The Mercury (Hobart)
The Mercury is a daily newspaper, published in Hobart, Australia, by Davies Brothers Pty Ltd, part of News Corp Australia and News Corp. The weekend issues of the paper are called Mercury on Sunday Tasmanian; the current editor of The Mercury is Chris Jones. The newspaper was started on 5 July 1854 by George Auber John Davies. Two months subsequently John Davies became the sole owner, it was published twice weekly and known as the Hobarton Mercury. It expanded, absorbing its rivals, became a daily newspaper in 1858 under the lengthy title The Hobart Town Daily Mercury. In 1860 the masthead was reduced to The Mercury and in 2006 it was further shortened to Mercury. With the imminent demise of the Daily Telegraph, The Mercury, from March 1928, used the opportunity to increase their penetration there by expanding the branch office in the northern city, by putting on "fast cars" to get the paper to Launceston by breakfast. After Davies' retirement in 1871, the business was carried on by his sons John George Davies and Charles Ellis Davies who traded as Davies Brothers Ltd.
John Davies died on 11 June 1872, aged 58. The company remained in the family's hands until 1988, when it was taken over by News Limited, a subsidiary of News Corporation. However, the subsidiary that owns the Tasmanian operation is still known as Davies Brothers Pty Limited. Other Tasmanian titles published by the company are the weekly rural newspaper Tasmanian Country, the weekly regional newspaper The Gazette, the monthly travel magazine Treasure Island; the Saturday Evening Mercury, known locally as the'SEM' was printed and circulated for readers on a Saturday evening from 1954 to 1984, it was replaced in early 1984 by the first Sunday circulations in southern Tasmania, known as the Sunday Tasmanian which still exists today. At various stages in its history there have been limited experiments with regional papers—such as The Westerner which succeeded The West Coast Miner in 1979 to serve the West Coast until its demise in 1995—as well as suburban newspapers for the Hobart market, which appeared in various guises from 1966 until 1998.
In November 2006 the company launched what it called a "newspaper in a newspaper" the Kingborough Times which appeared monthly within the Sunday Tasmanian. This was followed in June 2007 by the Northern Times with news from Hobart's northern suburbs. Both inserts have since ceased publication; the following people were editors of The Mercury: In July 2007 News Corporation approved a new $31 million press centre for Davies Brothers Pty Ltd, publisher of the Mercury and the Sunday Tasmanian, including the installation of the latest colour press. Davies Brothers opened the new print centre at the Tasmanian Technopark in Dowsing Point, north of Hobart, in 2009. A new KBA Comet four-colour press replaced the 35-year-old Goss Urbanite press, housed in the Argyle Street wing of the company's city site. Other operations of the newspaper group continued to be based in the heart of the city at 93 Macquarie Street; the success of the new centre soon saw the introduction of local printing of interstate titles for local distribution.
This includes the national daily The Australian and Melbourne's Herald Sun. In November 2011 Davies Brothers chief executive officer Rex Gardner announced that the company would move from its landmark Macquarie St headquarters in August 2012, leasing a new office at 2 Salamanca Square; the move took place over the weekend of July 28–29, 2012, although months of work had taken place in advance. The company has branch offices in Launceston and Burnie, as well as its print centre at Dowsing Point and its distribution centre at Western Junction near Launceston, its branch office at New Norfolk closed in December 2010. An office in William St, Queenstown closed in the early 1990s, it was announced in May 2013 that the original site had been sold to an unidentified buyer including the heritage-listed Ingle Hall, built in 1814 and housed the Mercury Print Museum. The Macquarie St and Argyle St frontages of the Mercury building were heritage listed in 2012Since early 2013, the Mercury's Salamanca Square office has hosted the Tasmanian bureaus of The Australian and Sky News.
The Mercury's Hobart offices have hosted the Tasmanian bureau of Australian Associated Press over many decades. In 2018, the University of Tasmania opened its Tasmanian Media School, co-located with the Mercury in its Salamanca Square office; as of March 2011, the Mercury reported its Monday–Friday circulation as 44,317 with an average readership of 107,000 and its Saturday circulation as 61,020 with readership of 146,000. The Sunday Tasmanian reported circulation of 58,148 with readership of 129,000. List of newspapers in Tasmania Official website The Mercury at Trove The Hobarton Mercury at Trove The Hobart Town Mercury at Trove The Hobart Town Daily Mercury at Trove
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Queenstown is a town in the West Coast region of the island of Tasmania, Australia. It is in a valley on the western slopes of Mount Owen on the West Coast Range. At the 2016 census, Queenstown had a population of 1,755 people. Queenstown's history has long been tied to the mining industry; this mountainous area was first explored in 1862. It was long after that when alluvial gold was discovered at Mount Lyell, prompting the formation of the Mount Lyell Gold Mining Company in 1881. In 1892, the mine began searching for copper; the final name of the Mount Lyell company was Railway Company. Early in 1895 a Post Office was opened at Penghana, at the Queen River fork and crossing, about a kilometre north of present-day Queenstown on the road to Strahan; the only other substantial building nearby was Robertson & Hunter's store.. Queenstown Post Office opened on 21 November 1896 and the Penghana office closed; the name "Penghana" was adopted for a substantial house nearby, from around 1925–1944 the residence of Mount Lyell mine manager R. M. Murray, persists today as Penghana Road.
A Queenstown South office opened in 1949 and closed in 1973. In the 1900s, Queenstown was the centre of the Mount Lyell mining district and had numerous smelting works, brick-works, sawmills; the area at the time was wooded. The population in 1900 was 5051; the town was the base of the Queenstown council up until amalgamation with other west coast councils in the 1990s. The town in its heyday had a collection of hotels and schools that have disappeared since the demise of the Mount Lyell company; the town was the base of the Organisation for Tasmanian Development started in 1982. There was a brief boom in prosperity in the 1980s, with the building of several nearby dams by the Hydro; the Darwin and Crotty dams that comprise Lake Burbury were built during this period. These followed the cancellation of the Gordon-below-Franklin Dam in 1983 after strong campaigning by environmentalists in the'No Dams' campaign; the mountains surrounding Queenstown have unusual pink and grey hues that come from the conglomerate rocks on the two most adjacent mountains - Mount Lyell and Mount Owen.
The mountains surrounding Queenstown are snowcapped through winter. Snow falls a few days out of the year. Owing to a combination of tree removal for use in the smelters and the smelter fumes, the heavy annual rainfall, the erosion of the shallow horizon topsoil back to the harder rock profile contributed to the stark state of the mountains for many decades. Typical of the successions that occur in fire affected areas in Western Tasmania, the low shrubbery that has revegetated adjacent to hillside creeks is a early stage of a long recovery for the ecology of the region; some concern by local residents in the 1980s, since, that the low-level succession of plants might affect the stark'moonscape' appearance of the southern parts of Mount Lyell, northern Mount Owen. Although there are still large areas incapable of sustaining regrowth due to the acute slopes and lack of soil formation, revegtation projects have been stymied; the Queen River was for most of the history of the Mount Lyell company the recipient of mining effluent and the Queenstown sewage - which continued into the King River and the Macquarie Harbour.
The Mount Lyell Remediation and Research and Demonstration Program scheme has since removed the direct flowing mining waste and local waste from the rivers. Today, the town and district attracts significant numbers of tourists, on either organised tours or the hire car'circuit' around Tasmania; some features continue to fascinate tourists, either the mountains, the slag heap or the gravel football ground. There are significant opportunities to catch glimpses of the town's past at the local museum, by driving up Orr Street, the old main street now with closed pubs and the dominant Post Office tower; the mining operation at the original Mount Lyell mine continues, with Copper Mines of Tasmania operating between 1995 and 1999 independently, after which it became part of an Indian company group - and its concentrates are shipped to India for processing. Exploration continues within the West Coast region for further economic mineral deposits, due to the complexity of the geology, there is always the possibility that new mines will open: the Henty Gold Mine is a good example as it commenced operation in the 1990s.
Queenstown is the terminus of the West Coast Wilderness Railway, which travels southwards alongside the Queen River, along the northern slopes of the King River to the port of Strahan in Macquarie Harbour. The Queenstown Heritage and Arts Festival was the first name of a biennial festival that celebrates Queenstown's history. One significant historical event it has celebrated was the centenary of the 1912 North Mount Lyell Disaster in the second festival in October 2012. In the third festival in October 2014, the Hydro Tasmania centenary was a major component. In 2016 the festival has been renamed, is now the Unconformity Festival Queenstown has a wet oceanic climate, is one of the wettest locations in Tasmania with an annual average rainfall of 2408.2 mm, spread throughout the year. Summers are mild although temperatures can rise above 30 °C while winters are cool and always cloudy. Brief, light snowfall occurs several times each winter, with occasional heavier snow falling every few years.
Queenstown is cloudy, getting only 29.0 days of clear skies annually. At the 2011 census, Queenst
Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company
Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company was a Tasmanian mining company formed on 29 March 1893, most referred to as Mount Lyell. Mount Lyell was the dominant copper mining company of the West Coast from 1893 to 1994, was based in Queenstown, Tasmania. Following consolidation of leases and company assets at the beginning of the twentieth century, Mount Lyell was the major company for the communities of Queenstown and Gormanston, it remained dominant until its closure in 1994. The Mount Lyell mining operations produced more than a million tonnes of copper, 750 tonnes of silver and 45 tonnes of gold since mining commenced in the early 1890s -, equivalent to over 4 billion dollars worth of metal in 1995 terms. In the early stage of operations, Mount Lyell was surrounded by smaller competing leases and companies, they were all absorbed into Mount Lyell operations, or were closed down. In 1903 the North Mount Lyell company was taken over, in 1912 the most severe calamity to visit the Mount Lyell company was the 1912 North Mount Lyell Disaster known at the time as the North Lyell fire.
During its history, Mount Lyell had exploration leases surrounding its main mining area, had at one time or other explored most of the West Coast Range revisiting many of the smaller mines, worked on in the early 1900s. As a consequence the Mount Lyell company had utilised considerable resources on maintaining leases over areas of promising geology - as well as checking older mining locations on the west coast. At various stages it shared costs and resources with other companies who would assist by investing in exploration by becoming partners in some leases; the operations were conducted in various parts of the Mount Lyell Lease, in the mid 1970s, prior to reduction in the workforce, "Cape Horn" was located just west of the "Comstock" operation, on the north side of Mount Lyell, while most of the North Mount Lyell workings were finished, "12 West" was still in operation due to its rich copper ores. "West Lyell open cut", dominant in the 1950s was finished, various parts of the lease were disappearing into the opening above the "Prince Lyell" workings.
Following the first large layoffs in the mid 1970s, the town of Queenstown lost its dominance on the west coast by the mid 1990s, being a company town many services closed by the 2000s, the separate west Tasmanian local government authorities were amalgamated into the West Coast Council. On 29 March 1993 the company celebrated its centenary. At that stage it was known as the Copper Division of Renison Goldfields Consolidated Limited; the Mount Lyell Mining Field, the various activities of the company in Queenstown and the west coast of Tasmania were celebrated throughout the community. The Mount Lyell Remediation and Research and Demonstration Program was conducted between 1994 and 1996 following the closing of the company, to reverse the ecological change upon the Queen and King Rivers, Macquarie Harbour, it is estimated. The Mount Lyell lease and mine was reopened by Copper Mines of Tasmania in 1995; this company in turn was acquired by Sterlite Industries, an Indian-based company, in 1999.
As a consequence it is part of the Vedanta group of companies. Its concentrate material is shipped to India for processing. Government guidelines saw tailings dams created and special measures taken to prevent any further pollution of the rivers and harbour. Mining was suspended at Mount Lyell due to accidents in the 2010s, remains in mothball situation in the late 2010s; the following locations were within the operating mine lease and indicate a separate orebody - the operating life is indicated: - Iron Blow 1883 - 1929 North Lyell 1896 - 1972 Royal Tharsis 1902 - 1991 Lyell Comstock 1913 - 1959 Crown Lyell 1931 - 1985 West Lyell Open Cut 1934 - 1978 Cape Horn 1969 - 1987 Prince Lyell Mine 1969 - 1995 See West Coast Wilderness Railway for more details. Mount Lyell was the operator of the 3 ft 6 in gauge Queenstown to Regatta Point railway from 1893 to 1963, which used the Abt rack system of cog railway for steep sections; this railway was rebuilt and recommenced operation in 2002 as the Abt Wilderness Railway, is now known as the West Coast Wilderness Railway and was operated by Federal Hotels until 2013.
The company has been significant in Australian business history works as Geoffrey Blainey, the Australian historian, began his career with the writing of the company history The Peaks of Lyell, which has now progressed to its sixth edition. Due to circumstances at the winding up of Mount Lyell significant amounts of company records were deposited with Tasmanian state archives. Pollution of the Queen and King Rivers, Macquarie Harbour was caused by the release of mine waste and effluent into the rivers, it is estimated. The environmental impacts included: tailings and acid drainage into rivers and a delta of tailings the size of a city suburb in Macquarie Harbour. Smelting ended in the 1960s and CMT has built a dam to contain tailings. Research by the Supervising Scientist published in 1997 overwhelmingly identified the lease site as the major source of acid drainage related pollutants affecting the rivers and harbour, with meta
West Coast, Tasmania
The West Coast of Tasmania is the part of the state, associated with wilderness and tourism, rough country and isolation. As well as that, it was an early convict settlement location in the early stages of Van Diemen's Land; as a consequence of the images of the region and its attributes, it is considered "outside" the tamed and agriculturally developed eastern side of the island of Tasmania. The separation from the south west region, is that the south west has never had roads or other technical links back to the east coast; the west coast has been mined, it has had railways penetrate, roads and power lines move through the landscape, it has been entered, but in many locations - where mines or other activities have closed, or settlements become abandoned and time have in many cases hidden the locations. The west coast has a much wetter climate when compared to the east coast. Frequent low pressure systems hit the west coast causing heavy rain and ice; the West Coast Range blocks these systems from impacting the east, therefore making the West Coast a rain catchment with some areas receiving over 2,000 millimetres of rain a year.
In winter temperatures at sea level hover around 10 °C, when not raining, morning frost is common. The temperatures are much lower inland from the coast with maximums in winter failing to surpass 0 °C; the snow line in winter is around 900 metres, however sea level snow falls several times each winter as well. Summer is mild with maximum temperatures averaging between 17 °C and 21 °C, though some days still fail to reach 10 °C. Despite snowfall occurring in winter, it has been known to fall in the middle of summer. Many outsiders have had difficulty understanding the isolation of the west coast, the small communities, the historical context to that isolation; the only way in and out was by sea, no serviceable roads to either the north or east existed until the 1930s or the 1960s. Railways were the main land connection from the 1920s to the 1960s - though that connection was with the north coast, rather than the more populous southeast; the treacherous conditions at Hell's Gates at the mouth of Macquarie Harbour, ocean travel along the exposed western side of Tasmania have made marine travel a dangerous pastime to the current day, despite modern technology.
Memorial plaques to recent lost sailors on the wall at the northern edge of the Strahan wharf illustrate this. The current airstrip is at Strahan, with the airstrip at Queenstown no longer a current registered landing ground. In the 1970s a regular service to the east coast was run by Airlines of Tasmania. All transport services to the west coast are subject to interruption by severe weather. In addition to closures of air and marine service, the roads to the west coast may be blocked for days at a time by ice and snow during severe winter conditions; the consequence of the isolation, the ways that the communities coped with the difficulties, were little examined prior to the 1990s, except for parts of Tim Bowden's 1979 Radio Documentary "The West Coasters", various references in Geoffrey Blainey's "The Peaks of Lyell" book and the important works of C. J. Binks and Kerry Pink. Since the rise of tourism on the west coast, the Franklin Dam issue and the creation of the world heritage wilderness area, a steady number of small publications concerning the history and features of the region have been produced.
For a brief time in the early 20th century the west coast had population and political power on a parity with Hobart and Launceston. Following the demise of most of the Zeehan mines, the west coast population has either remained static, or declined relative to other parts of the island; the environment is described with particular historical understanding by C. J. Binks in "Explorers of Western Tasmania" Chapter 2 - "A Sketch of the Western Country". See West Coast Range The convict era is introduced in articles about Macquarie Harbour Penal Station, Convicts on the West Coast of Tasmania, Hell's Gates; the reliance on the railways can be found in the separate article West Coast Tasmania Railways. The mining history was captured first in Charles Whitham's Western Tasmania book - and Geoffrey Blainey's Peaks of Lyell and the books that have followed. See the list at West Coast Tasmania Mines for a list that includes historical names and locations - many now long abandoned; the vast tracts of forest in the west coast region have been subject to fire, exploitation - as well as significant areas now under conservation.
The history of the West Coast Piners who utilised the Franklin River and Gordon River and their tributaries is a vital part of west coast history. The legacy of the Hydro Electric Commission on the west coast is a complex one, due to its sense in the 1940s to 1980s considering the west and south west regions as its'last frontier' for the remaining catchments for its power development schemes; as most of the European activity on the west coast lies within the invention and use of the camera, most aspects of west coast history have been captured on film. The Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery, the State Library of Tasmania in Hobart are the main holdings of the record, while the late Eric Thomas's collection in the'Galley Museum' in Queenstown is on a par with both; some examples of collections: - Hurley, Frank. Tasmania, A Camera Study John Sands, 1953 Cox, G. W. and Ratcliff, E. V. R. Tasmania Remembered Mary Fisher Bookshop, 1974. ISBN 0-9599207-2-2 Tassell, M. and Wood, D. Tasmanian Photographer Macmillan, 1981.
ISBN 0-333-33737-9 Hopkins, D. L; the Golden Years of Tasma
Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait; the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart. Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2, it is promoted as a natural state, protected areas of Tasmania cover about 42% of its land area, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites. Tasmania was the founding place of the first environmental political party in the world; the island is believed to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for 30,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Aboriginal Tasmanians were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait.
The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of colonisation, but was wiped out within 30 years by a combination of violent guerrilla conflict with settlers known as the "Black War", intertribal conflict, from the late 1820s, the spread of infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831, led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of 1,100 Aboriginals and settlers; the island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate, self-governing colony under the name Van Diemen's Land in 1825. 75,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before transportation ceased in 1853. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed, the following year the colony received permission to change its name to Tasmania.
In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia. The state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemen's Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies; the name was shortened to Van Diemen's Land by the British. It was renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856. Tasmania was sometimes referred to as "Dervon," as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879; the colloquial expression for the state is "Tassie". Tasmania is colloquially shortened to "Tas," when used in business names and website addresses. TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state; the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago.
Much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the world's largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains and cliffs formed from this rock type; the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are dolerites. Mount Wellington above Hobart is a good example. In the southern midlands as far south as Hobart, the dolerite is underlaid by sandstone and similar sedimentary stones. In the southwest, Precambrian quartzites were formed from ancient sea sediments and form strikingly sharp ridges and ranges, such as Federation Peak or Frenchmans Cap. In the northeast and east, continental granites can be seen, such as at Freycinet, similar to coastal granites on mainland Australia. In the northwest and west, mineral-rich volcanic rock can be seen at Mount Read near Rosebery, or at Mount Lyell near Queenstown. Present in the south and northwest is limestone with caves; the quartzite and dolerite areas in the higher mountains show evidence of glaciation, much of Australia's glaciated landscape is found on the Central Plateau and the Southwest.
Cradle Mountain, another dolerite peak, for example, was a nunatak. The combination of these different rock types contributes to scenery, distinct from any other region of the world. In the far southwest corner of the state, the geology is wholly quartzite, which gives the mountains the false impression of having snow-capped peaks year round. Evidence indicates the presence of Aborigines in Tasmania about 42,000 years ago. Rising sea levels cut Tasmania off from mainland Australia about 10,000 years ago and by the time of European contact, the Aboriginal people in Tasmania had nine major nations or ethnic groups. At the time of the British occupation and colonisation in 1803, the indigenous population was estimated at between 3,000 and 10,000. Historian Lyndall Ryan's analysis of population studies led her to conclude that there were about 7,000 spread throughout the island's nine nations. J. B. Plomley and Rhys Jones, settled on a figure of 3,000 to 4,000, they engaged in fire-stick farming, hunted game including kangaroo and wallabies, caught seals, mutton-birds and fish and lived as nine separate "nations" on the island, which they knew as "Trouwunna".
The first reported sighting of Tasmania by a European was on 24 November 1642 by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who landed at today's Blackman Bay. More than a century in 1772, a French expedition le
Burnie is a port city on the north-west coast of Tasmania. When founded in 1827, Burnie was named Emu Bay but it was renamed for William Burnie, a director of the Van Diemen's Land Company, in the early 1840s. Burnie was proclaimed a city by Queen Elizabeth II on April 26, 1988. At the 2016 Australian Census Burnie had an urban population of 19,385. Burnie is governed by the City of Burnie local government area; the key industries are heavy manufacturing and farming. The Burnie port along with the forestry industry provides the main source of revenue for the city. Burnie was the main port for the west coast mines after the opening of the Emu Bay Railway in 1897. Most industry in Burnie was based around the port that served it. After the hand over of the Surrey Hills and Hampshire Hills lots, the agriculture industry was replaced by forestry; the influence of forestry had a major role on Burnie's development in the 1900s with the founding of the pulp and paper mill by Associated Pulp and Paper Mills in 1938 and the woodchip terminal in the part of the century.
The Burnie Paper Mill closed in 2010 after failing to secure a buyer. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 19,385 people in Burnie - Somerset urban centre. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 7.2% of the population. 85.4% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 2.5% and New Zealand 0.8%. 91.5% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 37.5%, Anglican 18.5% and Catholic 15.4%. Tasmania's third largest hospital, The North West Regional Hospital is on Brickport Road, it provides both in and outpatient services for general medicine, general surgery, orthopaedics and paediatrics. Burnie has a central business district with several national retailers. Just outside the CBD there are other major retailers including: Harvey Norman Superstore. Other amenities include the multi-function "Burnie Arts and Function Centre", post office, police station, supreme court and private hospital, as well as numerous sporting and social organisations.
Burnie is home to the Cradle Coast campus of the University of Tasmania, campuses of the Tasmanian Polytechnic and the Tasmanian Academy. The University of Tasmania campus includes the Cuthbertson Research Laboratores run by the Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research. Burnie Airport is located in the adjacent town of Wynyard, a 20-minute drive from the City of Burnie. Burnie Port is Tasmania's largest general cargo port and was once Australia's fifth largest container port, it is the nearest Tasmanian port to the Australian mainland. As with other ports in Tasmania, it is operated by the government owned TasPorts; the port operates as a container port with a separate terminal for the exportation of woodchips. The port was planned to be expanded in 2013 so that it could accommodate extra freight from the proposed north-west mines in the Tarkine. Burnie was the terminus of the former Emu Bay Railway company operations; the railway line is now known as the Melba Line. Burnie is connected with Devonport via the four lane Bass Highway and a rail link, used for freight purposes.
Burnie is connected to the west coast of Tasmania by the Murchison Highway. Bus service Metro Tasmania provides transport around its suburbs. Redline Coaches provides daily coach services to the city of Hobart; the city of Burnie consists of a number of small suburbs including Parklands, Park Grove, Shorewell Park, Montello, Upper Burnie, Havenview, Emu Heights, South Burnie and Wivenhoe. Burnie has an oceanic climate with cool winters; the average temperature in summer ranges from 12 to 21 °C with drier days as warm as 30 °C, with around 16 hours of sunlight per day. In winter, temperature ranges from 6 to 13 °C, only 8 hours of sunlight. Relative humidity averages over 60% for the year in the afternoon. Burnie averages 994 mm of rainfall per year. Most of the rain is during the cooler months from May to October; the summer months bring constant daily sunshine and only occasional rainfall with temperatures up to 30 °C on the warmest and driest days. Nearly every day from January to March has a maximum temperature of 20–25 °C.
Australian rules football is popular in Burnie. The city's team was the Burnie Dockers Football Club in the Tasmanian State League, their ground was West Park Oval. Rugby union is played in Burnie; the local club is the Burnie Rugby Union Club. They are the current Tasmanian Rugby Union Statewide Division Two Premiers and were promoted to the Statewide First Division for the 2008 season, their nickname is "The Mighty Emus". The club has been in existence since 1953 but at the end of the 1980s, were forced into a temporary absence from all competitions and relinquishing their place in the statewide First Division, their home ground is Upper Burnie Sports centre. Gerry Horch is a past player, past president, life member, local identity. Soccer is represented on the north coast with Burnie United FC having four teams compete in the northern premier league, the women's team, under 18 team, reserve team and division one team. Last year they have entered two youth side in the under 16 and under 14 northern league.
Burnie hosts an ATP Challenger Tour tennis event, the Burnie International, during the week following the Australian Open. Athletics events include Burnie Ten; the Advocate newspaper was established in 1890 servicing the North West region. The mailroom is located in Burnie whilst the local press operations ceased in mid-2008 and were relocated to Launceston.. Burni