Library of Congress Classification
The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U. S. and several other countries. LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books, which defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074". The Classification is distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically; the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982"; the classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System.
It was designed for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is enumerative in nature; that is, it provides a guide to the books in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system; the National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC. Others include Medicine R. Subclass AC -- Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums.
Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs. Directories Subclass AZ – History of scholarship and learning; the humanities Subclass B – Philosophy Subclass BC – Logic Subclass BD – Speculative philosophy Subclass BF – Psychology Subclass BH – Aesthetics Subclass BJ – Ethics Subclass BL – Religions. Mythology. Rationalism Subclass BM – Judaism Subclass BP – Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc. Subclass BQ – Buddhism Subclass BR – Christianity Subclass BS – The Bible Subclass BT – Doctrinal theology Subclass BV – Practical Theology Subclass BX – Christian Denominations Subclass C – Auxiliary Sciences of History Subclass CB – History of Civilization Subclass CC – Archaeology Subclass CD – Diplomatics. Archives. Seals Subclass CE – Technical Chronology. Calendar Subclass CJ – Numismatics Subclass CN – Inscriptions. Epigraphy Subclass CR – Heraldry Subclass CS – Genealogy Subclass CT – Biography Subclass D – History Subclass DA – Great Britain Subclass DAW – Central Europe Subclass DB – Austria – Liechtenstein – Hungary – Czechoslovakia Subclass DC – France – Andorra – Monaco Subclass DD – Germany Subclass DE – Greco-Roman World Subclass DF – Greece Subclass DG – Italy – Malta Subclass DH – Low Countries – Benelux Countries Subclass DJ – Netherlands Subclass DJK – Eastern Europe Subclass DK – Russia.
Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics – Poland Subclass DL – Northern Europe. Scandinavia Subclass DP – Spain – Portugal Subclass DQ – Switzerland Subclass DR – Balkan Peninsula Subclass DS – Asia Subclass DT – Africa Subclass DU – Oceania Subclass DX – Romanies Class E does not have any subclasses. Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything else Subclass G – Geography. Atlases. Maps Subclass GA – Mathematical geography. Cartography Subclass GB – Physical geography Subclass GC – Oceanography Subclass GE – Environmental Sciences Subclass GF – Human ecology. Anthropogeography Subclass GN – Anthropology Subclass GR – Folklore Subclass GT – Manners and customs Subclass GV – Recreation. Leisure Subclass H – Social sciences Subclass HA – Statistics Subclass HB – Economic theory. Demography Subclass HC – Economic history and conditions Subclass HD – Industries.
Land use. Labor Subclass HE – Transportation and communications Subclass HF – Commerce Subclass HG – Finance Subclass HJ – Public finance Subclass HM – Sociology Subclass HN – Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform Subclass HQ – The family. Marriage and Sexuality Subclass HS – Societies: secret, etc. Subclass HT – Communities. Classes. Races Subclass HV – Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology Subclass HX – Socialism. Communism. Anarchism Subclass J – General legislative and executive papers Subclass JA – Political science Subclass JC – Political theory Subclass JF – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JL – Political instit
Thames & Hudson
Thames & Hudson is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture and visual culture. With its headquarters in London, England, it has a sister company in New York and subsidiaries in Melbourne and Hong Kong. In Paris, it has a further subsidiary company, engaged in the distribution of English-language books and a sister company, Éditions Thames & Hudson, it has been an independent, family-owned company since its founding in 1949. Thames & Hudson's World of Art series is well-known. In particular, A Concise History of Painting: From Giotto to Cézanne by Michael Levey published in 1962, is a classic and authoritative introduction to the history of European art from the beginnings of perspective in Italy to the foundations of modern art at the start of the 20th century. Thames & Hudson employs some 200 people worldwide in the London headquarters, with an annual publishing programme that releases 180 books a year on art, architecture, three-dimensional design, gardens and textiles, history, travel and interiors, popular culture.
Thames & Hudson was established by Walter Neurath, born in Vienna in 1903, his wife Eva Neurath. He left that city, where he ran an art gallery and published illustrated books with an emphasis on education, arriving in London in 1938, he worked as production director of Adprint, a business established by fellow Viennese émigré Wolfgang Foges. Neurath and Foges went on to pioneer the concept of what is today known as book packaging, in which book ideas are conceived, commissioned and sold to publishers in different markets in their own languages and under their own imprints in order to create large print-runs and lower unit production costs. Neurath’s concept was the first sign of many innovations that through Thames & Hudson he would introduce to the world of publishing. Wishing to take co-edition book packaging further and recognizing the need to amortize the high production costs of illustrated books, Neurath established his own publishing house, incorporating offices in London and New York in the autumn of 1949.
Thus arose the company name, Thames & Hudson, the rivers represented by two dolphins symbolizing friendship and intelligence, one facing east, one west, suggesting a connection between the Old World and the New. Eva Neurath, who had arrived in London in 1939 from Berlin and worked alongside Neurath at Adprint, co-founded the company as partner. Among the ten titles that were published in Thames & Hudson’s first publication season in 1950, English Cathedrals, with photographs by Swiss Martin Hürlimann, was the first and most successful. A testament to the company’s strong belief from the start in the longevity of books, it remained in print until 1971. Appearing in the first year of publication was Albert Einstein’s Out of my years, an early indication of the publication programme’s breadth. With the gradual and successful expansion of the list, which grew from ten titles in 1950 to 144 in print in 1955, the company outgrew its High Holborn offices and moved in 1956 to a Georgian townhouse at 30 Bloomsbury Street, just off Bedford Square the epicentre of London publishing activity.
The company remained at that address expanding to five houses, until 1999. In 1958, Thames & Hudson launched what is one of its best-known series, the World of Art, which for the subsequent decades provided the backbone of its varied list. Characterized by their pocketable size and black spines – "little black artbooks" – the series expanded in just seven years to include 49 titles. More than fifty years over 300 titles have appeared in the series, many remain in print today. Other major series that imparted depth and prestige to the list were Ancient People and Places, edited by Glyn Daniel, who from the 1950s helped to pioneer a wider interest in archaeology, on television and in book form. More than 100 titles were published in the series over a 34-year period; the large-format Great Civilizations series, published from 1961, featured contributions by such esteemed academics as Alan Bullock, Asa Briggs, Hugh Trevor-Roper, A. J. P. Taylor, John Julius Norwich. On Thames & Hudson’s tenth anniversary, the UK publishing industry magazine, The Bookseller, described the company as "neither wedded to eclecticism nor dedicated to mass appeal, produced some of the most ambitious picture books published... and have sold them in a number which ten years ago would have been considered improbable and at prices which have won the surprised gratitude of thousands of readers."
Throughout its history, Thames & Hudson has led production innovation: 1958, for example, saw one of the earliest examples of the close creative integration of photographer, editor and production director working to produce a unified artist’s book, in Thrones of Earth and Heaven, in a large print-run. In 1964 the company’s production director introduced what are today known as ‘French folds’, dust jackets that are folded over on top and bottom to protect their edges. In 1974, in what The Times described as "a 1,000-year-old publishing coup", Thames & Hudson painstakingly reproduced The Book of Kells, making a commercial edition of the little-seen illuminated manuscript available around the world for the first time. In 2004 a four-volume monograph on Pritzker Prize–winning architect Zaha Hadid was published, featurin
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Austrian Empire, he qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis, he died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939. In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory, his analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression.
On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego. Freud postulated the existence of libido, a sexualised energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate and neurotic guilt. In his works, Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture. Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology and psychotherapy, across the humanities, it thus continues to generate extensive and contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute to Freud, he had created "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives."
Freud was born to Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire, the first of eight children. Both of his parents were in modern-day Ukraine, his father, Jakob Freud, a wool merchant, had two sons and Philipp, by his first marriage. Jakob's family were Hasidic Jews, although Jakob himself had moved away from the tradition, he came to be known for his Torah study, he and Freud's mother, Amalia Nathansohn, 20 years younger and his third wife, were married by Rabbi Isaac Noah Mannheimer on 29 July 1855. They were struggling financially and living in a rented room, in a locksmith's house at Schlossergasse 117 when their son Sigmund was born, he was born with a caul. In 1859, the Freud family left Freiberg. Freud's half brothers emigrated to Manchester, parting him from the "inseparable" playmate of his early childhood, Emanuel's son, John. Jakob Freud took his wife and two children firstly to Leipzig and in 1860 to Vienna where four sisters and a brother were born: Rosa, Adolfine, Alexander.
In 1865, the nine-year-old Freud entered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. He graduated from the Matura in 1873 with honors, he loved literature and was proficient in German, Italian, English, Hebrew and Greek. Freud entered the University of Vienna at age 17, he had planned to study law, but joined the medical faculty at the university, where his studies included philosophy under Franz Brentano, physiology under Ernst Brücke, zoology under Darwinist professor Carl Claus. In 1876, Freud spent four weeks at Claus's zoological research station in Trieste, dissecting hundreds of eels in an inconclusive search for their male reproductive organs. In 1877 Freud moved to Ernst Brücke's physiology laboratory where he spent six years comparing the brains of humans and other vertebrates with those of invertebrates such as frogs and lampreys, his research work on the biology of nervous tissue proved seminal for the subsequent discovery of the neuron in the 1890s. Freud's research work was interrupted in 1879 by the obligation to undertake a year's compulsory military service.
The lengthy downtimes enabled him to complete a commission to translate four essays from John Stuart Mill's collected works. He graduated with an MD in March 1881. In 1882, Freud began his medical career at the Vienna General Hospital, his research work in cerebral anatomy led to the publication of an influential paper on the palliative effects of cocaine in 1884 and his work on aphasia would form the basis of his first book On the Aphasias: a Critical Study, published in 1891. Over a three-year period, Freud worked in various departments of the hospital, his time spent in Theodor Meynert's psychiatric clinic and as a locum in a local asylum led to an increased interest in clinical work. His substantial body of published research led to his appointment as a university lecturer or docent in neuropathology in 1885, a non-salaried post but one which entitled him to give lectures at the University of Vienna. In 1886, Freud resigned his hospital post and entered private practice specializing in "nervous disorders".
The same year he married Martha Bernay
Red Riding Hood (2011 film)
Red Riding Hood is a 2011 American romance horror film directed by Catherine Hardwicke, produced by Leonardo DiCaprio and starring Amanda Seyfried as the title role, from a screenplay by David Leslie Johnson. The film is loosely based on the folk tale Little Red Riding Hood collected by both Charles Perrault under the name Le Petit Chaperon Rouge and several decades by the Brothers Grimm as Rotkäppchen; the film met with negative reviews, grossed over $89 million worldwide. Valerie lives with her parents and Suzette, sister Lucie in the village of Daggerhorn, on the edge of a forest plagued by a werewolf, she is in love with the woodcutter Peter, but her parents arrange for her to marry Henry, son of the wealthy blacksmith Adrien Lazar. Valerie and Peter plan to elope, only to learn the Wolf has broken its truce not to prey on the townspeople and murdered Lucie. Suzette tells Valerie that her marriage was arranged, that she had loved another; the preacher Father Auguste calls upon the famous witch hunter Father Solomon for help, but the townspeople decide to venture into the Wolf's lair.
Peter is separated from the group moments before the Wolf kills Adrien. The Wolf is killed. Valerie deduces that he was her love, she realizes that Lucie, the older daughter, should have been engaged to Henry but was his half-sister, the illegitimate child of Adrien and Suzette. As the village celebrates the end of the Wolf, Father Solomon arrives and declares that the slain animal is a common grey wolf, as the true werewolf would have reverted to human form, he reveals they have entered Blood Moon Week, an event every thirteen years wherein anyone bitten by the Wolf is cursed to become one. Father Solomon's men, led by The Captain, investigate the villagers; that night, the Wolf attacks, the townspeople shelter in the church while Valerie and her friend Roxanne search for Roxanne's autistic brother, Claude. Cornered by the beast, Valerie discovers she is able to understand the Wolf, who threatens to kill Roxanne and destroy the village if Valerie does not leave with it; the Wolf escapes. The next day, Claude is captured by Father Solomon's men.
Father Solomon declares Claude, whom he witnessed perform a card trick, is a student of the dark arts. In exchange for Claude’s release, Roxanne reveals that Valerie is able to communicate with the Wolf, but her brother is dead. Believing Valerie is a witch, Father Solomon displays her in the town square to lure the Wolf. Henry and Peter help Valerie escape. Father Auguste saves Henry, is killed by Father Solomon. Henry brings Valerie to the church, where they are attacked by the Wolf, who bites off Father Solomon's hand with silver-coated fingernails; the villagers shield Valerie from the Wolf, again forced to flee after burning its right paw on the church’s holy ground. The cursed Father Solomon is killed by the Captain. Valerie dreams that the Wolf is her grandmother, rushes to her nearby cabin. Finding Father Solomon's hand on the way, Valerie meets Peter. Assuming he is the wolf, she stabs him. At the cabin, Valerie discovers her father Cesaire is the Wolf, he reveals the curse was passed to him by his own father, he intended to leave the village with his children.
He tried to pass the werewolf “gift” to Lucie, but realizing he was not her father, murdered her in a fit of rage, took revenge against Adrien. He asks Valerie to accept the curse. Peter appears, Cesaire bites him and throws him aside. Peter throws an axe into Cesaire's back, allowing Valerie to kill her father with Father Solomon’s hand. Valerie and Peter dump him in the lake. Peter departs. Henry joins the Captain's monster hunters, Suzette accepts the loss of her husband, the village continues to live in fear. Valerie moves to her grandmother's house. On a full moon, Peter returns in wolf form. Under Appian Way Productions, Leonardo DiCaprio, Michael Ireland, Jennifer Davisson Killoran, Alex Mace, Julie Yorn produced the film. Early into production, the film was titled The Girl with the Red Riding Hood. Principal photography took place in Vancouver from July 21 to September 16, 2010. Due to the fact that Seyfried did not like Fernandez based on a previous encounter at a dinner party, director Catherine Hardwicke had to persuade the actress to give the actor a chance.
The original release date, set for April 22, 2011, was moved to March 11, 2011. Red Riding Hood grossed $14,005,335 in ticket sales over the opening weekend, placing at number #3, behind Battle: Los Angeles and Rango. At the end of its run in 2011, the film grossed $37,662,162 in the United States and Canada, grossed $51,500,000 internationally for a worldwide total of $89,162,162. Red Riding Hood has a 10% approval rating at review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes based on 202 appraisals, with an average score of 3.7/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Amanda Seyfried is magnetic in Red Riding Hood's starring role, but she's let down by her uninspired leading men and a painfully cliched script." Metacritic calculated a score of 29 out of 100 based on the opinions of 36 critics, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews". USA Today complimented the production design, but wrote "it
"Cinderella" or The Little Glass Slipper, is a folk tale embodying a myth-element of unjust oppression and triumphant reward. Thousands of variants are known throughout the world; the title character is a young woman living in unfortunate circumstances, that are changed to remarkable fortune. The story of Rhodopis, recounted by the Greek geographer Strabo around 7 BC, about a Greek slave girl who marries the king of Egypt, is considered to be the earliest known variant of the Cinderella story; the first literary European version of the story was published in Italy by Giambattista Basile in his Pentamerone in 1634. Another version was published by the Brothers Grimm in their folk tale collection Grimms' Fairy Tales in 1812. Although the story's title and main character's name change in different languages, in English-language folklore Cinderella is the archetypal name; the word Cinderella has, by analogy, come to mean one whose attributes were unrecognized, or one who unexpectedly achieves recognition or success after a period of obscurity and neglect.
The still-popular story of Cinderella continues to influence popular culture internationally, lending plot elements and tropes to a wide variety of media. The Aarne-Thompson-Uther system classifies Cinderella as Persecuted Heroine; the oldest known oral version of the Cinderella story is the ancient Greek story of Rhodopis, a Greek courtesan living in the colony of Naucratis in Egypt, whose name means "Rosy-Cheeks". The story is first recorded by the Greek geographer Strabo in his Geographica, The eagle snatched one of her sandals from her maid and carried it to Memphis; the same story is later reported by the Roman orator Aelian in his Miscellaneous History, written in Greek. Aelian's story resembles the story told by Strabo, but adds that the name of the pharaoh in question was Psammetichus. Aelian's account indicates. Herodotus, some five centuries before Strabo, records a popular legend about a possibly-related courtesan named Rhodopis in his Histories, claiming that Rhodopis came from Thrace, was the slave of Iadmon of Samos, a fellow-slave of the story-teller Aesop and that she was taken to Egypt in the time of Pharaoh Amasis, freed there for a large sum by Charaxus of Mytilene, brother of Sappho the lyric poet.
The twelfth-century AD lai of Le Fresne, retold by Marie de France, is a variant of the "Cinderella" story in which a wealthy noblewoman abandons her infant daughter at the base of an ash tree outside a nunnery with a ring and brocade as tokens of her identity, because she is one of twin sisters the mother fears that she will be accused of infidelity. The infant is discovered by the porter, who names her Fresne, meaning "Ash Tree", she is raised by the nuns. After she has attained maturity, a young nobleman becomes her lover; the nobleman, however, is forced to marry a woman of noble birth. Fresne accepts that she will never marry her beloved, but waits in the wedding chamber as a handmaiden, she covers the bed with her own brocade, unbeknownst to her, her beloved's bride is her twin sister, her mother recognizes the brocade as the same one she had given to the daughter she had abandoned so many years before. Fresne's true parentage is revealed and, as a result of her noble birth, she is allowed to marry her beloved, while her twin sister is married to a different nobleman.
A version of the story, Ye Xian, appeared in Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang by Duan Chengshi around 860. In this version, the protagonist is Ye Xian, a hardworking and lovely girl, who befriends a fish, the reincarnation of her deceased mother, her stepmother and sister kill the fish, but Ye Xian saves the bones, which are magic, they help her dress appropriately for the New Year Festival. Her stepfamily recognizes her at the festival, causing her to flee and accidentally lose her slipper. Afterwards, the king falls in love with her. Variants of the story are found in many ethnic groups in China; the existing version of the Japanese tale dates back only the 13th century, but mention of it occurs in the early 11th-century Genji Monogatari. Sumiyoshi refers to a shrine in the Osaka area. There in the shrine the Cinderella figure has taken refuge, when her lover, following a dream, is reunited with her. Several different variants of the story appear in the medieval One Thousand and One Nights known as the Arabian Nights, including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders.
In some of these, the siblings are female. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers; the Story of Tam and Cam
Stephen Joshua Sondheim is an American composer and lyricist known for more than a half-century of contributions to musical theatre. Sondheim has received an Academy Award, eight Tony Awards, eight Grammy Awards, a Pulitzer Prize, a Laurence Olivier Award, a 2015 Presidential Medal of Freedom, he has been described by Frank Rich of The New York Times as "now the greatest and best-known artist in the American musical theater". His best-known works as composer and lyricist include A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, Follies, A Little Night Music, Pacific Overtures, Sweeney Todd, Merrily We Roll Along, Sunday in the Park with George, Into the Woods and Passion, he wrote the lyrics for West Side Story and Gypsy. Sondheim has written film music, he wrote five songs for 1990's Dick Tracy, including "Sooner or Later," sung in the film by Madonna, which won the Academy Award for Best Original Song. Sondheim was president of the Dramatists Guild from 1973 to 1981. To celebrate his 80th birthday, the former Henry Miller's Theatre was renamed the Stephen Sondheim Theatre on September 15, 2010, the BBC Proms held a concert in his honor.
Cameron Mackintosh has called Sondheim "possibly the greatest lyricist ever". Sondheim was born into a Jewish family in the son of Etta Janet and Herbert Sondheim, his father manufactured dresses designed by his mother. The composer grew up on the Upper West Side of Manhattan and, after his parents divorced, on a farm near Doylestown, Pennsylvania; as the only child of well-to-do parents living in the San Remo on Central Park West, he was described in Meryle Secrest's biography as an isolated neglected child. When he lived in New York, Sondheim attended ECFS, the Ethical Culture Fieldston School known as "Fieldston", he attended the New York Military Academy and George School, a private Quaker preparatory school in Bucks County, Pennsylvania where he wrote his first musical, By George, from which he graduated in 1946. Sondheim spent several summers at Camp Androscoggin, he matriculated to Williams College and graduated in 1950. He traces his interest in theatre to Very Warm for May, a Broadway musical.
"The curtain went up and revealed a piano," Sondheim recalled. "A butler brushed it up, tinkling the keys. I thought, thrilling."When Sondheim was ten years old, his father had left his mother for another woman. Herbert was unsuccessful. Sondheim explained to biographer Secrest that he was "what they call an institutionalized child, meaning one who has no contact with any kind of family. You're in, though it's luxurious, you're in an environment that supplies you with everything but human contact. No brothers and sisters, no parents, yet plenty to eat, friends to play with and a warm bed, you know?" Sondheim detested his mother, said to be psychologically abusive and projected her anger from her failed marriage on her son: "When my father left her, she substituted me for him. And she used me the way she used him, to come on to and to berate, beat up on, you see. What she did for five years was treat me like dirt, but come on to me at the same time." She once wrote him a letter saying that the "only regret had was giving him birth".
When his mother died in the spring of 1992, Sondheim did not attend her funeral. He had been estranged from her for nearly 20 years; when Sondheim was about ten years old, he became friends with James Hammerstein, son of lyricist and playwright Oscar Hammerstein II. The elder Hammerstein became Sondheim's surrogate father, influencing him profoundly and developing his love of musical theatre. Sondheim met Hal Prince, who would direct many of his shows, at the opening of South Pacific, Hammerstein's musical with Richard Rodgers; the comic musical he wrote at George School, By George, was a success among his peers and buoyed the young songwriter's self-esteem. When Sondheim asked Hammerstein to evaluate it as though he had no knowledge of its author, he said it was the worst thing he had seen: "But if you want to know why it's terrible, I'll tell you." They spent the rest of the day going over the musical, Sondheim said, "In that afternoon I learned more about songwriting and the musical theater than most people learn in a lifetime."Hammerstein designed a course of sorts for Sondheim on constructing a musical.
He had the young composer write four musicals, each with one of the following conditions: Based on a play he admired Based on a play he liked but thought flawed. High Tor and Mary Poppins have never been produced: The rights holder for the original High Tor refused permission, Mary Poppins was unfinished. Sondheim began attending Williams College, a liberal arts college in Williamstown, Massachusetts whose theatre program attracted him, his first teacher there was Robert Barrow:... everybody hated him because he was dry, I thought he was
A paperback known as a softcover or سعيد, is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, held together with glue rather than stitches or staples. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth; the pages on the inside are made of paper. Inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets, dime novels, airport novels. Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size. In the U. S. there are "mass-market paperbacks" and larger, more durable "trade paperbacks." In the U. K. there are A-format, B-format, the largest C-format sizes. Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper. Paperbacks can be the preferred medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, newer editions or reprintings of older books.
Since paperbacks tend to have a smaller profit margin, many publishers try to balance the profit to be made by selling fewer hardcovers against the potential profit to be made by selling more paperbacks with a smaller profit per unit. First editions of many modern books genre fiction, are issued in paperback. Best-selling books, on the other hand, may maintain sales in hardcover for an extended period to reap the greater profits that the hardcovers provide; the early 19th century saw numerous improvements in the printing and book-distribution processes, with the introduction of steam-powered printing presses, pulp mills, automatic type setting, a network of railways. These innovations enabled the likes of Simms and McIntyre of Belfast, Routledge & Sons and Ward & Lock to mass-produce cheap uniform yellowback or paperback editions of existing works, distribute and sell them across the British Isles, principally via the ubiquitous W H Smith & Sons newsagent found at most urban British railway stations.
These paper bound volumes were offered for sale at a fraction of the historic cost of a book, were of a smaller format, 110 mm × 178 mm, aimed at the railway traveller. The Routledge's Railway Library series of paperbacks remained in print until 1898, offered the traveling public 1,277 unique titles; the German-language market supported examples of cheap paper-bound books: Bernhard Tauchnitz started the Collection of British and American Authors in 1841. These inexpensive, paperbound editions, a direct precursor to mass-market paperbacks ran to over 5,000 volumes. Reclam published Shakespeare in this format from October 1857 and went on to pioneer the mass-market paper-bound Universal-Bibliothek series from 10 November 1867; the German publisher Albatross Books revised the 20th-century mass-market paperback format in 1931, but the approach of World War II cut the experiment short. It proved an immediate financial success in the United Kingdom in 1935 when Penguin Books adopted many of Albatross' innovations, including a conspicuous logo and color-coded covers for different genres.
British publisher Allen Lane invested his own financial capital to launch the Penguin Books imprint in 1935, initiating the paperback revolution in the English-language book-market by releasing ten reprint titles. The first released book on Penguin's 1935 list was André Maurois' Ariel. Lane intended to produce inexpensive books, he purchased paperback rights from publishers, ordered large print runs to keep unit prices low, looked to non-traditional book-selling retail locations. Booksellers were reluctant to buy his books, but when Woolworths placed a large order, the books sold well. After that initial success, booksellers showed more willingness to stock paperbacks, the name "Penguin" became associated with the word "paperback". In 1939, Robert de Graaf issued a similar line in the United States, partnering with Simon & Schuster to create the Pocket Books label; the term "pocket book" became synonymous with paperback in English-speaking North America. In French, the term livre de poche is still in use today.
De Graaf, like Lane, negotiated paperback rights from other publishers, produced many runs. His practices contrasted with those of Lane by his adoption of illustrated covers aimed at the North American market. To reach an broader market than Lane, he used distribution networks of newspapers and magazines, which had a lengthy history of being aimed at mass audiences; because of its number-one position in what became a long list of pocket editions, James Hilton's Lost Horizon is cited as the first American paperback book. However, the first mass-market, pocket-sized, paperback book printed in the US was an edition of Pearl Buck's The Good Earth, produced by Pocket Books as a proof-of-concept in late 1938, sold in New York City. In World War II, the U. S. military distributed some 122 million "Armed Services Editions" paperback novels to the troops, which helped popularize the format after the war. Through the circulation of the paperback in kiosks and bookstores and intellectual knowledge was able to reach the masses.
This occurred at the same time that the masses were starting to attend university, leading to the student revolts of 1968 prompting open access to knowledge. The paperback book meant that more people were able to and access knowledge and this led to people wanting more and more of it; this accessibility posed a threat to the wealthy by imposing that