everyone about the impending attack on Pearl Harbor. The script, was rejected and shelved for a year until Bert Granet discovered and produced it as an episode of Desilu Playhouse in 1958.
The show was a great success and enabled Serling to begin production on his anthology series, The Twilight Zone. Serling's editorial sense of ironic fate in the writing done for the series was identified as significant to its success by the BFI Film Classics library which stated that for Serling "the cruel indifference and implacability of fate and the irony of poetic justice" were recurrent themes in his plots. There is a fifth dimension, beyond that, known to man, it is a dimension as timeless as infinity. It is the middle ground between light and shadow, between science and superstition, it lies between the pit of man's fears and the summit of his knowledge; this is the dimension of imagination. It is an area; the Twilight Zone premiered the night of October 1959, to rave reviews. "Twilight Zone is about the only show on the air that I look forward to seeing. It's the one series that I will let interfere with other plans", said Terry Turner for the Chicago Daily News. Others agreed. Daily Variety ranked it with "the best, accomplished in half-hour filmed television" and the New York Herald Tribune found the show to be "certainly the best and most original anthology series of the year".
As the show proved popular to television's critics, it struggled to find a receptive audience of television viewers. CBS was banking on a rating of at least 21 or 22; the series' future was jeopardized when its third episode, "Mr. Denton on Doomsday" earned a 16.3 rating. Still, the show attracted a large enough audience to survive a brief hiatus in November, after which it surpassed its competition on ABC and NBC and convinced its sponsors to stay on until the end of the season. With one exception, the first season featured scripts written only by Rod Serling, Charles Beaumont or Richard Matheson; these three were responsible for 127 of the 156 episodes in the series. Additionally, with
Events from the year 1839 in the United States. President: Martin Van Buren Vice President: Richard M. Johnson Chief Justice: Roger B. Taney Speaker of the House of Representatives: James K. Polk, Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter Congress: 25th, 26th February 11 – The University of Missouri is established in Columbia, becoming the first public university west of the Mississippi River. March 5 – Longwood University is founded in Farmville, Virginia. March 7 – Baltimore City College, the third public high school in the United States, is established in Baltimore, Maryland. March 23 – The Boston Morning Post first records the use of "OK". August 8 – The Beta Theta Pi fraternity is founded in Oxford, Ohio. September 9 – In the Great Fire of Mobile, Alabama hundreds of buildings are burned. October – Robert Cornelius takes the first self portrait in the United States. November 11 – The Virginia Military Institute is founded in Lexington, Virginia. November 27 – In Boston, the American Statistical Association is founded.
The first U. S. state law permitting women to own property is passed in Mississippi. Episcopal High School in Alexandria, Virginia is founded. Second Seminole War February 9 – Laura Redden Searing, deaf poet and journalist March 9 – Phoebe Knapp, hymn writer April 7 – David Baird, Ireland-born U. S. Senator from New Jersey from 1918 to 1919 July 8 – John D. Rockefeller, oil industry business magnate and philanthropist August 1 – Middleton P. Barrow, U. S. Senator from Georgia from 1882 to 1883 August 23 – George Clement Perkins, U. S. Senator from California from 1893 to 1915 August 26 – Hernando Money, U. S. Senator from Mississippi from 1897 to 1911 September 2 – Henry George, writer and political economist September 18 – William J. McConnell, U. S. Senator from Idaho from 1890 to 1891 September 28 – Frances Willard, American educator, temperance reformer and women's suffragist September 29 – James Kimbrough Jones, U. S. Senator from Arkansas from 1885 to 1903 October 20 – Augustus Octavius Bacon, U.
S. Senator from Georgia from 1895 to 1914 November 4 – Thomas M. Patterson, Ireland-born U. S. Senator from Colorado from 1901 to 1907 December 5 – George Armstrong Custer, U. S. Army Officer and Cavalry Commander from Ohio from 1861 to 1876 December 12 – Caroline Ingalls, American pioneer, mother of author Laura Ingalls Wilder January 14 – John Wesley Jarvis, portrait painter February 26 – Sybil Ludington, heroine of the American Revolutionary War April 1 – Benjamin Pierce, governor of New Hampshire from 1827 to 1828 and from 1829 to 1830, father of 14th President of the United States Franklin Pierce April 2 – Hezekiah Niles, magazine publisher April 5 – John Tipton, U. S. Senator from Indiana from 1832 to 1839 April 22 – Samuel Smith, U. S. Senator from Maryland from 1822 to 1833 May 11 – Thomas Cooper, political philosopher June 10 – Nathaniel Hale Pryor, sergeant in the Lewis and Clark Expedition July 16 – The Bowl, Cherokee chief, shot August 22 – Benjamin Lundy, abolitionist September 28 – William Dunlap, actor-manager and painter December 4 – John Leamy, merchant Timeline of United States history Media related to 1839 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons
The Kentucky Women Writers Conference had its beginnings in 1979 as a celebration of women writers at the University of Kentucky. That first year featured Maya Angelou, Toni Cade Bambara, Ruth Stone, Alice Walker, Ruth Whitman. Since it has become the longest-running annual festival of women writers in the nation, showcasing the talents and issues addressed by established and emerging authors. UK History faculty Nancy Dye had suggested using surplus funds from Undergraduate Studies to bring women writers to campus. A 16-member committee from the departments of English, Undergraduate Studies, Special Collections, along with members of the Lexington community, produced the conference. In 1984–1985 the conference was directed by UK English faculty Jane Gentry Vance, who served as Kentucky's Poet Laureate. In 1985–1993, the conference was affiliated with Continuing Education for Women/University Extension and directed by Betty Gabehart; as the conference's longest-running director, Gabehart made significant contributions to its enduring legacy and stability, establishing much of the reputation it enjoys today.
In 1994–1996, the conference was affiliated with the Women's Studies Program and directed by Jan Oaks, faculty in English and Gender and Women's Studies. In 1997, former Conference assistant Patti DeYoung served as director. In 1998 the conference lost university funding when it was unable to find a sponsoring department, its advisory board established itself as a 5013 nonprofit organization, its new home became the Carnegie Center for Literacy and Learning in downtown Lexington, it was renamed the Kentucky Women Writers Conference. Its director during those years, 1998–2002, was Jan Isenhour director of the Carnegie Center, its work was carried out by a volunteer board. In 2002 President Lee Todd reinstated support for the conference to demonstrate the university's commitment to women's programming and community events. Since the Conference leadership has continued cultivating wide community support through many partnerships and the committed efforts of its board and volunteers. UK provides staff salaries, office space, the majority of KWWC's operating expenses.
Financial support from the Kentucky Foundation for Women, LexArts, the Kentucky Arts Council, the Kentucky Humanities Council and individual patrons remains critical to our ability to attract writers of the highest caliber. Directors since have been Brenda Weber and Rebecca Gayle Howell. Howell launched several free community events that have become signature offerings of the conference, including the Gypsy Slam, the Sonia Sanchez Series, the Hardwick/Jones keynote reading on mentorship and collaboration. In 2007, Julie Kuzneski Wrinn became Conference director; the 38th annual conference will be held September 2017 in Lexington, Kentucky. Official website