War film is a film genre concerned with warfare about naval, air, or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama. It has been associated with the 20th century; the fateful nature of battle scenes means that war films end with them. Themes explored include combat and escape, camaraderie between soldiers, the futility and inhumanity of battle, the effects of war on society, the moral and human issues raised by war. War films are categorized by their milieu, such as the Korean War; the stories told may be historical drama, or biographical. Critics have noted similarities between the war film. Nations such as China, Indonesia and Russia have their own traditions of war film, centred on their own revolutionary wars but taking varied forms, from action and historical drama to wartime romance. Subgenres, not distinct, include anti-war, animated and documentary. There are subgenres of the war film in specific theatres such as the western desert, the Pacific in the Second World War, or Vietnam.
The war film genre is not tightly defined: the American Film Institute, for example, speaks of "films to grapple with the Great War" without attempting to classify these. However, some directors and critics have offered at least tentative definitions; the director Sam Fuller defined the genre by saying that "a war film’s objective, no matter how personal or emotional, is to make a viewer feel war." John Belton identified four narrative elements of the war film within the context of Hollywood production: a) the suspension of civilian morality during times of war, b) primacy of collective goals over individual motivations, c) rivalry between men in predominantly male groups as well as marginalization and objectification of women, d) depiction of the reintegration of veterans. The film critic Stephen Neale suggests that the genre is for the most part well defined and uncontentious, since war films are those about war being waged in the 20th century, with combat scenes central to the drama. However, Neale notes, films set in the American Civil War or the American Indian Wars of the 19th century were called war films in the time before the First World War.
The critic Julian Smith argues, on the contrary, that the war film lacks the formal boundaries of a genre like the Western, but that in practice, "successful and influential" war films are about modern wars, in particular World War II, with the combination of mobile forces and mass killing. The film scholar Kathryn Kane points out some similarities between the war film genre and the Western. Both genres use opposing concepts like war and peace and savagery. War films frame World War II as a conflict between "good" and "evil" as represented by the Allied forces and Nazi Germany whereas the Western portrays the conflict between civilized settlers and the savage indigenous peoples. James Clarke notes the similarity between a Western like Sam Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch and "war-movie escapades" like The Dirty Dozen. Film historian Jeanine Basinger states that she began with a preconception of what the war film genre would be, namely that What I knew in advance was what every member of our culture would know about World War II combat films—that they contained a hero, a group of mixed types, a military objective of some sort.
They take place in the actual combat zones of World War II, against the established enemies, on the ground, the sea, or in the air. They contain many repeated events, such as mail call, all presented visually with appropriate uniforms and iconography of battle. Further, Basinger considers Bataan to provide a definition-by-example of "the World War II combat film", in which a diverse and unsuited group of "hastily assembled volunteers" hold off a much larger group of the enemy through their "bravery and tenacity", she argues. Since she notes that there were in fact only five true combat films made during the Second World War, in her view these few films, central to the genre, are outweighed by the many other films that lie on the margins of being war films. However, other critics such as Russell Earl Shain propose a far broader definition of war film, to include films that deal "with the roles of civilians, espionage agents, soldiers in any of the aspects of war" Neale points out that genres overlap, with combat scenes for different purposes in other types of film, suggests that war films are characterised by combat which "determines the fate of the principal characters".
This in turn pushes combat scenes to the climactic ends of war films. Not all critics agree, that war films must be about 20th-century wars. James Clarke includes Edward Zwick's Oscar-winning Glory among the war films he discusses in detail; the military historian Antony Beevor "despair" at how film-makers from America and Britain "play fast and loose with the facts", yet imply that "their version is as good as the truth." For example, he calls the 2000 American film U-571 a "shameless deception" for pretending that a US warship had helped to win the Battle of the Atlantic—seven months before America entered the war. He is critical of Christopher Nolan's 2017 film Dunkirk with its unhistorically empty beaches, low-level air combat over the sea, res
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Clarence Leon Brown was an American film director. Born in Clinton, Massachusetts, to Larkin Harry Brown, a cotton manufacturer, Katherine Ann Brown, Brown moved to Tennessee when he was 11 years old, he attended Knoxville High School and the University of Tennessee, both in Knoxville, graduating from the university at the age of 19 with two degrees in engineering. An early fascination in automobiles led Brown to a job with the Stevens-Duryea Company to his own Brown Motor Car Company in Alabama, he abandoned the car dealership after developing an interest in motion pictures around 1913. He was hired by the Peerless Studio at Fort Lee, New Jersey, became an assistant to the French-born director Maurice Tourneur. After serving in World War I, Brown was given his first co-directing credit for The Great Redeemer; that year, he directed a major portion of The Last of the Mohicans after Tourneur was injured in a fall. Brown moved to Universal in 1924, to MGM, where he stayed until the mid-1950s. At MGM he was one of the main directors of their female stars.
He was nominated five times for the Academy Award as a director and once as a producer, but he never received an Oscar. However, he won Best Foreign Film for Anna Karenina, starring Garbo at the 1935 Venice International Film Festival. Brown's films earned nine Oscars. Brown himself received six Academy Award nominations and in 1949, he won the British Academy Award for the film version of William Faulkner's Intruder in the Dust. In 1957, Brown was awarded The George Eastman Award, given by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film. Brown retired a wealthy man due to his real estate investments, but refused to watch new movies, as he feared they might cause him to restart his career; the Clarence Brown Theater, on the campus of the University of Tennessee, is named in his honor. He holds the record for most nominations for the Academy Award for Best Director without a win, with six. Clarence Brown was married four times, his first marriage was to Paul Herndon Pratt in 1913, which lasted until their divorce in 1920.
The couple produced a daughter, Adrienne Brown, in 1917. His second marriage was to Ona Wilson, which lasted from 1922 until their divorce in 1927, he was engaged to Dorothy Sebastian and Mona Maris, although he did not marry either of them, with Maris saying she ended their relationship because she had her "own ideas of marriage then." He married his third wife, Alice Joyce, in 1933 and they divorced in 1945. His last marriage was to Marian Spies in 1946, which lasted until his death in 1987. Brown died at the Saint John's Health Center in Santa Monica, California from kidney failure on August 17, 1987, at the age of 97, he is interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in California. On February 8, 1960, Brown received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1752 Vine Street, for his contributions to the motion pictures industry The Signal Tower - Switch Man Ben-Hur - Chariot Race Spectator Navy Blues - Roller Coaster Rider Possessed - Man on Merry-Go-Round Brownlow, Kevin. "Clarence Brown" in The Parade's Gone By New York: Knopf Estrin, Allen.
"The Hollywood Professionals, Vol. 6: Frank Capra, George Cukor, Clarence Brown", AS Barnes Bastarache, A. J. An Extraordinary Town, How one of America's smallest towns shaped the world - A Historical Marketing Book by A. J. Bastarache. Young, Gwenda.'Clarence Brown: From Knoxville to Hollywood and Back'. Journal of East Tennessee History', pp. 53–73 Young, Gwenda. "Star Maker: The Career of Clarence Brown". Sight and Sound. British Film Institute. Archived from the original on 2007-05-14. Young, Gwenda. Clarence Brown: Hollywood's Forgotten Master. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2018 Neely, Jack. "Clarence Brown: The Forgotten Director", Metro Pulse Clarence Brown on IMDb "An Extraordinary Town - Clinton, Massachusetts", extraordinarytown.com Information available on the actual dates and nominations, plus commentary on the nominations for multiple roles/films in 1929/1930, oscars.org Clarence Brown profile, virtual-history.com
Peter Sydney Ernest Lawford was an English actor and socialite, who lived in the United States throughout his adult life. He was a member of the "Rat Pack" and the brother-in-law of President John F. Kennedy and senators Robert F. Kennedy and Edward Kennedy. From the 1940s to the 1960s, he was a well-known celebrity and starred in a number of acclaimed films. In years, he was noted more for his off-screen activities as a celebrity than for his acting. Born in London in 1923, he was the only child of Lieutenant General Sir Sydney Turing Barlow Lawford, KBE and May Sommerville Bunny. At the time of Peter's birth, his mother was married to Lieutenant colonel Dr Ernest Vaughn Aylen D. S. O, one of Sir Sydney's officers, while his father was married to Muriel Williams. At the time and Ernest Aylen were living apart. May confessed to Aylen that the child was not a revelation that resulted in a double divorce. Sydney and May wed in September 1924 after their divorces were finalised and when their son was one year old.
Lawford's family was connected to the English aristocracy through his uncle Ernest Lawford's wife as well as his aunt Ethel Turner Lawford. His aunt, Jessie Bruce Lawford, another of his father's sisters, was the second wife of the Hon Hartley Williams, senior puisne judge of the Supreme Court of the colony of Victoria, Australia. A relative, through his mother, was Australian artist Rupert Bunny, he spent his early childhood in France and, owing to his family's travels, was never formally educated. Instead, he was schooled by governesses and tutors, his education included tennis and ballet lessons."In the beginning," his mother observed, "he had no homework. When he was older he had Spanish and music added to his studies, he read only selected books: English fairy stories and French classics. Having studied Peter for so long, I decided he was quite unfitted for any career except art, so I cut Latin, high mathematics and substituted dramatics instead."Because of the varying national and religious backgrounds of his tutors, Lawford "attended various services in churches, cathedrals and for some time was an usher in a Christian Science Sunday School...."Around 1930, aged seven, he made his acting debut in the English film Poor Old Bill.
He had an uncredited bit in A Gentleman of Paris. At the age of 14, Lawford injured his right arm in an accident when it went through a glass door; the injury compromised the use of his lower arm and hand with irreversible nerve damage, which he learned to hide. The injury was judged to be serious enough to prevent his entrance into the armed forces, which his parents had planned. Instead, Lawford decided to pursue a career as an actor, a decision that resulted in one of his aunts refusing to leave him her considerable fortune, as planned. In 1938, Lawford was travelling through Hollywood, he was screen tested and made his Hollywood debut in a minor part in the film Lord Jeff starring Freddie Bartholomew. The outbreak of World War II found the Lawfords in Florida. In a matter of days, they realized, their money was in Britain and Britain was at war. Their assets were frozen. Peter 16, took a job parking cars; when he saved enough money for the fare, he went back to Hollywood where he supported himself working as a theater usher until he began to get film work.
The advent of World War II saw an increase in British war stories and Lawford found himself in demand playing military personnel, albeit in uncredited parts. He could be glimpsed in Eagle Squadron, both times as pilots, his decent role in a major film production was in A Yank at Eton, starring Mickey Rooney, in which Lawford played a snobbish bully. It was popular at the box office. Lawford was a cadet in Thunder Birds: Soldiers of the Air and Junior Army, a soldier in Random Harvest, Immortal Sergeant, London Blackout Murders, a navigator in Assignment in Brittany, he had a billed part in The Purple V. At MGM he was a student in Above Suspicion, a soldier in Pilot #5, a naval commander in The Sky's the Limit, an Australian in The Man from Down Under, he had a minor role at Republic's Someone to Remember and The West Side Kid, the latter directed by Sherman. Lawford played a soldier in Sahara and sailors in Sherlock Holmes Faces Death and Corvette K-225, he was a Frenchman in Paris After Dark and Flesh and Fantasy, was a student in MGM's Girl Crazy and The Adventures of Mark Twain.
Lawford's career stepped up a notch when signed to a long term contract to MGM in June 1943. The studio signed him with a specific role in mind - The White Cliffs of Dover, in which he played a young soldier during the Second World War; the film was popular. Lawford had a small role in The Canterville Ghost and Mrs. Parkington, playing a suitor of Greer Garson. MGM gave him another important role in The Picture of Dorian Gray. Lawford's first leading role came in Son of a big hit. Lawford was put in a Kathryn Grayson-June Allyson musical, Two Sisters from Boston, popular. Ernst Lubitsch used him at Fox in Cluny Brown where he was billed after Charles Boyer and Jennifer Jones, he won a Modern Screen magazine readers' poll as the most
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Charles Van Dell Johnson was an American film and television actor and dancer. He was a major star at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer during and after World War II. Johnson was the embodiment of the "boy-next-door wholesomeness made him a popular Hollywood star in the'40s and'50s," playing "the red-haired, freckle-faced soldier, sailor or bomber pilot who used to live down the street" in MGM films during the war years, with such films as Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, A Guy Named Joe, The Human Comedy. Johnson made occasional World War II films through the end of the 1960s, played a military officer in one of his final feature films, in 1992. At the time of his death in December 2008, he was one of the last surviving matinee idols of Hollywood's "golden age". Charles Van Dell Johnson was born in Newport, Rhode Island, the only child of Loretta, a housewife, Charles E. Johnson, a plumber and real-estate salesman, his father was born in Sweden and came to the United States as a young child, his mother had Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry.
His mother was an alcoholic who left the family when he was a child. Johnson performed at social clubs in Newport while in high school, he moved to New York City after graduating from high school in 1935 and joined an off-Broadway revue, Entre Nous. After touring New England in a theatre troupe as a substitute dancer, his acting career began in earnest in the Broadway revue New Faces of 1936. Johnson worked in summer resorts near New York City. In 1939, director and playwright George Abbott cast him in Rodgers and Hart's Too Many Girls in the role of a college boy and as understudy for all three male leads. After an uncredited role in the film adaptation of Too Many Girls, Abbott hired him as a chorus boy and Gene Kelly's understudy in Pal Joey. Johnson was about to move back to New York when Lucille Ball took him to Chasen's Restaurant, where she introduced him to MGM casting director Billy Grady, sitting at the next table; this led to screen tests by Hollywood studios. His test at Columbia Pictures was unsuccessful, but Warner Brothers put him on contract at $300 a week.
He was cast as a cub reporter opposite Faye Emerson in the 1942 film Murder in the Big House. His eyebrows and hair were dyed black for the role. Johnson's all-American good looks and easy demeanor were ill-suited to the gritty movies Warner made at the time, the studio dropped him at the expiration of his six-month contract. Johnson was soon signed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; as with other MGM contract players, Johnson was provided with classes in acting and diction. He had an uncredited part as a soldier in Somewhere I'll Find You, he attracted attention in a small part in The War Against a solid hit. This encouraged MGM to cast Johnson in their long-running Dr. Kildare series; these films had starred Lew Ayres as Lionel Barrymore as Dr Gillespie. Johnson played Dr. Randall Adams in Dr. Gillespie's New Assistant. MGM cast Johnson as Mickey Rooney's soldier brother in The Human Comedy, a huge hit, he returned as Randall Adams in Dr. Gillespie's Criminal Case and was in uniform again for Pilot No. 5.
He had a small role as a reporter in Madame Curie. Johnson's big break was in A Guy Named Joe, starring Spencer Tracy and Irene Dunne, in which he played a young pilot who acquires a deceased pilot as his guardian angel. Midway through the movie's production in 1943, Johnson was involved in a serious car accident that left him with a metal plate in his forehead and a number of scars on his face that the plastic surgery of the time could not correct or conceal; when the crash happened, Johnson's scalp was nearly sheared off. The closest rescue units responded, but because the accident happened just over the local county line, the rescuers had to stop at the county line and could not help him. Johnson had to slap his scalp into place and crawl nearly 50 yards to get to the rescue workers for aid. MGM wanted to replace him in A Guy Named Joe, but Tracy insisted that Johnson be allowed to finish the picture, despite his long absence; the injury exempted Johnson from service in World War II. The film was a huge hit earning a profit of over a million dollars and Johnson was launched as a star.
With many actors serving in the armed forces, the accident benefited Johnson's career. He said, "There were five of us. There was Jimmy Craig, Bob Young, Bobby Walker, Peter Lawford, myself. All tested for the same part all the time." Johnson was busy playing soldiers. I didn't know which branch of the service I was in!"MGM built up his image as the all-American boy in war dramas and musicals. His first top billed role in an "A" was the musical Two Girls and a Sailor, a big success, he had a smaller part in The White Cliffs of Dover reprised his role as Dr Adams in 3 Men in White. Johnson played Ted Lawson in Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, which told the story of the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo in April 1942, was another big success, he played Dr Adams one last time in Between Two Women, which Johnson's popularity helped propel to a gross of over two million dollars – a remarkable figure for a B picture. More popular was Thrill of a Romance (