Eric Arthur Blair, better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist and critic, whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism, outspoken support of democratic socialism. Orwell wrote literary criticism, poetry and polemical journalism, he is best known for the allegorical novella Animal Farm and the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. His non-fiction works, including The Road to Wigan Pier, documenting his experience of working class life in the north of England, Homage to Catalonia, an account of his experiences on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War, are acclaimed, as are his essays on politics, literature and culture. In 2008, The Times ranked him second on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Orwell's work continues to influence popular and political culture and the term "Orwellian"—descriptive of totalitarian or authoritarian social practices—has entered the language together with many of his neologisms, including "Big Brother", "Thought Police", "Hate week", "Room 101", "memory hole", "newspeak", "doublethink", "proles", "unperson" and "thoughtcrime".
Eric Arthur Blair was born on 25 June 1903 in Motihari, British India. His great-grandfather, Charles Blair, was a wealthy country gentleman in Dorset who married Lady Mary Fane, daughter of the Earl of Westmorland, had income as an absentee landlord of plantations in Jamaica, his grandfather, Thomas Richard Arthur Blair, was a clergyman. Although the gentility passed down the generations, the prosperity did not, his father, Richard Walmesley Blair, worked in the Opium Department of the Indian Civil Service. His mother, Ida Mabel Blair, grew up in Moulmein, where her French father was involved in speculative ventures. Eric had two sisters: Marjorie, five years older; when Eric was one year old, his mother his sisters to England. His birthplace and ancestral house in Motihari has been declared a protected monument of historical importance. In 1904 Ida Blair settled with her children at Henley-on-Thames in Oxfordshire. Eric was brought up in the company of his mother and sisters, apart from a brief visit in mid-1907, the family did not see their husband or father, Richard Blair, until 1912.
His mother's diary from 1905 describes a lively round of artistic interests. Before the First World War, the family moved to Shiplake, Oxfordshire where Eric became friendly with the Buddicom family their daughter Jacintha; when they first met, he was standing on his head in a field. On being asked why, he said, "You are noticed more if you stand on your head than if you are right way up." Jacintha and Eric read and wrote poetry, dreamed of becoming famous writers. He said. During this period, he enjoyed shooting and birdwatching with Jacintha's brother and sister. Aged five, Eric was sent as a day-boy to a convent school in Henley-on-Thames, which Marjorie attended, it was a Roman Catholic convent run by French Ursuline nuns, exiled from France after religious education was banned in 1903. His mother wanted him to have a public school education, but his family could not afford the fees, he needed to earn a scholarship. Ida Blair's brother Charles Limouzin recommended St Cyprian's School, East Sussex.
Limouzin, a proficient golfer, knew of the school and its headmaster through the Royal Eastbourne Golf Club, where he won several competitions in 1903 and 1904. The headmaster undertook to help Blair to win a scholarship, made a private financial arrangement that allowed Blair's parents to pay only half the normal fees. In September 1911, Eric arrived at St Cyprian's, he boarded at the school for the next five years. During this period, while working for the Ministry of Pensions, his mother lived at 23 Cromwell Crescent, Earls Court, he knew nothing of the reduced fees, although he "soon recognised that he was from a poorer home". Blair hated the school and many years wrote an essay "Such, Such Were the Joys", published posthumously, based on his time there. At St Cyprian's, Blair first met Cyril Connolly. Many years as the editor of Horizon, Connolly published several of Orwell's essays. While at St Cyprian's, Blair wrote two poems that were published in the Henley and South Oxfordshire Standard.
He came second to Connolly in the Harrow History Prize, had his work praised by the school's external examiner, earned scholarships to Wellington and Eton. But inclusion on the Eton scholarship roll did not guarantee a place, none was available for Blair, he chose to stay at St Cyprian's until December 1916. In January, Blair took up the place at Wellington. In May 1917 a place became available as a King's Scholar at Eton. At this time the family lived at Notting Hill Gate. Blair remained at Eton until December 1921, when he left midway between his 19th birthday. Wellington was "beastly", Orwell told his childhood friend Jacintha Buddicom, but he said he was "interested and happy" at Eton, his principal tutor was A. S. F. Gow, Fellow of Trinity College, who gave him advice in his career. Blair was taught French by Aldous Huxley. Steven Runciman, at Eton with Blair, noted that he and his contemporaries appreciated Huxley's linguistic flair. Cyril Connolly followed Blair to Eton, but because they were in separate years
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Winnie-the-Pooh called Pooh Bear, is a fictional anthropomorphic teddy bear created by English author A. A. Milne; the first collection of stories about the character was the book Winnie-the-Pooh, this was followed by The House at Pooh Corner. Milne included a poem about the bear in the children's verse book When We Were Very Young and many more in Now We Are Six. All four volumes were illustrated by E. H. Shepard; the Pooh stories have been translated into many languages, including Alexander Lenard's Latin translation, Winnie ille Pu, first published in 1958, and, in 1960, became the only Latin book to have been featured on The New York Times Best Seller list. Hyphens in the character's name were omitted by Disney when the company adapted the Pooh stories into a series of features that would become one of its most successful franchises. In popular film adaptations, Pooh has been voiced by actors Sterling Holloway, Hal Smith, Jim Cummings in English, Yevgeny Leonov in Russian. A. A. Milne named the character Winnie-the-Pooh after a teddy bear owned by his son, Christopher Robin Milne, on whom the character Christopher Robin was based.
The rest of Christopher Robin Milne's toys – Piglet, Kanga and Tigger – were incorporated into Milne's stories. Two more characters and Rabbit, were created by Milne's imagination, while Gopher was added to the Disney version. Christopher Robin's toy bear is on display at the Main Branch of the New York Public Library in New York City. Christopher Milne had named his toy bear after Winnie, a Canadian black bear he saw at London Zoo, "Pooh", a swan they had met while on holiday; the bear cub was purchased from a hunter for $20 by Canadian Lieutenant Harry Colebourn in White River, Canada, while en route to England during the First World War. He named the bear "Winnie" after his adopted hometown in Manitoba. "Winnie" was surreptitiously brought to England with her owner, gained unofficial recognition as The Fort Garry Horse regimental mascot. Colebourn left Winnie at the London Zoo while his unit were in France. Pooh the swan appears as a character in its own right in. In the first chapter of Winnie-the-Pooh, Milne offers this explanation of why Winnie-the-Pooh is called "Pooh": But his arms were so stiff... they stayed up straight in the air for more than a week, whenever a fly came and settled on his nose he had to blow it off.
And I think – but I am not sure – that, why he is always called Pooh. The American writer William Safire surmised that the Milnes' invention of the name "Winnie the Pooh" may have been influenced by the haughty character Pooh-Bah in Gilbert and Sullivan's The Mikado; the Winnie-the-Pooh stories are set in East Sussex, England. The forest is an area of tranquil open heathland on the highest sandy ridges of the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty situated 30 miles south-east of London. In 1925 Milne, a Londoner, bought a country home a mile to the north of the forest at Cotchford Farm, near Hartfield. According to Christopher Milne, while his father continued to live in London "...the four of us – he, his wife, his son and his son's nanny – would pile into a large blue, chauffeur-driven Fiat and travel down every Saturday morning and back again every Monday afternoon. And we would spend a whole glorious month there in the spring and two months in the summer." From the front lawn the family had a view across a meadow to a line of alders that fringed the River Medway, beyond which the ground rose through more trees until "above them, in the faraway distance, crowning the view, was a bare hilltop.
In the centre of this hilltop was a clump of pines." Most of his father's visits to the forest at that time were, he noted, family expeditions on foot "to make yet another attempt to count the pine trees on Gill's Lap or to search for the marsh gentian". Christopher added that, inspired by Ashdown Forest, his father had made it "the setting for two of his books, finishing the second little over three years after his arrival". Many locations in the stories can be associated with real places around the forest; as Christopher Milne wrote in his autobiography: "Pooh’s forest and Ashdown Forest are identical". For example, the fictional "Hundred Acre Wood" was in reality Five Hundred Acre Wood; the landscapes depicted in E. H. Shepard's illustrations for the Winnie-the-Pooh books were directly inspired by the distinctive landscape of Ashdown Forest, with its high, open heathlands of heather, gorse and silver birch punctuated by hilltop clumps of pine trees. Many of Shepard's illustrations can be matched to actual views, allowing for a degree of artistic licence.
Shepard's sketches of pine trees and other forest scenes are held at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The game of Poohsticks was played by Christopher Milne on a footbridge across a tributary of the River Medway in Posingford Wood, close to Cotchford Farm; the wooden bridge is now a tourist attraction, it has become traditional to play the game there using sticks gathered in the nearby woodland. When the footbridge had to be replaced, the engineer designed a new structure based on the drawings of the bridge by Shepard in the books, which were somewhat different from the original structure. Christopher Robin's teddy bear, made his character début i
BBC Home Service
The BBC Home Service was a British national radio station that broadcast from 1939 until 1967, when it became the current BBC Radio 4. Between the 1920s and the outbreak of the Second World War, the BBC developed two nationwide radio services, the BBC National Programme and the BBC Regional Programme; as well as a basic service programmed from London, the Regional Programme included programming originating in six regions. Although the programme items attracting the greatest number of listeners tended to appear on the National, the two services were not streamed: they were each designed to appeal "across the board" to a single, but variegated, audience by offering between them and at most times of the day a choice of programme type, rather than catering, each of them to two distinct audiences. On 1 September 1939, the BBC merged the two programmes into one national service from London; the reasons given included the need to prevent enemy aircraft from using differentiated output from the Regional Programme's transmitters as navigational beacons.
To this end, the former regional transmitters were synchronised in chains on two frequencies, 668 and 767 kHz, with an additional chain of low-powered transmitters on 1474 kHz appearing later. Under this arrangement regional broadcasting in its pre-war form was no longer feasible, but much of the programming was decentralised to the former regional studios because of the risks from enemy attack/bombing/invasion in London, broadcast nationally; the new service was named the Home Service, the internal designation at the BBC for domestic radio broadcasting. During the war, the BBC Home Service would air each day from 7.00am in the morning until a quarter past midnight, with main news bulletins airing at 7.00am, 8.00am, 1.00pm, 6.00pm, 9.00pm and Midnight. On 29 July 1945, the BBC resumed its previous regional structure, though true regional radio stations would not return till the 1970s, began "streaming" its radio services. Following the wartime success of the Forces and General Forces Programmes, light entertainment was transferred to the new BBC Light Programme, whilst "heavier" programming – news, discussion, etc – remained on the regionalised Home Service.
Popular light programming, such as ITMA, remained on the Home Service, some speech programming of the type pioneered by the Forces Programmes – the newly launched Woman's Hour being much in this mould – was on the Light Programme. Once war was over, the BBC Home Service adjusted its broadcasting hours, now commencing at 6.25am each weekday and at 7.50am on Sundays. The broadcasting day would end around 11.10pm each night. By 1964 the Home Service was on the air each day from 6.35am and would conclude each night at the precise time of 11.48pm. The Home Service had seven regions. London and South East England was served by the "basic" Home Service, not considered a region by the BBC and acted as the sustaining service for the other regions. A shortage of frequencies meant that the Northern Ireland Regional Home Service was treated as part of the North Regional Home Service, as the Northern Ireland service used the same frequency as a North service booster; the Northern Ireland service was separated from the North region on 7 January 1963.
The Service provided between five and seven national news bulletins a day from London, drama and informational programmes. Non-topical talk programmes and heavier drama output were transferred to the BBC Third Programme when it began broadcasting on 29 September 1946. During the day, the Service included programmes of classical music; these were reduced in number when government limits on radio broadcasting hours were relaxed in 1964 and the BBC Music Programme began broadcasting during the daytime on the frequencies of the Third Programme. They disappeared when the Music Programme began regular 0700–1830 broadcasting daily on 22 March 1965; the Service broadcast educational programmes for schools during the day, backed with booklets and support material. Programmes were reorganised across the three BBC networks on 30 September 1957, with much of the Service's lighter content transferring to the Light Programme and the establishment of the BBC Third Network, which used the frequencies of the Third Programme to carry the Service's adult education content and the Home and Light's sports coverage as well as the Third Programme itself.
On 30 September 1967, the BBC split the Light Programme into a pop music service and an entertainment network. The Light Programme became BBC Radio 1 and BBC Radio 2; the BBC Third Programme became BBC Radio 3, with the Music Programme losing its separate identity. The Home Service was renamed BBC Radio 4. Radio 4 continued to provide for regional programming and scheduling, the BBC's programme journal Radio Times listed the channel's offerings under the heading "BBC Radio Four - Home Service", with particular reference to the seven broadcasting regions: London, North, Northern Ireland, Scottish and West. With the introduction of BBC Local Radio, starting with BBC Radio Leicester on 8 November 1967, it was felt that the future of non-national broadcasting lay in local rather than regional services; the BBC produced a report, "Broadcasting in the Seventies", on 10 July 1969, proposing the reorganisation of programmes on the national networks and the end of regional broadcasting. The report began to be implemented on 4 April 1970 and the Home Service regions disap
A. A. Milne
Alan Alexander Milne was a British author, best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh and for various poems. Milne was a noted writer as a playwright, before the huge success of Pooh overshadowed all his previous work. Milne served in both World Wars, joining the British Army in World War I, was a captain of the British Home Guard in World War II. Alan Alexander Milne was born in Kilburn, London to parents John Vine Milne, born in Jamaica, Sarah Marie Milne and grew up at Henley House School, 6/7 Mortimer Road, Kilburn, a small public school run by his father. One of his teachers was H. G. Wells, who taught there in 1889–90. Milne attended Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge where he studied on a mathematics scholarship, graduating with a B. A. in Mathematics in 1903. He wrote for Granta, a student magazine, he collaborated with his brother Kenneth and their articles appeared over the initials AKM. Milne's work came to the attention of the leading British humour magazine Punch, where Milne was to become a contributor and an assistant editor.
Considered a talented cricket fielder, Milne played for two amateur teams that were composed of British writers: the Allahakbarries and the Authors XI. His teammates included fellow writers Arthur Conan Doyle and P. G. Wodehouse. Milne joined the British Army in World War I and served as an officer in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment and after a debilitating illness, the Royal Corps of Signals, he was commissioned into the 4th Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment on 1 February 1915 as a second lieutenant. His commission was confirmed on 20 December 1915. On 7 July 1916, he was injured while serving in the Battle of the Somme and invalided back to England. Having recuperated, he was recruited into Military Intelligence to write propaganda articles for MI7 between 1916 and 1918, he was discharged on 14 February 1919, settled in Mallord Street, Chelsea. He relinquished his commission on 19 February 1920. After the war, he wrote a denunciation of war titled Peace with Honour, which he retracted somewhat with 1940's War with Honour.
During World War II, Milne was one of the most prominent critics of fellow English writer P. G. Wodehouse, captured at his country home in France by the Nazis and imprisoned for a year. Wodehouse made radio broadcasts about his internment. Although the light-hearted broadcasts made fun of the Germans, Milne accused Wodehouse of committing an act of near treason by cooperating with his country's enemy. Wodehouse got some revenge on his former friend by creating fatuous parodies of the Christopher Robin poems in some of his stories, claiming that Milne "was jealous of all other writers.... But I loved his stuff."Milne married Dorothy "Daphne" de Sélincourt in 1913 and their son Christopher Robin Milne was born in 1920. In 1925, Milne bought Cotchford Farm, in Hartfield, East Sussex. During World War II, Milne was Captain of the British Home Guard in Hartfield & Forest Row, insisting on being plain "Mr. Milne" to the members of his platoon, he retired to the farm after a stroke and brain surgery in 1952 left him an invalid, by August 1953 "he seemed old and disenchanted."
Milne died in January 1956, aged 74. After graduating from Cambridge College in 1903, A. A. Milne contributed humorous verse and whimsical essays to Punch, joining the staff in 1906 and becoming an assistant editor. During this period he published 18 plays and three novels, including the murder mystery The Red House Mystery, his son was born in August 1920 and in 1924 Milne produced a collection of children's poems, When We Were Very Young, which were illustrated by Punch staff cartoonist E. H. Shepard. A collection of short stories for children A Gallery of Children, other stories that became part of the Winnie-the-Pooh books, were first published in 1925. Milne was an early screenwriter for the nascent British film industry, writing four stories filmed in 1920 for the company Minerva Films; these were The Bump. Some of these films survive in the archives of the British Film Institute. Milne had met Howard Mr Pim Passes By in London. Looking back on this period, Milne observed that when he told his agent that he was going to write a detective story, he was told that what the country wanted from a "Punch humorist" was a humorous story.
He concluded that "the only excuse which I have yet discovered for writing anything is that I want to write it. Milne is most famous for his two Pooh books about a boy named Christopher Robin after his son, Christopher Robin Milne, various characters inspired by his son's stuffed animals, most notably the bear named Winnie-the-Pooh. Christopher Robin Milne's stuffed bear named "Edward," was renamed "Winnie" after a Canadian black bear named Winnie, used as a military mascot in World War I, left to London Zoo during the war. "The pooh" comes from
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement. Evangelicals believe in the centrality of the conversion or "born again" experience in receiving salvation, in the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity, in spreading the Christian message; the movement has had a long presence in the Anglosphere before spreading further afield in the 19th, 20th and early 21st centuries. Its origins are traced to 1738, with various theological streams contributing to its foundation, including English Methodism, the Moravian Church, German Lutheran Pietism. Preeminently, John Wesley and other early Methodists were at the root of sparking this new movement during the First Great Awakening. Today, evangelicals are found across many Protestant branches, as well as in various denominations not subsumed to a specific branch.
Among leaders and major figures of the evangelical Protestant movement were John Wesley, George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Billy Graham, Bill Bright, Harold John Ockenga, John Stott and Martyn Lloyd-Jones. The movement gained great momentum during the 18th and 19th centuries with the Great Awakenings in Great Britain and the United States. In 2016, there were an estimated 619 million evangelicals in the world, meaning that one in four Christians would be classified as evangelical; the United States has the largest concentration of evangelicals in the world. American evangelicals are a quarter of the nation's population and its single largest religious group. In Great Britain, evangelicals are represented in the Methodist Church, Baptist communities, among evangelical Anglicans; some evangelical Christian denominations are grouped together in the World Evangelical Alliance. The word evangelical has its etymological roots in the Greek word for "gospel" or "good news": εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, from eu "good", angel- the stem of, among other words, angelos "messenger, angel", the neuter suffix -ion.
By the English Middle Ages, the term had expanded semantically to include not only the message, but the New Testament which contained the message, as well as more the Gospels, which portray the life and resurrection of Jesus. The first published use of evangelical in English was in 1531, when William Tyndale wrote "He exhorteth them to proceed in the evangelical truth." One year Sir Thomas More wrote the earliest recorded use in reference to a theological distinction when he spoke of "Tyndale his evangelical brother Barns". During the Reformation, Protestant theologians embraced the term as referring to "gospel truth". Martin Luther referred to the evangelische Kirche to distinguish Protestants from Catholics in the Roman Catholic Church. Into the 21st century, evangelical has continued in use as a synonym for Protestant in continental Europe, elsewhere; this usage is reflected in the names of Protestant denominations, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
In the English-speaking world, evangelical was applied to describe the series of revival movements that occurred in Britain and North America during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Christian historian David Bebbington writes that, "Although'evangelical', with a lower-case initial, is used to mean'of the gospel', the term'Evangelical', with a capital letter, is applied to any aspect of the movement beginning in the 1730s." According to the Oxford English Dictionary, evangelicalism was first used in 1831. The term may be used outside any religious context to characterize a generic missionary, reforming, or redeeming impulse or purpose. For example, the Times Literary Supplement refers to "the rise and fall of evangelical fervor within the Socialist movement". One influential definition of evangelicalism has been proposed by historian David Bebbington. Bebbington notes four distinctive aspects of evangelical faith: conversionism, biblicism and activism, noting, "Together they form a quadrilateral of priorities, the basis of Evangelicalism."Conversionism, or belief in the necessity of being "born again", has been a constant theme of evangelicalism since its beginnings.
To evangelicals, the central message of the gospel is justification by faith in Christ and repentance, or turning away, from sin. Conversion differentiates the Christian from the non-Christian, the change in life it leads to is marked by both a rejection of sin and a corresponding personal holiness of life. A conversion experience can be emotional, including grief and sorrow for sin followed by great relief at receiving forgiveness; the stress on conversion differentiates evangelicalism from other forms of Protestantism by the associated belief that an assurance of salvation will accompany conversion. Among evangelicals, individuals have testified to both gradual conversions. Biblicism is a high regard for biblical authority. All evangelicals believe in biblical inspiration, though they disagree over how this inspiration should be defined. Many evangelicals believe in biblical inerrancy, while other evangelicals believe in biblical infallibility. Crucicentrism is the centrality that evangelicals give to the Atonement, the saving death and resurrection of Jesus, that offers forgiveness of sins and new life.
This is understood most in terms of a substitutionary atonement, in which Christ died as a substitute for sinful humanity by takin
Samuel Butler (novelist)
Samuel Butler was the iconoclastic English author of the Utopian satirical novel Erewhon and the semi-autobiographical Bildungsroman The Way of All Flesh, published posthumously in 1903. Both have remained in print since. In other studies he examined Christian orthodoxy, evolutionary thought, Italian art, made prose translations of the Iliad and Odyssey that are still consulted today, he was an artist. Butler was born on 4 December 1835 at the rectory in the village of Langar, Nottinghamshire, to the Rev. Thomas Butler, son of Dr. Samuel Butler headmaster of Shrewsbury School and Bishop of Lichfield. Dr Butler was the son of a tradesman and descended from a line of yeomen, but his scholarly aptitude being recognised at a young age, he had been sent to Rugby and Cambridge, where he distinguished himself, his only son Thomas wished to go into the Navy, but succumbed to paternal pressure and entered the Church of England, in which he led an undistinguished career in contrast to his father's. Samuel's immediate family created for him an oppressive home environment.
Thomas Butler, states one critic, "to make up for having been a servile son, became a bullying father."Samuel Butler's relationship with his parents with his father, was antagonistic. His education included frequent beatings, as was not uncommon at the time. Samuel wrote that his parents were "brutal and stupid by nature." He recorded that his father "never liked me, nor I him. I have never passed a day without thinking of him many times over as the man, sure to be against me." Under his parents' influence, he was set on course to follow his father into the priesthood. He was sent to Shrewsbury at the age of twelve, where he did not enjoy the hard life under its headmaster, Benjamin Hall Kennedy, whom he drew as "Dr Skinner" in The Way of All Flesh. In 1854 he went up to St John's College, where he obtained a first in Classics in 1858. After Cambridge he went to live in a low-income parish in London 1858–59 as preparation for his ordination into the Anglican clergy; this experience would serve as inspiration for his work The Fair Haven.
Correspondence with his father about the issue failed to set his mind at peace, inciting instead his father's wrath. As a result, he emigrated on the ship Roman Emperor to New Zealand. Butler went there like many early British settlers of privileged origins, to put as much distance as possible between himself and his family, he wrote of his arrival and life as a sheep farmer on Mesopotamia Station in A First Year in Canterbury Settlement, made a handsome profit when he sold his farm, but the chief achievement of his time there was the drafts and source material for much of his masterpiece Erewhon. Erewhon revealed Butler's long interest in Darwin's theories of biological evolution. In 1863, four years after Darwin published On the Origin of Species, the editor of a New Zealand newspaper, The Press, published a letter captioned "Darwin among the Machines." Written by Butler but signed Cellarius it compares human evolution to machine evolution, prophesying that machines would replace man in the supremacy of the earth: "In the course of ages we shall find ourselves the inferior race."
The letter raises many of the themes now debated by proponents of the technological singularity, i. e. that computers evolve much faster than humans and that we are racing towards an unknowable future through explosive technological change. Butler spent much time criticising Darwin because Butler believed that Darwin had not sufficiently acknowledged his grandfather Erasmus Darwin's contribution to the origins of his theory. Butler returned to England in 1864, settling in rooms in Clifford's Inn, where he lived for the rest of his life. In 1872, the Utopian novel Erewhon appeared anonymously, causing some speculation as to the identity of the author; when Butler revealed himself, Erewhon made him a well-known figure, more because of this speculation than for its literary merits, which have been undisputed. In 1839 his grandfather Dr Butler had left Samuel property he owned at Whitehall in Shrewsbury on the condition that he survived his own father and his aunt, Dr Butler's daughter Harriet Lloyd.
While at Cambridge in 1857 he sold the Whitehall mansion and six acres to his cousin Thomas Bucknall Lloyd, but kept the remaining land surrounding the mansion. His aunt died in 1880 and his father's death in 1886 resolved his financial problems for the last sixteen years of his own life; the land at Whitehall was sold for housing development and he laid out and named four roads – Bishop and Canon Streets after his grandfather's and father's clerical titles, Clifford Street after his London home, Alfred Street in gratitude to his clerk. Butler indulged himself, holidaying in Italy every summer and producing, while he was there, his works on the Italian landscape and art, his close interest in the art of the Sacri Monti is reflected in Alps and Sanctuaries of Piedmont and the Canton Ticino and Ex Voto. He wrote a number of other books, including Erewhon Revisited, his semi-autobiographical novel The Way of All Flesh did not appear in print until after his death, as he considered its tone of satirical attack on Victorian morality