Ida Lupino was an English-American actress, singer and producer. She is regarded as one of the most prominent, one of the only, female filmmakers working during the 1950s in the Hollywood studio system. With her independent production company, she co-wrote and co-produced several social-message films and became the first woman to direct a film noir with The Hitch-Hiker in 1953. Throughout her 48-year career, she made acting appearances in 59 films and directed eight others, working in the United States, where she became a citizen in 1948, she directed more than 100 episodes of television productions in a variety of genres including westerns, supernatural tales, situation comedies, murder mysteries, gangster stories. She was the only woman to direct episodes of the original The Twilight Zone series, as well as the only director to have starred in the show. Lupino was born in Herne Hill, London, to actress Connie O'Shea and noted music hall comedian Stanley Lupino, a member of the theatrical Lupino family, which included Lupino Lane, a popular song-and-dance man.
Her father, a top name in musical comedy in the UK and a member of a centuries-old theatrical dynasty dating back to Renaissance Italy, encouraged her to perform at an early age. He built a backyard theater for Lupino and her sister Rita, who became an actress and dancer. Lupino toured with a traveling theater company as a child. By the age of ten, Lupino had memorized the leading female roles in each of Shakespeare's plays. After her intense childhood training for stage plays, Ida's uncle Lupino Lane assisted her in moving towards film acting by getting her work as a background actor at British International Studios, she wanted to be a writer, but in order to please her father, Lupino enrolled in the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. She went on to excel in a number of "bad girl" film roles playing prostitutes. Lupino did not enjoy being an actress and felt uncomfortable with many of the early roles she was given, she felt. Lupino worked as screen actress, she first took to the stage in 1934 as the lead in The Pursuit of Happiness at the Paramount Studio Theatre.
Lupino made her first film appearance in The Love Race and the following year, aged 14, she worked under director Allan Dwan in Her First Affaire, in a role for which her mother had tested. She played leading roles in five British films in 1933 at Warner Bros.' Teddington studios and for Julius Hagen at Twickenham, including The Ghost Camera with John Mills and I Lived with You with Ivor Novello. Dubbed "the English Jean Harlow", she was discovered by Paramount in the 1933 film Money for Speed, playing a good girl/bad girl dual role. Lupino claimed the talent scouts saw her play only the sweet girl in the film and not the part of the prostitute, so she was asked to try out for the lead role in Alice in Wonderland; when she arrived in Hollywood, the Paramount producers did not know what to make of their sultry potential leading lady, but she did get a five-year contract. Lupino starred in over a dozen films in the mid-1930s, working with Columbia in a two-film deal, one of which, The Light That Failed, was a role she acquired after running into the director's office unannounced, demanding an audition.
After this performance, she began to be taken as a dramatic actress. As a result, her parts improved during the 1940s, she jokingly referred to herself as "the poor man's Bette Davis", taking the roles that Davis refused. Mark Hellinger, associate producer at Warner Bros. was impressed by Lupino's performance in The Light That Failed, hired her for the femme-fatale role in the Raoul Walsh-directed They Drive by Night, opposite stars George Raft, Ann Sheridan and Humphrey Bogart. The film did well and the critical consensus was that Lupino stole the movie in her unhinged courtroom scene. Warner Bros. offered her a contract. She worked with Walsh and Bogart again in High Sierra, where she impressed critic Bosley Crowther in her role as "adoring moll."Her performance in The Hard Way won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress. She starred in Pillow to Post, her only comedic leading role. After the drama Deep Valley finished shooting, neither Warner Bros. nor Lupino moved to renew her contract and she left the studio in 1947.
Although in demand throughout the 1940s, she never became a major star, but was critically lauded for her tough, direct acting style. She incurred the ire of studio boss Jack Warner by objecting to her casting, refusing roles that she felt were "beneath her dignity as an actress," and making script revisions deemed unacceptable; as a result, she spent a great deal of her time at Warner Bros. suspended. In 1942, she rejected an offer to star with Ronald Reagan in Kings Row, was put on suspension at the studio. A tentative rapprochement was brokered, but her relationship with her studio remained strained. In 1947, Lupino left Warner Brothers and appeared for 20th Century Fox as a nightclub singer in the film noir Road House, performing her musical numbers in the film, she starred in On Dangerous Ground in 1951, may have taken on some of the directing tasks of the film while director Nicholas Ray was ill. While on suspension, Lupino had ample time to observe filming and editing processes, she became interested in directing.
She described how bored she was on set while "someone else seemed to be doing all the interesting work." She and her husband Collier Young formed an independent company, The Filmake
Ernest Truex was an American actor of stage and television. Born in Kansas City, Truex started acting at age five and toured through Missouri at age nine as "The Child Wonder in Scenes from Shakespeare", his Broadway debut came in 1908, he performed in several David Belasco plays and portrayed the title role in the 1915 musical Very Good Eddie. Truex played the lead role in the disastrous 1923 premiere of F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Vegetable. In 1927, he created the role of Bill Paradene in Good Morning, adapted by P. G. Wodehouse based on a play by Ladislaus Fodor. In 1926 he performed for the first time in London's West End, he played a leading role in The Fall Guy at the Apollo Theatre. He continued to perform in plays in London for the next three years while his two sons attended Leighton Park boarding school in Reading. In 1927 he acted in Good Morning, Bill at the Duke of York's Theatre and in 1928 he performed in Sexes and Sevens at the Globe Theatre, he did not work in film full-time for another twenty years.
He tended to play "milquetoast" characters and in The Warrior's Husband he played a "nance". In the 1938 The Adventures of Marco Polo, he played Marco Polo's comical assistant, opposite Gary Cooper. Early in television, Truex guest starred on CBS's Faye Emerson's Wonderful Town. In 1949, Truex played Caspar Milquetoast on the DuMont Television Network's Program Playhouse Series. From 1953 to 1954, he co-starred with a young Brandon deWilde in Jamie on ABC, he played aging Grandpa McHummer striking a bond with young Jamie, his orphaned grandson. In life, he became known for playing elderly men on television in works such as Justice, Mister Peepers and Father Knows Best, he had the main role in the "Kick the Can" episode of Rod Serling's original The Twilight Zone. In another Twilight Zone episode, "What You Need", he played a traveling peddler who just happened to have what people needed just before they knew they needed it, he starred in the first season of CBS's The Ann Sothern Show as Jason Macauley, the manager of the swank Bartley House hotel in New York City.
Reta Shaw played Flora. In 1960, Truex appeared with Harpo Marx in the episode "Silent Panic" of CBS's anthology series The DuPont Show with June Allyson, he guest starred on Dennis the Menace, with Jay North as the series lead. His first wife was Julia Mills with whom he had two sons, Philip in 1911 and James in 1912. Philip had an acting career until the early 1950s. Philip Truex's greatest success in the theatre was when he landed the starring role of Og in the Broadway musical Finian's Rainbow in 1947, his most famous film performance is the title role in Alfred Hitchcock's The Trouble with Harry as Harry, the corpse dragged all over the countryside by several other characters in this film. Philip had expected to have substantial lines to speak in the role but Hitchcock decided to kill off the character of Harry before he could utter one word. After this disappointment Philip decided to give up acting and turned his hand to landscape gardening. A widower, Ernest married stage actress Mary Jane Barrett, appearing with her in New York in such plays as The Third Little Show, The Hook-Up, Fredericka.
They had Barry Truex, who had an acting career of his own from 1949 to the early 1960s. His career began in 1949 when he played the role of Ernest's youngest son in the TV situation comedy The Truex Family broadcast on WPIX New York. All of Ernest Truex's immediate family had acting parts in this show, co-written by his second son James Truex. In 1962 Barry would again play opposite his father Ernest in the episode "Kick the Can" of the TV series The Twilight Zone. Barry's most memorable film roles were in The Benny Goodman Story playing the young Benny Goodman, Rockabilly Baby, Dragstrip Riot, he acted in numerous TV productions. In 1934, Ernest Truex directed, co-produced, starred in the play Sing and Whistle, which co-starred actress Sylvia Field who would become his third wife upon his divorce from Mary Jane Barrett. On June 26, 1973, Truex died of a heart attack at the age of 83. Ernest Truex on IMDb Ernest Truex at the Internet Broadway Database Ernest Truex at Find a Grave
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Henry Earl Holliman is an American actor known for his many character roles in films westerns and dramas, in the 1950s and 1960s. He won a Golden Globe Award for the film The Rainmaker and portrayed Sergeant Bill Crowley on the television police drama Police Woman throughout its 1974–1978 run. Earl Holliman was born on September 11, 1928, in Delhi in Richland Parish, located in northeastern Louisiana. Holliman's biological father died six months prior to his birth, his biological mother, living in poverty with several other children, gave him up for adoption at birth, he was adopted a week after his birth by Henry Holliman, an oil-field worker, his wife, Velma, a waitress, who gave him the name of Henry Earl Holliman. Holliman's early years were normal until his adoptive father died when he was 13, he saved money from his position ushering at The Strand Theatre and left Shreveport, hitchhiking to Hollywood. After an unsuccessful first attempt finding work in the film industry, he soon returned to Louisiana.
Meanwhile, his adoptive mother had remarried, Holliman disliked his new stepfather. He lied about his age and enlisted in the United States Navy during World War II. Assigned to a Navy communications school in Los Angeles, he spent his free time at the Hollywood Canteen, talking to stars who dropped by to support the servicemen and women. A year after he enlisted, the Navy discovered his real age and discharged him. Holliman returned home, worked in the oil fields in his spare time, finished his public education at Oil City High School in Oil City, Louisiana graduating with high honors in 1946. After rejecting a scholarship to Louisiana State University, he re-enlisted in the Navy and was stationed in Norfolk, Virginia. Interested in acting, he was cast as the lead in several Norfolk Navy Theatre productions; when he left the Navy for good, Holliman studied acting at the Pasadena Playhouse. He graduated from the University of California, Los Angeles. During the time he studied acting at both the Playhouse and UCLA, Holliman supplemented his income working as a file clerk for Blue Cross.
Holliman first appeared, uncredited, in the 1952 Western Pony Soldier, followed by five films released in 1953. His credits include: The Bridges at Toko-Ri, The Big Combo, I Died a Thousand Times Forbidden Planet, The Rainmaker, being cast instead of Elvis Presley for the role of Jim Curry and went on to win the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture, Gunfight at the O. K. Corral, Last Train from Gun Hill, Visit to a Small Planet, The Sons of Katie Elder and Sharky's Machine. Holliman played a doomed helicopter crewman in the William Holden war drama The Bridges at Toko-Ri and a gangster's double-crossed thug in The Big Combo, he co-starred with Jack Palance in the crime drama I Died a remake of High Sierra. In his award-winning performance opposite Katharine Hepburn and Burt Lancaster in The Rainmaker, he played a rancher's timid son who must defy his father to gain self-respect, he was the soft-spoken son-in-law of a rancher in the epic western saga Giant. Holliman would play many roles set in the American west.
He was Wyatt Earp's deputy in Gunfight at the O. K. Corral, co-starring Lancaster and Douglas, a sniveling coward guilty of murdering and raping the wife of a lawman in Last Train from Gun Hill, he played a drunken deputy sheriff whose brother Richard Widmark returns to town in a modern-day western, The Trap, the brother of John Wayne and Dean Martin, out to avenge their murdered father, in a traditional western, The Sons of Katie Elder. He portrayed a corrupt Atlanta politician in the 1981 crime drama, Sharky's Machine, directed by, starring, Burt Reynolds. Holliman became known to television audiences through his portrayal as Sundance in CBS's Hotel de Paree, with costar Jeanette Nolan, from 1959 to 1960, in the title role of Mitch Guthrie with Andrew Prine in NBC's Wide Country, a drama about modern rodeo performers that aired for 28 episodes between 1962 and 1963, he had the distinction of appearing in the debut episode of CBS's The Twilight Zone, titled "Where Is Everybody?" which aired on October 2, 1959, the same night as the premiere of Hotel de Paree.
In 1962, he and Claude Akins guest-starred as feuding brothers in "The Stubborn Stumbos" episode of Marilyn Maxwell's ABC drama series Bus Stop. In 1967, Holliman guest-starred on Wayne Maunder's short-lived ABC military–western series Custer. In 1970, Holliman starred in the TV movie Tribes as the antagonist Master Sergeant Frank DePayster, co-starring with Darren McGavin and Jan-Michael Vincent. In 1970 and 1971, Holliman made two appearances in the western comedy series Alias Smith and Jones starring Pete Duel and Ben Murphy. From 1974 to 1978, he portrayed Sergeant Bill Crowley opposite Angie Dickinson in the Police Woman series, he co-starred in all 91 episodes of the hit series, playing the police department superior of undercover officer Pepper Anderson. He took part in The Dean Martin Celebrity Roast comedy roast of co-star Dickinson on August 2, 1977. Holliman continued to appear in television guest roles throughout the 1990s, he shared a starring role in the CBS movie Country Gold (a made for television remake of All About Eve, filmed on location in Nashville, which featured Loni Anderson, Linda Hamilton and Cooper Huckabee.
He was a regular celebrity panelist on The Hollywood Squares, where he was recognized for his ability to trick the contestants with believable bluff answers. His most notable role during this period was in the hit mini
Jack Warden was an American character actor of film and television. He was twice nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor—for Shampoo, Heaven Can Wait, he received a BAFTA nomination for the former movie, won an Emmy for his performance in Brian's Song. Warden was born in Newark, New Jersey, the son of Laura M. and John Warden Lebzelter, an engineer and technician. He was of Irish ancestry. Raised in Louisville, Kentucky, he was expelled from high school for fighting and fought as a professional boxer under the name Johnny Costello, he earned little money. Warden worked as a nightclub bouncer, tugboat deckhand and lifeguard before joining the United States Navy in 1938, he was stationed for three years in China with the Yangtze River Patrol. In 1941, he joined the United States Merchant Marine but he tired of the long convoy runs, in 1942, he moved to the United States Army, where he served as a paratrooper in the 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, with the 101st Airborne Division in World War II.
In 1944, on the eve of the D-Day invasion, Warden a staff sergeant, shattered his leg when he landed in a tree during a night-time practice jump in England. He spent eight months in the hospital recuperating, during which time he read a Clifford Odets play and decided to become an actor. Warden portrayed a paratrooper from the 101st's rivals—the 82nd Airborne Division—in That Kind of Woman. After leaving the military, he moved to New York City, studied acting on the G. I. Bill, he performed on stage for five years. In 1948, he made his television debut on the anthology series The Philco Television Playhouse, appeared on the series Studio One, his first film role, was in the 1951 film You're in the Navy Now, a film that featured the screen debuts of Lee Marvin and Charles Bronson. Warden appeared in his first credited film role in the 1951 in The Man with My Face. From 1952 to 1955, Warden appeared in the television series Mister Peepers with Wally Cox. In 1953, Warden was cast as a sympathetic corporal in From Here to Eternity.
Warden's breakthrough film role was Juror No. 7, a salesman who wants a quick decision in a murder case, in 12 Angry Men. Warden guest-starred in many television series over the years, including two 1960 episodes of NBC's The Outlaws, on Marilyn Maxwell's ABC drama series, Bus Stop, on David Janssen's ABC drama, The Fugitive, he received a supporting actor Emmy Award for his performance as Chicago Bears coach George Halas in the television movie, Brian's Song, was twice nominated for his starring role in the 1980s comedy/drama series Crazy Like a Fox. Warden was nominated for Academy Awards as Best Supporting Actor for his performances in Shampoo and Heaven Can Wait, he had notable roles in Bye Bye Braverman, All the President's Men... And Justice for All, Being There, Used Cars, The Verdict, Problem Child and its sequel, as well as While You Were Sleeping, Guilty as Sin and the Norm Macdonald comedy Dirty Work, his final film was The Replacements in 2000, opposite Keanu Reeves. Warden had one son, Christopher.
Although they separated in the 1970s, the couple never divorced. Warden suffered from declining health in his last years, which resulted in his retirement from acting in 2000, he died of heart and kidney failure in a New York hospital on July 19, 2006, at the age of 85. Jack Warden on IMDb Jack Warden at the Internet Broadway Database Jack Warden at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Jack Warden at Find a Grave Cinema2000 obituary
Isaiah Edwin Leopold, better known as Ed Wynn, was an American actor and comedian noted for his Perfect Fool comedy character, his pioneering radio show of the 1930s, his career as a dramatic actor. Wynn was born Isaiah Edwin Leopold in Pennsylvania, his father, who manufactured and sold women's hats, was born in Bohemia. His mother, Minnie Greenberg, of Romanian and Turkish ancestry, came from Istanbul. Wynn attended Central High School in Philadelphia until age 15, he ran away from home in his teens, worked as a hat salesman, as a utility boy, adapted his middle name "Edwin" into his new stage name, "Ed Wynn", to save his family the embarrassment of having a lowly comedian as a relative. Wynn began his career in vaudeville in 1903 and was a star of the Ziegfeld Follies starting in 1914. During The Follies of 1915, W. C. Fields caught Wynn mugging for the audience under the table during Fields' Pool Room routine and knocked Wynn unconscious with his cue. Wynn wrote and produced many Broadway shows in the subsequent decades, was known for his silly costumes and props as well as for the giggly, wavering voice he developed for the 1921 musical revue, The Perfect Fool.
In the early 1930s Wynn hosted the popular radio show The Fire Chief, heard in North America on Tuesday nights, sponsored by Texaco gasoline. Like many former vaudeville performers who turned to radio in the same decade, the stage-trained Wynn insisted on playing for a live studio audience, doing each program as an actual stage show, using visual bits to augment his written material, in his case, wearing a colorful costume with a red fireman's helmet, he bounced his gags off announcer/straight man Graham McNamee. I don't know, it won't go anyplace without a rattle!" Wynn reprised his Fire Chief radio character in two movies, Follow The Chief. Near the height of his radio fame he founded his own short-lived radio network the Amalgamated Broadcasting System, which lasted only five weeks, nearly destroying the comedian. According to radio historian Elizabeth McLeod, the failed venture left Wynn deep in debt and suffering a nervous breakdown. Wynn was offered the title role in MGM's 1939 screen adaptation of The Wizard of Oz, but turned it down, as did his Ziegfeld contemporary W. C.
Fields. The part went to Frank Morgan. Ed Wynn first appeared on television on July 7, 1936 in a brief, ad-libbed spot with Graham McNamee during an NBC experimental television broadcast. In the 1949–50 season, Ed Wynn hosted one of the first network, comedy-variety television shows, on CBS, won both a Peabody Award and an Emmy Award in 1949. Buster Keaton, Lucille Ball, The Three Stooges all made guest appearances with Wynn; this was the first CBS variety television show to originate from Los Angeles, seen live on the west coast, but filmed via kinescope for distribution in the Midwest and East, as the national coaxial cable had yet to be completed. Wynn was a rotating host of NBC's Four Star Revue from 1950 through 1952. After the end of Wynn's third television series, The Ed Wynn Show, his son, actor Keenan Wynn, encouraged him to make a career change rather than retire; the comedian reluctantly began a career as a dramatic actor in television and movies. Father and son appeared in three productions, the first of, the 1956 Playhouse 90 broadcast of Rod Serling's play Requiem for a Heavyweight.
Ed was kept goofing his lines in rehearsal. When the producers wanted to fire him, star Jack Palance said. On live broadcast night, Wynn surprised everyone with his pitch-perfect performance, his quick ad libs to cover his mistakes. A dramatization of what happened during the production was staged as an April 1960 Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse episode, "The Man in the Funny Suit", starring both senior and junior Wynns, with key figures involved in the original production portraying themselves. Ed and his son worked together in the Jose Ferrer film The Great Man, with Ed again proving his unexpected skills in drama. Requiem established Wynn as a serious dramatic actor who could hold his own with the best, his performance in The Diary of Anne Frank received an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor. In 1959, Wynn appeared on Serling's TV series The Twilight Zone in "One for the Angels". Serling, a longtime admirer, had written that episode for him, Wynn in 1963 starred in the episode "Ninety Years Without Slumbering".
For the rest of his life, Wynn skillfully moved between dramatic roles. He appeared in anthology television, endearing himself to new generations of fans. Wynn was caricatured in the Merrie Melodies cartoon shorts Shuffle Off to Buffalo and I've Got to Sing a Torch Song, as a pot of jam in the Betty Boop short Betty in Blunderland, he appeared as the Fairy Godfather in Jerry Lewis' Cinderfella. His performance as Paul Beaseley in the 1958 film The Great Man earned him nominations for a Golden Globe Award for "Best Supporting Actor" and a BAFTA Award for "Best Foreign Actor"; the following year he received his first nomination for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role as Mr. Dussell in The Diary of Anne Frank. Six
A hawker is a vendor of merchandise that can be transported. In most places where the term is used, a hawker sells handicrafts, or food items. Whether stationary or mobile, hawkers advertise by loud street cries or chants, conduct banter with customers, to attract attention and enhance sales; when accompanied by a demonstration or detailed explanation of the product, the hawker is sometimes referred to as a demonstrator or pitchman. The terms peddler and hawker are used synonymously. Social commentator Henry Mayhew wrote, "Among the more ancient of the trades carried on in England, is that of the hawker or pedlar", he notes, "the hawker dealt, in the old times, more in textile fabrics than in anything else." In several passages of his work, Mayhew categorises hawkers and peddlers as a single group of itinerant salesman, claims that he is unable to say what distinction was drawn between a hawker and a huckster. Mayhew estimated the number of licensed pedlars in 1861 as 14,038 in England, 2,561 in Scotland, 624 in Wales.
In many African metropolitan areas, hawkers referred to as vendors are a usual sight. They sell a wide range of goods such as fish, vegetables and books. In suburban areas, they go around announcing themselves from house to house. While in more commercial areas they have stands or lay their goods on the ground. In the afternoons you'll find many of them selling commercial goods on the more crowded parts of the cities, while at night they sell juices and snack items, they sell goods at lower prices than shops making them an attractive shopping stop to people of low income. According to the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, there are 10 million street vendors in India, with Mumbai accounting for 250,000, Delhi has 200,000, more than 150,000, Ahmedabad, 100,000. Most of them are immigrants or laid-off workers, work for an average 10–12 hours a day, remain impoverished. Though the prevalent license-permit raj in Indian bureaucracy ended for most retailing in the 1990s, it continues in this trade.
Inappropriate license ceiling in most cities, like Mumbai which has a ceiling 14,000 licenses, means more vendors hawk their goods illegally, which makes them prone to the bribery and extortion culture under local police and municipal authories, besides harassment, heavy fines and sudden evictions. In Kolkata, the profession was a non-bailable offense. Over the years the street vendors have organized themselves into trade unions and associations, numerous NGO's have started working for them. In fact, The National Association of Street Vendors of India based in Delhi, is a federation of 715 street vendor organizations, trade unions and non-governmental organizations. Kolkata has two such unions, namely the Bengal Hawkers Association and the Calcutta Hawkers' Men Union. In September, 2012, long-awaited Street Vendors Act was introduced in the Lok Sabha aimed at providing social security and livelihood rights, regulated the prevalent license system; the Bill was passed in the Lok Sabha on 6 September 2013 and by the Rajya Sabha on 19 February 2014.
The bill received the assent of the President of India on 4 March 2014. Only three states have implemented the bill as of April 2017; the bill handed governance over public space and vendors over to municipalities. Although, one of the main purposes of the Street Vendors Act was to allow the vendors to have a voice in governance, the bill made conditions more difficult for vendors as they have become more scrutinized. In the capital city of Dhaka, street vendors such as small tea stalls, popular food stalls along the public spaces have a significant role to cater to the urban population. Street vendors are a source of food security to the poorer section of the urban population. Street vending is significant portion of Dhaka's informal economy, an employment opportunity for better livelihoods of the urban poor. Balut is a popular dish sold by hawkers in the Philippines, Laos and Vietnam. In both China and Hong Kong, hawkers' inventories include fish ball, beef ball, roasted chestnuts, stinky tofu.
In Singapore and Malaysia, these stands have become so successful that many have chosen to set up shop more permanently in a hawker center. Across Asia, stalls have been set up with little to no government monitoring. Due to health concerns and other liability problems, the food culture has been challenged in Indonesia, though without marked success. However, in Hong Kong, the lease versus licensed hawker restrictions have put a burden on this mobile food culture; the term Jau Gwei has been used to describe vendors running away from local police. The costermongers of London, England were at their peak in the 19th century. Organised, yet semi-obvious, they were ubiquitous, their street cries could be heard everywhere. Street vendors in Latin America are known in local Spanish and Portuguese variously as vendedores ambulantes or ambulantes, a term used in Italy. In Argentina they are known as manteros. In Brazil, they are known as "camelôs"; some ambulantes set up in a fixed location. Some ambulantes sell their goods door-to-door.
Puestos are market stands. Street vendors face various fees. There are sometimes disputes between established ambulantes. Bribes are a problem. Many vendors operate illegally. In order to avoid ov