Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Indira Anne Varma is an English actress. Her film debut and first major role was in Kama Sutra: A Tale of Love, she has gone on to appear in the television series The Canterbury Tales, Luther, Human Target, Game of Thrones. In September 2016, she began starring in the ITV/Netflix series Paranoid, as DS Nina Suresh. Varma was born in Bath, the only child of an Indian father and a Swiss mother, of part Genoese Italian descent, she was a member of Musical Youth Theatre Company and graduated from the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, in 1995. Varma, a method actress, has had a number of television and film roles, including Kama Sutra: A Tale of Love in 1996 and Bride and Prejudice in 2004, the young Roman wife Niobe during the first season of BBC/HBO's historical drama series Rome, her character appeared in the second season of the award-winning series when it aired on 14 January 2007. In 2006, she played Suzie Costello in the first and eighth episodes, "Everything Changes" and "They Keep Killing Suzie", of BBC Three's science-fiction drama series Torchwood.
She appeared as Dr Adrienne Holland in the CBS medical drama 3 lbs which premiered on 14 November 2006 and was cancelled on 30 November 2006 due to poor ratings. Varma guest starred in the fourth-season premiere of hit US detective drama Bones as Scotland Yard Inspector Cate Pritchard, she played the role of Zoe Luther in the first series of the BBC drama Luther. Varma played the role of Ilsa Pucci in the second season of the Fox series Human Target until the show was cancelled on 10 May 2011. Varma played the role of Ellaria Sand, the paramour of Oberyn Martell in season 4 of the HBO show Game of Thrones, reprised the role in seasons 5, 6 and 7, she lent her voice to the Circle mage Vivienne, in the 2014 role-playing video game Dragon Age: Inquisition. On, she gave her voice to Katherine Proudmoore in Battle for Azeroth, the most recent expansion in the MMO role-playing game World of Warcraft. In 2016, she played the lead role of DC Nina Suresh in the eight-episode British television drama Paranoid, streamed worldwide on Netflix.
In 1997, Varma played Bianca in Shakespeare's Othello at the National London. In 2000 to 2001, she appeared in Harold Pinter and Di Trevis's NT stage adaptation of Pinter's The Proust Screenplay, Remembrance of Things Past, based on À la recherche du temps perdu, by Marcel Proust. In the summer of 2001, she played Gila in One for the Road, by Harold Pinter, at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City. In 2002, she played Sasha Lebedieff in Ivanov by Anton Chekhov at the National Theatre and Bunty Mainwaring in The Vortex by Noël Coward at the Donmar Theatre, London. In 2004, she played Sabina in The Skin of Our Teeth by Thornton Wilder at the Young Vic Theatre Theatre, London. In 2008, she played Nadia Baliye in The Vertical Hour by David Hare at the Royal Court Theatre London. In 2009, she played Olivia in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night with Donmar West End at Wyndham's Theatre, London. In 2012, she played Jessica in Terry Johnson's Hysteria at the Theatre Bath. In 2013 she played Miss Cutts in The Hothouse by Harold Pinter in the Trafalgar Transformed season at Trafalgar Studios.
In 2014, Varma played Tamora, Queen of the Goths, in Lucy Bailey's "gore-fest" production of Titus Andronicus at Shakespeare's Globe. In 2015, she appeared alongside Ralph Fiennes in George Bernard Shaw's Man and Superman at the National Theatre. Varma and her husband Colin Tierney, live with their daughter Evelyn in Hornsey north London. Indira Varma on IMDb Indira Varma on Twitter
Samuel Alexander Mendes is an English stage and film director best known for directing the drama film American Beauty, which earned him the Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Director, the crime film Road to Perdition, the James Bond films Skyfall and Spectre. He is known for dark re-inventions of the stage musicals Cabaret, Oliver!, Gypsy. He directed an original West End stage musical for the first time with Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. In 2000 Mendes was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II for "services to drama" and in the same year was awarded the Shakespeare Prize by the Alfred Toepfer Foundation in Hamburg, Germany. In 2005, he received a lifetime achievement award from the Directors Guild of Great Britain. In 2008 The Daily Telegraph ranked him number 15 in their list of the "100 most powerful people in British culture". Mendes was born in Berkshire, his father, from Trinidad, is a Roman Catholic of Portuguese Creole descent, his mother is an English Jew.
His grandfather was the Trinidadian writer Alfred Hubert Mendes. Mendes's parents divorced, he grew up in Oxfordshire and attended Magdalen College School and Peterhouse, where he graduated with a first in English. While at Cambridge, he was a member of the Marlowe Society and directed several plays, including a production of Cyrano de Bergerac with Tom Hollander among the cast members, he was a "brilliant" schoolboy cricketer, according to Wisden and played for Magdalen College School in 1983 and 1984. He played cricket for Cambridge University. Aged 24 Mendes directed a production of Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard in the West End that starred Judi Dench. Soon he joined the Royal Shakespeare Company, where his productions, many of them featuring Simon Russell Beale, included Troilus and Cressida, Richard III and The Tempest, he worked at the Chichester Festival Theatre in 1988 as assistant director on a number of productions, including Major Barbara, directing in "The Tent", the second venue. He directed at the Royal National Theatre, helming Edward Bond's The Sea, Jim Cartwright's The Rise and Fall of Little Voice, Harold Pinter's The Birthday Party, Othello with Simon Russell Beale as Iago.
In 1990 Mendes was appointed artistic director of the Donmar Warehouse, a studio space in London's Covent Garden which he helped transform into one of the city's more notable theatre venues. He spent his first two years overseeing the redesign of the theatre, his opening production was Stephen Sondheim's Assassins in 1992. Several successful productions followed. In 1993 Mendes staged an acclaimed revival of John Kander and Fred Ebb's Cabaret starring Jane Horrocks as Sally Bowles, Alan Cumming as Emcee, Adam Godley as Cliff Bradshaw and Sara Kestelman as Frau Schneider; the production was approached with a fresh concept, differing from both the original 1966 production directed by Harold Prince and the famed film version, directed by Bob Fosse. This production opened at the Donmar and received four Olivier Award nominations including Best Musical Revival, before transferring promptly to Broadway where it played for several years at the Kit Kat Club; the Broadway cast included Cumming once again as Emcee, with Natasha Richardson as Sally, Mary Louise Wilson as Frau Schneider and John Benjamin Hickey as Cliff.
Cumming and Richardson won Tony Awards for their performances. 1994 saw Mendes stage a new production of Lionel Bart's Oliver!, produced by Cameron Mackintosh. Mendes, a longtime fan of the work, worked in close collaboration with Bart and other production team members, William David Brohn, Martin Koch and Anthony Ward, to create a fresh staging of the well-known classic. Bart added new musical material and Mendes updated the book while the orchestrations were radically rewritten to suit the show's cinematic feel; the cast included Jonathan Pryce as Fagin, Sally Dexter as Nancy, Miles Anderson as Bill Sikes. Mendes and Dexter received Olivier Award nominations for their work on Oliver!. He has directed productions of Tennessee Williams' The Glass Menagerie, Stephen Sondheim's Company, Alan Bennett's Habeas Corpus and his farewell duo of Chekhov's Uncle Vanya and Twelfth Night, which transferred to the Brooklyn Academy of Music. In 2003 Mendes directed a revival of the musical Gypsy, he planned to stage this production in London's West End with an eventual Broadway transfer, but when negotiations fell through, he brought it to New York.
The cast included Tammy Blanchard as Louise and John Dossett as Herbie. Mendes directed the 2014 Olivier Award-nominated stage adaptation of Roald Dahl's Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Mendes directed Jez Butterworth's The Ferryman for the Royal Court Theatre in London in 2017, for which he won an Olivier Award for best director. In 1999 Mendes made his film directorial debut with American Beauty; the film grossed $356.3 million worldwide. The film won the BAFTA Award and the Academy Award for Best Picture. Mendes won the Golden Globe Award, Directors Guild of America Award, the Academy Award for Best Director, becoming the sixth director to earn the Academy Award for his feature film debut. Mendes's second film, in 2002, was Road to Perdition; the aggregate review score on Rotten Tomatoes is 81%. The film was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Supporting Actor, won one for Best Cinematography. In 2003 Mendes established Neal S
The Reader (2008 film)
The Reader is a 2008 German-American romantic drama film directed by Stephen Daldry and written by David Hare, based on the 1995 German novel of the same name by Bernhard Schlink. Ralph Fiennes and Kate Winslet star along with the young actor David Kross, it was the last film for producers Anthony Minghella and Sydney Pollack, both of whom died prior to its release. Production began in Germany in September 2007, the film opened in limited release on December 10, 2008; the film tells the story of Michael Berg, a German lawyer who, as a mid-teenager in 1958, has an affair with an older woman, Hanna Schmitz, who disappears only to resurface years as one of the defendants in a war crimes trial stemming from her actions as a guard at a Nazi concentration camp. Michael realizes that Hanna is keeping a personal secret she believes is worse than her Nazi past – a secret which, if revealed, could help her at the trial. Winslet and Kross, who plays the young Michael, received acclaim for their performances.
The film itself was nominated for several other major awards, including the Academy Award for Best Picture. In 1995 Berlin, after a woman he has spent the night with leaves his apartment abruptly after he has made her breakfast, Michael Berg watches a U-Bahn pass by, setting up a flashback to a tram in 1958. In the flashback, as a 15-year-old boy, Michael feels sick while wandering the streets. Pausing nearby an apartment building he vomits. Hanna Schmitz, a tram conductor returning home, helps him return home. Michael, diagnosed with scarlet fever, recuperates at home, once recovered, he visits Hanna with flowers to thank her; the 36-year-old Hanna seduces him, they begin an affair. They spend much of their time together having sex in her apartment after she has had Michael read to her from literary works he is studying. After a bicycling trip with Michael, Hanna learns that she was promoted to a clerical job at the tram company's office, upon which she leaves her home, without telling Michael or anyone else where she has moved to.
In 1966, Michael is at Heidelberg University Law School. As part of a special seminar, the students observe a trial of several women accused of letting 300 Jewish women die in a burning church when they were SS guards on the death march following the 1944 evacuation of a concentration camp near Krakow. Michael is stunned to see; the key evidence in the trial is the testimony of Ilana Mather, author of a memoir relating how she and her mother, who testifies, survived. She describes. Hanna, unlike her co-defendants, admits that Auschwitz was an extermination camp and that the 10 women she chose during each month's Selektion were gassed, she denied however. Requested to provide a handwriting sample, she admits the charge, rather than to comply with the handwriting test. Michael realizes Hanna's secret: she is illiterate, a fact she has been concealing all her life; the other guards who blamed the written report on her are lying to clear themselves. Michael informs the law professor of the favorable fact, but since the defendant herself has chosen to not disclose it, the professor is not sure what to do about it.
Michael, though permitted to visit Hanna, leaves the prison, without seeing her. Hanna receives a life sentence for her admitted leadership role in the church deaths, while the other defendants are sentenced to four years and three months each. Michael, marries, has a daughter, divorces. Retrieving his books from the time of his and Hanna's affair, he begins reading them into a tape recorder, which he sends to Hanna, she begins borrowing books from the prison library and teaches herself to read and write by following along with Michael's tapes. She starts writing back to Michael, first in brief, childlike notes, as time goes by, her letters reflect her improving literacy. In 1988, a prison official telephones him to seek his help with Hanna's transition into society after her upcoming early release for good behavior. Having no family or other relations, he finds a place for her to live and a job, visits Hanna towards her release. In their meeting, Michael remains somewhat distant, inquiring about what she has learnt from her past, to which she replies just "It doesn't matter what I feel and it doesn't matter what I think.
The dead are still dead". Michael arrives at the prison on the date of Hanna's release with flowers only to realize that Hanna hanged herself, she has left a tea tin with cash inside and a note asking him to deposit the money in a bank account to Ilana, whose memoir relating her dreadful experiences in the concentration camp, Hanna has read. Michael travels to New York City where he confesses his relationship with Hanna, he tells her about Hanna's illiteracy. Ilana tells Michael there is nothing to be learned from the camps and refuses the money, whereupon Michael suggests that it be donated to any Jewish welfare organization which he sees fit. Ilana keeps the tea tin, similar to the one stolen from her in Auschwitz; the movie ends with Michael driving Julia, his daughter, to Hanna's grave and telling her their story. Kate Winslet as Hanna Schmitz Ralph Fiennes as the older Michael Berg David Kross as the younger Michael Berg Bruno Ganz as Professor Rohl, a Holocaust survivor Alexandra Maria Lara as Ilana Mather, a former victim of a concentration camp Lena Olin as Rose
Andrew Scott (actor)
Andrew Scott is an Irish film and stage actor. In 2010, he achieved widespread recognition playing the role of Jim Moriarty in the BBC series Sherlock, a dramatic role which continued until 2017. In 2017 he won acclaim playing the title role of Hamlet in a production first staged at the Almeida Theatre, directed by Robert Icke, for which he has been nominated for a 2018 Olivier Award for Best Actor. Scott has received various awards including two Laurence Olivier Award for Outstanding Achievement in an Affiliate Theatre for his roles in A Girl in a Car with a Man at the Royal Court Theatre, along with his role in Cock at the Royal Court, he has won two IFTA awards for his roles in the films Dead Bodies and The Stag, a British Academy Television Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in Sherlock, a BIFA Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in Pride, two BBC Audio Drama Awards for his radio work. Scott was born in Ireland, his father, worked in an employment agency, his mother, was an art teacher.
He has an older sister, Sarah, a sports coach, a younger sister, Hannah. Scott attended Gonzaga College, a private Jesuit Catholic school for boys on the south side of Dublin, he took Saturday classes at a drama school for children, appeared in two ads on Irish television. At seventeen, he was chosen for a starring role in Korea. Scott won a bursary to art school, but elected to study drama at Trinity College, leaving after six months to join Dublin's Abbey Theatre, he once stated to the London Evening Standard magazine that he always had a "healthy obsession" with acting. After filming a small part in Steven Spielberg's Saving Private Ryan, Scott worked with film and theatre director Karel Reisz in the Gate Theatre, production of Long Day's Journey into Night taking the role of Edmund, the younger son, in the Eugene O'Neill play about a tortured American family in the early part of the 20th century, he won Actor of the Year at the Sunday Independent Spirit of Life Arts Awards 1998 and received an Irish Times Theatre Award 1998 nomination for Best Supporting Actor.
Scott appeared in the small part of Michael Bodkin in the film Nora, with Ewan McGregor, in a television adaptation of Henry James's The American, alongside Diana Rigg and Matthew Modine, before making his London theatre debut in Conor McPherson's Dublin Carol with Brian Cox at the Royal Court Theatre. He was cast in the BAFTA winning drama Longitude, opposite Michael Gambon, the HBO miniseries Band of Brothers. Scott has described the working atmosphere on Band of Brothers as "awful". In 2004, he was named one of European Film Promotions' Shooting Stars. After starring in My Life in Film for the BBC, he received his first Olivier award for his role in A Girl in a Car with a Man at The Royal Court, the Theatregoers' Choice Award for his performance in the National Theatre's Aristocrats, he created the roles of the twin brothers in the original Royal Court production of Christopher Shinn's Dying City, nominated for the Pulitzer Prize. In 2006, he made his Broadway debut opposite Julianne Moore and Bill Nighy in the Music Box Theater production of The Vertical Hour written by David Hare and directed by Sam Mendes, for which he was nominated for a Drama League Award.
In 2008, Scott appeared as Col. William Smith in the HBO miniseries John Adams, opposite Laura Linney and Paul Giamatti. Mamie Gummer, Meryl Streep's daughter, played his sister. In 2009, he appeared in Sea Wall, a one-man show written for him by playwright Simon Stephens, he starred alongside Ben Whishaw, Katherine Parkinson and Paul Jesson in a sell-out run of Cock at the Royal Court in late 2009, a production which won an Olivier Award in 2010. He has been seen in Foyle's War as a prisoner determined to allow himself to hang for a crime he may not have committed, described in Slant magazine as a "standout performance." Other film appearances included a role in Chasing Cotards, the short film, Silent Things and as Paul McCartney in the BBC film Lennon Naked. He starred in the critically acclaimed 2010 film The Duel, he is most well known as Sherlock Holmes' nemesis Moriarty in the BBC drama series Sherlock, he had a guest role in the second series of Garrow's Law playing a gay man on trial for sodomy.
In 2010, he appeared with Lisa Dillon and Tom Burke in the Old Vic comedy about a three-way love affair, Noël Coward's Design for Living. In 2011, he played the lead role of Julian in Ben Power's adaptation of Henrik Ibsen's epic Emperor and Galilean at the National Theatre in London, he had a part in BBC2's original drama The Hour as a failed, secretly gay, actor. In addition to his stage and TV work, Scott is known for his voice acting in radio plays and audiobooks, such as the roles of Jay Gatsby in Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby and Stephen Dedalus in James Joyce's Ulysses. In November 2013, Scott took part in the National Theatre's 50 Years on Stage, a theatrical event which consisted of excerpts from many plays over the National's fifty-year run and was broadcast live on television. Scott performed a scene from Angels in America by Tony Kushner alongside Dominic Cooper. Scott has described the experience as'overwhelming', adding,'What a night and what an honour to be there.'In 2014 Scott took to the stage in Birdland, written by Simon Stephens and directed by Carrie Cracknell at the Royal Court Theatre, playing the central character of Paul, a rock star at the pinnacle of his career on the verge of a breakdown.
Scott received positive reviews for the performance, with comments such as'beautifully played' and' pulls off the brilliant trick of being dead behind the eyes and fascinating at the same time, an appalling creat
Julianne Moore is an American actress and children's author. Prolific in film since the early 1990s, she is known for her portrayals of troubled women in both independent and Hollywood films, has received many accolades, including the Academy Award for Best Actress. After studying theatre at Boston University, Moore began her career with a series of television roles. From 1985 to 1988, she was a regular in the soap opera As the World Turns, earning a Daytime Emmy Award for her performance, her film debut was in Tales from the Darkside: The Movie, she continued to play small roles for the next four years, including in the thriller The Hand That Rocks the Cradle. Moore first received critical attention with Robert Altman's Short Cuts, successive performances in Vanya on 42nd Street and Safe continued this acclaim. Starring roles in the blockbusters Nine Months and The Lost World: Jurassic Park established her as a leading lady in Hollywood. Moore received considerable recognition in the late 1990s and early 2000s, earning Oscar nominations for Boogie Nights, The End of the Affair, Far from Heaven and The Hours.
In the first of these, she played a 1970s pornographic actress, while the other three featured her as an unhappy, mid-20th century housewife. She had success with the films The Big Lebowski, Hannibal, Children of Men, A Single Man, The Kids Are All Right, Crazy, Stupid and won several awards for her portrayal of Sarah Palin in the television film Game Change. Moore went on to give an Academy Award-winning performance as an Alzheimer's patient in Still Alice and was named Best Actress at the Cannes Film Festival for Maps to the Stars, she appeared in the final two films of The Hunger Games series and starred in the spy film Kingsman: The Golden Circle. In addition to acting, Moore has written a series of children's books about a character named "Freckleface Strawberry", she is married to director Bart Freundlich. Moore was born Julie Anne Smith on December 3, 1960, at the Fort Bragg army installation in North Carolina, the oldest of 3 siblings, her father, Peter Moore Smith, a paratrooper in the United States Army during the Vietnam War, attained the rank of colonel and became a military judge.
Her Scottish mother, was a psychologist and social worker from Greenock, who emigrated to the United States in 1951 with her family. Moore has a younger sister, Valerie Smith, a younger brother, the novelist Peter Moore Smith; as Moore is half-Scottish, she claimed British citizenship in 2011 to honor her deceased mother. Moore moved around the United States as a child, due to her father's occupation, she was close to her family as a result, but has said she never had the feeling of coming from one particular place. The family lived in multiple locations, including Alabama, Texas, Nebraska, New York, Virginia, Moore attended nine different schools; the constant relocating made her an insecure child, she struggled to establish friendships. Despite these difficulties, Moore remarked that an itinerant lifestyle was beneficial to her future career: "When you move around a lot, you learn that behavior is mutable. I would change, depending on where I was... It teaches you to watch, to reinvent, that character can change."When Moore was 16, the family moved from Falls Church, where Moore had been attending J.
E. B. Stuart High School, to Frankfurt, where she attended Frankfurt American High School, she was clever and studious, a self-proclaimed "good girl", she planned to become a doctor. She had never considered performing, or attended the theatre, but she was an avid reader and it was this hobby that led her to begin acting at the school, she appeared in several plays, including Tartuffe and Medea, with the encouragement of her English teacher, she chose to pursue a theatrical career. Moore's parents supported her decision, but asked that she train at university to provide the added security of a college degree, she was accepted to Boston University and graduated with a BFA in Theatre in 1983. Moore moved to New York City after graduating, worked as a waitress. After registering her stage name with Actors' Equity, she began her career in 1985 with off-Broadway theatre, her first screen role came in an episode of the soap opera The Edge of Night. Her break came the following year. Playing the dual roles of half-sisters Frannie and Sabrina Hughes, she found this intensive work to be an important learning experience, she said of it fondly: "I gained confidence and learned to take responsibility."
Moore performed on the show until 1988, when she won a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Ingenue in a Drama Series. Before leaving As the World Turns, she had a role in the 1987 CBS miniseries I'll Take Manhattan. Once she had finished the soap opera, she turned to the stage to play Ophelia in a Guthrie Theater production of Hamlet opposite Željko Ivanek; the actress returned intermittently to television over the next three years, appearing in the TV movies Money, Murder, The Last to Go, Cast a Deadly Spell. In 1990, Moore began working with stage director Andre Gregory on a workshop theatre production of Chekhov's Uncle Vanya. Described by Moore as "one of the most fundamentally important acting experiences I had", the group spent four years exploring the text and giving intimate performances to friends. In 1990, Moore made her cinematic debut as a mummy's victim in Tales from the Darksid
The Corrections is a 2001 novel by American author Jonathan Franzen. It revolves around the troubles of an elderly Midwestern couple and their three adult children, tracing their lives from the mid-20th century to "one last Christmas" together near the turn of the millennium; the novel was awarded the National Book Award in 2001 and the James Tait Black Memorial Prize in 2002. The Corrections was published to widespread acclaim from literary critics; the sense of anxiety and apprehension found in its characters has been compared with those of Americans following the September 11 terrorist attacks, despite the novel's release having preceded that event by ten days. As a result, many have interpreted the novel as having prescient insight into the mood of post-9/11 American life, numerous publications have ranked it with the best works of contemporary fiction; the Corrections explores the lives of the Lamberts, a traditional and somewhat repressed Midwestern family whose children have fled to the East Coast to start new lives free from the influence of their parents.
Chronologically, the novel shifts back and forth throughout the late 20th century, depicting in detail the personal growth and mistakes of each family member. Alfred Lambert is a railroad engineer and the stern patriarch of the Lambert family, based in an unnamed suburb of the fictional Midwestern city of St. Jude. After his children grow up and move to the East Coast, Alfred retires, but soon begins to suffer from Parkinson's disease, causing his ordered, strict personality to fracture. Alfred's loyal wife Enid has long suffered from his authoritarian behavior, her life is made more difficult by Alfred's worsening dementia, she is concerned by their three children's questionable life choices, as well as their abandonment of traditional Protestant values. Gary, the eldest Lambert son, is a alcoholic banker in Philadelphia, his family suspects. Chip, the middle child, is a Marxist academic whose disastrous affair with a student loses him a tenure-track university teaching position. Denise, the youngest of the family, is a successful chef in Philadelphia but loses her job after separate secret affairs with her boss and his wife.
As the economic boom of the late 1990s goes into full swing, the family's problems become impossible to ignore. The separate plot-lines converge on Christmas morning back in St. Jude, when Enid and her children are forced to confront Alfred's accelerating physical and mental decline; the title of The Corrections refers most to the decline of the technology-driven economic boom of the late nineties. Franzen makes this clear at the beginning of the book's final chapter titled "The Corrections": The Correction, when it came, was not an overnight bursting of a bubble but a much more gentle let-down, a year-long leakage of value from key financial markets... This economic correction parallels the simultaneous "corrections" that Franzen's characters make to their own lives in the novel's final pages. Franzen has said that "the most important corrections of the book are the sudden impingements of truth or reality on characters who are expending larger sums of energy on self-deception or denial." Enid becomes more flexible in her worldview and less submissive to her husband's authority, Chip begins a more mature relationship with a woman reconciling with his father.
Gary, the only central character who fails to learn from his mistakes and grow during the course of the novel, loses a lot of money as technology stocks begin to decline. Another key theme in the book is America's transition from an industrial economy to an economy based on the financial, high-tech and service sectors. Alfred, a railroad engineer with a pension and a deep loyalty to his company, embodies the old economic order of mid-twentieth century America, his children, a chef, an investment banker, a professor/internet entrepreneur, embody the new economic order at the turn of the millennium. Franzen depicts this economic transition most concretely in his descriptions of Denise's workplace, an abandoned Philadelphia coal plant converted into a trendy, expensive restaurant; the narrative of Chip's involvement with Gitanas' attempt to bring the country of Lithuania to the market – "lithuania.com" on the internet – comments on unrestrained capitalism and the privileges and power of the wealthy while meaningful distinctions between private and public sectors disappear.
"The main difference between America and Lithuania, as far as Chip could see, was that in America the wealthy few subdued the unwealthy many by means of mind-numbing and soul-killing entertainments and gadgetry and pharmaceuticals, whereas in Lithuania the powerful few subdued the unpowerful many by threatening violence."The book addresses conflicts and issues within a family that arise from the presence of a progressive debilitating disease of an elder. As Alfred's dementia and parkinsonism unfold mercilessly, they affect Enid and all three children, eliciting different and, over time, changing reactions. Medical help and hype – the latter in the form of the investigatory method “Corecktall” – do not provide a solution. At the end, Alfred dies, the ultimate "correction" of the problem; the novel won the 2001 National Book Award for Fiction and the 2002 James Tait Black Memorial Prize, was a finalist for the 2002 Pulitzer Prize, was nominated for the 2001 National Book Critics Circle Award for Fiction and the 2002 PEN/Faulkner Award, was shortlisted for the 2003 International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award