The AMC Rebel is a midsized car produced by American Motors Corporation from 1967 to 1970. It replaced the Rambler Classic; the Rebel was replaced by the similar AMC Matador for the 1971 model year. The Rebel was positioned as the high-volume seller in the independent automaker's line of models; the Rebel was available in several specialty models that included limited numbers of station wagons with special-themed trim and luxury equipment that were offered only in certain geographical areas. A high-performance, low-priced muscle car version was produced in 1970, the Machine, most recognized in its flamboyant white and blue trim; the Rebel is the shorter-wheelbase, intermediate-sized version of the longer-wheelbase, full-sized Ambassador line. For the U. S. and Canadian markets, the Rebel was built at AMC's West Assembly Line in Kenosha, in Brampton, Canada. The Rebel was assembled from complete knock down kits under license in Europe, in Mexico, in Australia, in New Zealand (by Campbell Motor Industries.
Despite the Rambler name being discontinued on the Rebel in the North American market after the 1967 model year, Rebels continued to be sold in international markets under the "Rambler" brand name. The "Rebel" name was introduced by AMC in 1957 as a special model with a big V8 engine: the Rambler Rebel, the first factory-produced lightweight muscle car, the first hint that muscle cars would be part of the company's future; the Rebel name reappeared in 1966 on the top-of-the-line version of the Rambler Classic two-door hardtop. It featured bucket seats, special trim, a revised roofline. For 1967, AMC's entire intermediate line took the Rebel name. Based on the Ambassador platform, the new Rebel models were designed under the leadership of Roy Abernethy, but the automaker changed management in January 1967 with new chairman and CEO Roy D. Chapin, Jr. trying hard to change AMC's frumpy image. The redesigned intermediate line began to be promoted with a focus on performance and print advertising as one of the "now" cars, as well as having numerous factory and dealer installed high-output options.
During its production from 1967 to 1970, the Rebel was available as a six-passenger, four-door sedan, two-door hardtop, four-door station wagon with an optional third-row seat for two more passengers. In addition, a two-door sedan with a thin B-pillar and flip out rear side windows was available in 1967 only, a convertible was offered in 1967 and 1968; the six-cylinder engines that were introduced by AMC in 1964 were continued. However, the 1967 Rebel models introduced the first of a family of all-new V8s that replaced AMC's long-lived "Gen-1" designs in the mid-sized automobile market segment; these included the 290 cu in and 343 cu in engines. With a four-barrel carburetor and dual exhaust, the 343 V8 produced 280 hp at 4800 rpm and 365 pound force-feet of torque at 3000 rpm; the new Rebels eliminated the torque tube design used in the Rambler Classic in favor of an open drive shaft with a four-link, trailing-arm rear live axle rear suspension system to provide a more comfortable coil spring ride.
The independent front suspension continued to use AMC's unequal-length control arms and high-mount coil springs. The 1967 Rambler Rebel by American Motors was new design from its predecessor, the Rambler Classic. Now a larger car riding on a two-inch longer 114-inch wheelbase, the width was increased by nearly 4 in to enlarge interior passenger space and cargo capacity; the Rebel had as much interior space as full-sized cars from Ford and GM. The new body design was in sharp contrast to its predecessor's "straight-edge" design; the Rebel featured a smooth, rounded appearance with sweeping rooflines, a "Coke-bottle" body with a shorter rear deck, greater glass area for increased visibility. However, the design "themes" such the "hop-up" fenders became so pervasive across the industry that the all-new 1967 Rebel was criticized because "viewed from any angle, anyone other than an out-and-out car buff would have trouble distinguishing the Rebel from its GM, Chrysler Corp. competition." American Motors was staying abreast of the fashion and the Rebel was the first "family car with style that rivaled function."A new safety-oriented instrument panel featured a steering column designed to collapse under impact, the gauges and controls were grouped in a hooded binnacle front of the driver with the dashboard pushed forward and away from the passengers.
The Rebel models were similar to the senior Ambassador in that they shared the same basic unit body aft of the cowl. However, the Rebel's front end had an new concept with a "venturi" grille motif in die cast metal, while its rear end featured a simple design with inward-curved taillights. Rebels came in the base 550 and deluxe 770 models, with a high-line SST available only as a two-door hardtop; the base 550 two-door sedan featured the identical "semifastback" roofline as the more expensive pillar-less hardtops, but had slim B-pillars that gave them a more "sporty" coupe appearance. The convertible featured a new "split stack" folding mechanism design that allowed a full-width backseat with room for three passengers; the four-door sedans continued a traditional notchback form, albeit smoothed from the sharp angled roofline. The Cross Country station wagons featured a standard roof rack, all-vinyl upholstery, a drop-down tailgate for carrying long loads. A third, rear-facing seat was optional with a side-hinged tailgate for
I. W. Publications
I. W. Publications was a short-lived comic book publisher in early 1960s; the company was part of I. W. Enterprises, named for the company's owner, Israel Waldman. I. W. Publications was notable for publishing unauthorized reprints of other publishers' properties; these companies were out of business — but not always. I. W. Publications published comics in a wide variety of genres, including crime, science fiction, horror and romance comics, as well as funny animal and superhero titles; the company was known for its low-budget products: most of I. W.'s comics were sold in grocery and discount stores in "three comics for a quarter" plastic bags. The numbering of most of the company's titles is misleading not starting at issue #1 and skipping issue numbers; the company produced 118 separate titles, but only 332 individual issues — many titles only published a single issue. The company published one comic book with original material: Marty Mouse #1, featuring funny animal stories by Vincent Fago, among others.
Some I. W./Super Comics titles used original cover art: illustrators included Jack Abel, Ross Andru, Sol Brodsky, Carl Burgos, Mike Esposito, John Severin, with lettering by Ben Oda. Following the publication of Fredric Wertham's Seduction of the Innocent and the 1954 comic book hearings of the United States Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency, many comic book publishers closed down shop in the years 1954–1956. Other than I. W. no new publishers debuted in 1958. Comics historian Don Markstein explained the company's methods: Waldman was able to sell them cheaply because in many cases, he was able to supply the letterpress plates they were printed from, thus avoid paying for new ones. How a man who gives little evidence of being interested in comics before emerging as an low-end publisher, came to have such production materials is that he bought out defunct publishers' storage facilities, purchasing physical materials only and ignoring intellectual property rights. In many cases, he dealt with Eastern Color Printing, which did most of America's comics, for materials their publishers had left behind when they went out of business.
The company started publishing in 1958, with comics published by Avon Comics, Fiction House, Magazine Enterprises, others. Many of these comics had the tagline "A Top Quality Comics." After releasing a great quantity of comics in 1958, the company went on hiatus until 1963, when it again released a number of comics up into 1964. The latter half of the company's existence, it published comics under the Super Comics name. Many of these titles were reprints of Toby Press, Magazine Enterprises, Quality Comics. Many of these titles had the tagline "Super Comics Seal of Quality." I. W. Publications went out of business in 1964. Waldman would be involved with the short-lived black-and-white comics magazines publisher Skywald Publications in the 1970s. "Publishers" at Wildwood Cemetery: The Spirit Database. WebCitation archive
New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad
The New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad, abbreviated NYC&St. L, was a railroad. Referred to as the Nickel Plate Road, the railroad served a large area, including trackage in the states of New York, Ohio, Indiana and Missouri, its primary connections included Buffalo, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis, Toledo; the Nickel Plate Railroad was constructed in 1881 along the South Shore of the Great Lakes connecting Buffalo and Chicago to compete with the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway. In 1964 the Nickel Plate Road and several other mid-western carriers were merged into the larger Norfolk and Western Railway; the goal of the N&W expansion was to form a more competitive and successful system serving 14 states and the Canadian province of Ontario on more than 7,000 miles of railroad. The profitable N&W was itself combined with the Southern Railway, another profitable carrier, to form Norfolk Southern Corporation in 1982. At the end of 1960 NKP operated 2,170 miles of road on 4,009 miles of track, not including the 25 miles of Lorain & West Virginia.
That year it reported 9758 million net ton-miles of 41 million passenger-miles. The Nickel Plate Historical and Technical Society works to preserve the memory of the Nickel Plate Road. During the 25 years that followed the American Civil War, railway track mileage in the United States more than doubled, changing the face of America forever. Rail transportation meant that products made in the East could be shipped West for far less than previously; this allowed for an economy of scale - larger, more efficient factories. The agricultural heartland of America was no longer confined to a market of single day's trip by wagon. Railroad and railroad construction became one of the largest industries during that era. By 1881 one out of 32 people in the United States was either employed by a railroad or engaged in railroad construction. Starting about 1877, two great railroad developers, William H. Vanderbilt and Jay Gould, began competing for the railroad traffic along the south shore of the Great Lakes.
By 1878 William Vanderbilt had a monopoly on rail traffic between New York. In addition, he was the richest man in America at that time. By 1881 Jay Gould controlled about 15% of all U. S. railroad mileage, most of it west of the Mississippi River and he was considered the most ruthless financial operator in America. Gould's major railroad east of the Mississippi River was the 335-mile Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway; the Wabash mainline ran from St. Louis, Missouri to Toledo, Ohio where it was forced to deliver its railroad traffic to William H. Vanderbilt's Lake Shore Railroad for delivery to the eastern United States. Jay Gould and William Vanderbilt together oversaw all east-west rail traffic in the mid-west; the Seney Syndicate, owners of a 350-mile railroad, the Lake Erie and Western Railroad, were interested in tapping new sources of revenue. The stage was set for the creation of Chicago and St. Louis Railroad; the Seney Syndicate, headed by banker George I. Seney, met at Seney's New York City bank and organized the New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railway Company on February 3, 1881.
The original proposal for the NYC&StL was a 340-mile railroad west from Cleveland, Ohio to Chicago, Illinois with a 325-mile branch to St. Louis, Missouri. On April 13, 1881, the New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railway Company bought the Buffalo and Chicago Railway, a railroad that been surveyed from the west side of Cleveland, Ohio to Buffalo, New York running parallel to Vanderbilt's Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway; the idea of an east-west railroad across northern Ohio was popular with the people of Ohio. They wanted to break the high freight rates charged by William Henry Vanderbilt. No one was less popular in Ohio than William Vanderbilt since the December 29, 1876 collapse of Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway's Ashtabula River trestle, where 64 people had been injured and 92 were killed or died from injuries. Another reason for the popularity of the New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railway was the positive economic impact on cities that any new railroad went through at that time.
During a newspaper war to attract the NYC&St. L the Norwalk, Ohio Chronicle Newspaper referred to it as "... double-track nickel-plated railroad." The New York, Chicago and St. Louis adopted the nickname and it became better known as the Nickel Plate Road, it was decided to start building along the surveyed route between Cleveland and Buffalo, New York rather than build the branch to St. Louis, Missouri. Five hundred days the Nickel Plate's 513-mile single-track mainline from Buffalo, New York to Chicago was complete; the railroad was estimated to require 90,000 long tons of steel rails, each weighing 60 pounds per linear yard and 1.5 million oak crossties. Additionally, the railroad required 49 major bridges, it was characterized by long sections of straight track, mild grades, impressive bridges. The Nickel Plate ran its first trains over the entire system on October 16, 1882. During construction and Gould had watched with great interest. If either of them could acquire the Nickel Plate, they could end the threat to their railroads.
If the Nickel Plate remained independent it would be able to create a substantial dent in both entrepreneurs' railroad earnings. Vanderbilt tried to lower the value of the Nickel Plate by organizing a campaign to
The Western world known as the West, refers to various nations depending on the context, most including at least part of Europe and the Americas, with the status of Latin America in dispute. There are many accepted definitions, all interrelated; the Western world is known as the Occident, in contrast to the Orient, or Eastern world. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome are considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization: the former due to its impact on philosophy, democracy and art, building designs and proportions, architecture. Western civilization is founded upon Christianity, in turn shaped by Hellenistic philosophy and Roman culture; the ancient Hellenes had been affected by ancient Near East civilizations, including Judaism and Early Christianity. In the modern era, Western culture has been influenced by the Renaissance, the Ages of Discovery and Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolutions. Through extensive imperialism and Christianization by Western powers in the 15th to 20th centuries, much of the rest of the world has been influenced by Western culture.
The concept of the Western part of the earth has its roots in the theological and emphatical division between the Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. West was literal, opposing Catholic Europe with the cultures and civilizations of Orthodox Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the remote Far East, which early-modern Europeans saw as the East. By the mid-20th century. Worldwide export of Western culture went through the new mass media: film and television and recorded music, while the development and growth of international transport and telecommunication played a decisive role in modern globalization. In modern usage, Western world sometimes refers to Europe and to areas whose populations originate from Europe, through the Age of Discovery. Western culture was influenced by many older great civilizations of the ancient Near East, such as Phoenicia, Ancient Israel, Minoan Crete, Sumer and Ancient Egypt, it originated in its vicinity.
Over time, their associated empires grew first to the east and west to include the rest of Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal areas and absorbing. They expanded to the north of the Mediterranean Sea to include Western and Southeastern Europe. Christianization of Ireland, Christianization of Bulgaria, Christianization of Kievan Rus', Christianization of Scandinavia and Christianization of Lithuania brought the rest of present-day European territory into Western civilization. Historians, such as Carroll Quigley in "The Evolution of Civilizations", contend that Western civilization was born around AD 500, after the total collapse of the Western Roman Empire, leaving a vacuum for new ideas to flourish that were impossible in Classical societies. In either view, between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Renaissance, the West experienced a period of first, considerable decline, readaptation and considerable renewed material and political development; this whole period of a millennium is known as the Middle Ages, its early part forming the "Dark Ages", designations that were created during the Renaissance and reflect the perspective on history, the self-image, of the latter period.
The knowledge of the ancient Western world was preserved during this period due to the survival of the Eastern Roman Empire and the introduction of the Catholic Church. Since the Renaissance, the West evolved beyond the influence of the ancient Greeks and Romans and the Islamic world, due to the successful Second Agricultural, Commercial and Industrial revolutions peaked with the 18th century's Age of enlightenment, through the Age of exploration's expansion of peoples of Western and Central European empires the globe-spanning colonial empires of 18th and 19th centuries. Numerous times, this expansion was accompanied by Catholic missionaries, who attempted to proselytize Christianity. There is debate among some as to. Whether Russia should be categorized as "East" or "West" has been "an ongoing discussion" for centuries; the term "Western culture" is used broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, religious beliefs, political systems, specific artifacts and technologies.
Western culture may imply: a Biblical Christian cultural influence in spiritual thinking and either ethic or moral traditions, around the Post-Classical Era and after. European cultural influences concerning artistic, folkloric and oral traditions, whose themes have been further developed by Romanticism. A Graeco-Roman Classical and Renaissance cultural influence, concerning artistic, philosophic and legal themes and traditions, the cultural social effec
Edward Sloman was an English silent film director, actor and radio broadcaster. He directed over 100 films and starred in over 30 films as an actor between 1913 and 1938. Sloman left home at age 19 to become an actor, he spent several years in the British theater and became a director in both legitimate theater and vaudeville. After a quarrel with a powerful booking agent which resulted in his being shut out of the British theatrical circuit, Sloman took an actress friend's advice and headed for Hollywood, emigrating in 1915. Introduced to director Wilfred Lucas at Universal Pictures, Sloman was soon employed as an actor paid $7.50 a day. To make ends meet, he wrote scenarios. Sloman wrote a script for a war film, acknowledged by Thomas H. Ince, a major film director in Hollywood at the time, on the basis of his work was hired by the Philadelphia-based Lubin Manufacturing Company to direct at Lubin's West Coast studio on Coronado Island near San Diego, beginning his first film in late-1915. Lubin closed its Coronado studio in 1916 due to the company's declining fortunes, which were intertwined with those of the collapsing Motion Picture Patents Company.
Sloman quit Lubin altogether and went to the American Film Company studio in Santa Barbara, where he assumed an important role in that company's expanding feature-length film output and directed other prestige projects such as the serial The Sequel to the Diamond from the Sky. American ceased production in early 1919, so Sloman went to independent producer Benjamin B. Hampton and was given the direction of a big-budget western of that year, The Westerners; the film was quite successful and led to Sloman securing steady employment with other independent producers. Sloman was hired by Universal Pictures in late 1924, his fourth Universal release, His People, 1925, a sentimental yet powerful Jewish-American melodrama, was an enormous hit and secured Sloman's position within the studio, where he remained for five years. Sloman's most successful film in 1927, starred Russian actor Ivan Mozzhukhin in a story of a beautiful Jewish girl whose Russian village is invaded by Cossacks, she is given a choice by the Cossack chieftain of either sleeping with him or seeing her village destroyed.
Sloman's The Foreign Legion and We Americans were well received, but his last silent, the restrained and poetic Girl on the Barge garnered critical ridicule for its clumsily inserted talking sequences and was a financial disaster. Sloman left Universal, made a few films for lesser companies such as the exploration thriller The Lost Zeppelin for short-lived Tiffany-Stahl Productions and Hell's Island for Columbia Pictures, went under contract to Paramount Pictures. There he directed several important early talkies in less than two years, such as The Kibitzer, The Conquering Horde, the celebrated quasi-horror film Murder by the Clock, Gun Smoke, His Woman, his career declined thereafter, he directed only four more feature films between 1932 and 1938. After directing over 100 films and starring in over 30, Sloman made his last film in 1938 and in 1939 left the film industry to enter radio broadcasting as a writer and director; the majority of Sloman's works have been lost. However, his 1927 Universal silent Alias the Deacon starring Jean Hersholt is held by the Library of Congress.
He died in Woodland Hills, California in 1972 aged 86. Edward Sloman on IMDb Edward Sloman at Find a Grave
The Westerner (TV series)
The Westerner is a highbrow American Western series that aired on NBC from September 30 to December 30, 1960. Created and produced by Sam Peckinpah, who directed some episodes, the series was a Four Star Television production; the Westerner stars Brian Keith as amiable, unexceptional cowhand/drifter Dave Blassingame, features John Dehner as rakish Burgundy Smith, who appeared in three episodes. Dave Blassingame was a decent, ordinary man, handy with a gun and his fists. A cowboy and drifter, he could sometimes behave amorally in his quest to get enough money together to buy his own ranch, but always did the right thing in the end, remained true to himself, his amiable dog Brown was played by Spike, trained by Frank Weatherwax and is best known for playing the title role in Old Yeller. Brown figured prominently in a number of episodes, appeared in all of them, was always seen faithfully following Blassingame in the end credits. Brian Keith as Dave Blassingame Spike as Brown Hank Gobble as Digger Jimmy Lee Cook as Band Member Michael T. Mikler as Band Member Marie Selland as Addie McKeen John Dehner as Burgundy Smith Guest stars included Malcolm Atterbury, Ben Cooper, Katy Jurado, John M. Pickard, one episode memorably featured Warren Oates as a drunk passing out at a table.
The pilot for The Westerner appeared on CBS's Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theater. The musical score was the work of Four Star's Herschel Burke Gilbert. For rerun syndication it was grouped with three other short-lived Western series from the same company, Black Saddle starring Peter Breck, Johnny Ringo starring Don Durant, Law of the Plainsman starring Michael Ansara, under the umbrella title The Westerners, bracketed with hosting sequences featuring Keenan Wynn; the critically acclaimed series ran for 13 episodes. An unsuccessful attempt to update and revive the hardbitten series aired as a January 1963 episode of The Dick Powell Theater, "The Losers", directed by Peckinpah and featuring Lee Marvin as Dave Blassingame and Keenan Wynn as Burgundy Smith, but set in the modern West. Rosemary Clooney portrayed the leading lady. One of the episodes of "The Westerner", "Line Camp", was the basis for the 1968 Charlton Heston film Will Penny. Brian Keith played the same character again in 1991's The Gambler Returns: The Luck of the Draw, which featured a number of 1950s and 1960s television Western series leads reprising their roles in quick cameo appearances.
A two-DVD set of the complete series was released by Shout! Factory in February 2017; the Westerner on IMDb
Texas and Pacific Railway
The Texas and Pacific Railway Company was created by federal charter in 1871 with the purpose of building a southern transcontinental railroad between Marshall and San Diego, California. The T&P had a significant foothold in Texas by the mid-1880s. Construction difficulties delayed westward progress, until American financier Jay Gould acquired an interest in the railroad in 1879; the T&P never reached San Diego. The Missouri Pacific Railroad controlled by Gould, leased the T&P from 1881 to 1885 and continued a cooperative relationship with the T&P after the lease ended. Missouri Pacific gained majority ownership of the Texas and Pacific Railway's stock in 1928 but allowed it to continue operation as a separate entity until they were merged on October 15, 1976. On January 8, 1980, the Missouri Pacific Railroad was purchased by the Union Pacific Railroad; because of lawsuits filed by competing railroads, the merger was not approved until September 13, 1982. However, due to outstanding bonds of the Missouri Pacific, the actual merger with the Union Pacific Railroad took place on January 1, 1997.
Several reminders of the Texas and Pacific remain to this day two towering buildings which help define the southern side of Fort Worth's skyline—the original station and office tower and a warehouse located to the west. In 2001, the passenger platforms at the T&P station were put into use for the first time in decades as the westernmost terminus for the Trinity Railway Express, a commuter rail line connecting Fort Worth and Dallas; the warehouse still exists. The passenger terminal and corporate offices have been converted into luxury condominiums. Major named passenger trains of the Texas and Pacific: Louisiana Eagle -- New Orleans - Dallas - Fort Worth Texas Eagle -- St. Louis - various Texas points: western section going to El Paso, with connecting Southern Pacific service to Los Angeles. Note: This is a different Southern Pacific Railroad company from the one referred to above. March 21, 1872 - The Southern Pacific is purchased. March 30 - Southern Trans-Continental Railway Company is purchased.
1872 - Thomas A. Scott, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, becomes president of the Texas & Pacific. May 2, 1872 - an Act of Congress changes the name to Texas and Pacific Railway Company June 12, 1873 - Memphis, El Paso and Pacific Railroad Company purchased. July 1, 1873 - First rail line opened between Longview and Dallas, Texas December 28, 1873 - Rail line from Marshall, Texas, to Texarkana, placed in service. 1881 - Abilene, TX connected to the line. 1925 - Lima Locomotive Works delivers 2-10-4 locomotives to the T&P. The type is nicknamed "Texas" as a result. October 15, 1976 - merged with the Missouri Pacific"T&P" includes its subsidiary roads; the Texas and Pacific was unable to finance construction to San Diego, as a result the Southern Pacific was able to build from California to Sierra Blanca, Texas. In doing so, Southern Pacific used land designated for, surveyed by Texas and Pacific, in its rail line from Yuma, Arizona, to El Paso, Texas; this resulted in lawsuits, which were settled with agreements to share tracks, to cooperate in the building of new tracks.
Most of the features advantageous to Texas and Pacific were disallowed by legislation. Under the influence of General Buell the TPRR was to be 3 ft 6 in gauge, but this was overturned when the state legislature passed a law requiring 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge. From 1873 to 1881 the Texas and Pacific built a total of 972 miles of track. T&P, received land only for the construction of track east of Fort Worth; this meant. The State of Texas did not award the additional area because, it said, the construction had not been completed within the time required by the firm's charter; the state Attorney General Charles A. Culberson filed suit to recover 301,893 acres on the grounds that "the road had been granted land on sidetracks and on land not subject to location." The state recovered 256,046 acres giving a net grant to the T&P of 4,917,074 acres, or 7,683 square miles. By comparison, the state of Connecticut is 5,543 square miles; the Texas Pacific Land Trust was created in 1888 in the wake of the bankruptcy of the T&P in order to provide an efficient and orderly way to sell the railway's land, receiving at the time in excess of 3.5 million acres.
As of 31 December 2006 the Trust was still the largest private land owner in the State of Texas, owning the surface estate of 966,392 acres spread across 20 counties in the western part of the state. The Trust generates income from oil & gas royalties through its 1/128 non-participating royalty interest under 85,414 acres and 1/16 non-participating royalty i