Oprah Winfrey is an American media executive, talk show host, television producer and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show, the highest-rated television program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011 in Chicago. Dubbed the "Queen of All Media", she was the richest African American of the 20th century and North America's first black multi-billionaire, has been ranked the greatest black philanthropist in American history, she has been sometimes ranked as the most influential woman in the world. Winfrey was born into poverty in rural Mississippi to a teenage single mother and raised in inner-city Milwaukee, she has stated that she was molested during her childhood and early teens and became pregnant at 14. Winfrey was sent to live with the man she calls her father, Vernon Winfrey, a barber in Tennessee, landed a job in radio while still in high school. By 19, she was a co-anchor for the local evening news. Winfrey's emotional, extemporaneous delivery led to her transfer to the daytime talk show arena, after boosting a third-rated local Chicago talk show to first place, she launched her own production company and became internationally syndicated.
Credited with creating a more intimate confessional form of media communication, Winfrey popularized and revolutionized the tabloid talk show genre pioneered by Phil Donahue. Through this medium, Winfrey broke 20th-century taboos and allowed LGBT people to enter the mainstream through television appearances. In 1994, she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. By the mid-1990s, Winfrey had reinvented her show with a focus on literature, self-improvement and spirituality. Though she was criticized for unleashing a confession culture, promoting controversial self-help ideas, having an emotion-centered approach, she has been praised for overcoming adversity to become a benefactor to others. Winfrey had emerged as a political force in the 2008 presidential race, delivering about one million votes to Barack Obama in the razor close 2008 Democratic primary. In 2013, Winfrey was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama and honorary doctorate degrees from Duke and Harvard.
In 2008, she formed Oprah Winfrey Network. Winfrey's first name was spelled "Orpah" on her birth certificate after the biblical figure in the Book of Ruth, but people mispronounced it and "Oprah" stuck, she was born in Mississippi, to an unmarried teenage mother. She said that her conception was due to a single sexual encounter and the couple broke up not long after, her mother, Vernita Lee, was a housemaid. Winfrey's biological father is noted as Vernon Winfrey, a coal miner turned barber turned city councilman, in the Armed Forces when she was born. However, Mississippi farmer and World War II veteran Noah Robinson Sr. has claimed to be her biological father. A genetic test in 2006 determined that her matrilineal line originated among the Kpelle ethnic group, in the area that today is Liberia, her genetic makeup was determined to be 89% Sub-Saharan African, 8% Native American, 3% East Asian. However, the East Asian markers may, given the imprecision of genetic testing be Native American. After Winfrey's birth, her mother traveled north, Winfrey spent her first six years living in rural poverty with her maternal grandmother, Hattie Mae Lee, so poor that Winfrey wore dresses made of potato sacks, for which the local children made fun of her.
Her grandmother taught her to read before the age of three and took her to the local church, where she was nicknamed "The Preacher" for her ability to recite Bible verses. When Winfrey was a child, her grandmother would hit her with a stick when she did not do chores or if she misbehaved in any way. At age six, Winfrey moved to an inner-city neighborhood in Milwaukee, with her mother, less supportive and encouraging than her grandmother had been as a result of the long hours she worked as a maid. Around this time, Lee had given birth to another daughter, Winfrey's younger half-sister, Patricia who died of causes related to cocaine addiction. By 1962, Lee was having difficulty raising both daughters so Winfrey was temporarily sent to live with Vernon in Nashville, Tennessee. While Winfrey was in Nashville, Lee gave birth to a third daughter, put up for adoption and was also named Patricia. Winfrey did not learn she had a second half-sister until 2010. By the time Winfrey moved back with her mother, Lee had given birth to a boy named Jeffrey, Winfrey's half-brother, who died of AIDS-related causes in 1989.
Winfrey has stated she was molested by her cousin, a family friend, starting when she was nine years old, something she first announced to her viewers on a 1986 episode of her TV show regarding sexual abuse. When Winfrey discussed the alleged abuse with family members at age 24, they refused to believe her account. Winfrey once commented that she had chosen not to be a mother because she had not been mothered well. At 13, after suffering what she described as years of abuse, Winfrey ran away from home; when she was 14, she became pregnant but her son was born prematurely and he died shortly after birth. Winfrey stated she felt betrayed by the family member who had sold the story of her son to the National Enquirer in 1990, she began attending Lincoln High School in Milwaukee, but after early success i
A debut novel is the first novel a novelist publishes. Debut novels are the author's first opportunity to make an impact on the publishing industry, thus the success or failure of a debut novel can affect the ability of the author to publish in the future. First-time novelists without a previous published reputation, such as publication in nonfiction, magazines, or literary journals struggle to find a publisher. Sometimes new novelists will self-publish their debut novels, because publishing houses will not risk the capital needed to market books by an unknown author to the public. Most publishers purchase rights to novels debut novels, through literary agents, who screen client work before sending it to publishers; these hurdles to publishing reflect both publishers' limits in resources for reviewing and publishing unknown works, that readers buy more books by established authors with a reputation than first-time writers. For this reason, literary communities have created awards that help acknowledge exceptional debut novels.
In contemporary British and American publishing markets, most authors receive only a small monetary advance before publication of their debut novel. For an example of an unusually high advance: in 2013, the anticipated City on Fire by Garth Risk Hallberg captured the attention of ten publishers who started a bidding war that ended with Knopf buying the rights to the book for 2 million dollars; the book's film production rights were purchased soon after by producer Scott Rudin. For similar reasons that advances are not large—novels don't sell well until the author gains a literary reputation. There are exceptions, however; the novel saw huge sales because she had an established audience, publishers were willing to run a large print run. By comparison, bestselling Fifty Shades of Grey sold 14,814 copies in its first week, or popular novels, like Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, only receive small initial print runs. Debut novels that do well will be reprinted as sales increase due to word of mouth popularity of the novels — publishers don't run large marketing campaigns for debut novelists.
There are numerous literary prizes for debut novels associated with genre or nationality. These prizes are in recognition of the difficulties faced by debut novelists and bring attention to deserving works and authors; some of the more prestigious awards around the world include the American Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award, the French Prix Goncourt du Premier Roman, the British Guardian First Book Award, the German Aspekte-Literaturpreis and the Japanese Noma Literary Prize. The New York Times commentator Leslie Jamison described the big, very public, "to do" about debut novels and novelists created by these book awards, as associated with the excitement of finding authors and writers without established legacies. In the same piece for the Times, Ayana Mathis describes the debut novel as a "a piece of the writer’s soul in a way that subsequent books can’t be", because the novel is a work of passion and a product of all of their life before that moment. An author's first novel will not be as complex stylistically or thematically as subsequent works and will not feature the author's typical literary characteristics.
Huffington Post's Dave Astor attributes these to two forces: first that authors are still learning their own unique style and audiences are more willing to read works from unknown authors if they resemble more conventional styles of literature. As examples, Astor points to J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit, Margaret Atwood's The Edible Woman and Charles Dickens' The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, all of which lack the complexity or stylistic characteristics which audiences praise in the authors' work. Sometimes, instead of writing novels to begin their career, some authors will start with short stories, which can be easier to publish and allow authors to get started in writing fiction. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest attested usage of "first novel" is from 1876. However, the term is much older, with instances going back to at least 1800; the Oxford English Dictionary doesn't have an entry for "debut novel." The earliest usage of "debut novel" in the Google Books database is 1930.
The Google Books Ngram Viewer shows it becoming more used after about 1980, gaining in popularity since
Harpo Productions is a U. S.-based multimedia production company founded by Oprah Winfrey and is the sole subsidiary of her media and entertainment company, Inc. Harpo Productions' subsidiaries consist of Harpo Print, LLC. One of its subsidiaries, Harpo Films, was shut down in early 2013. Another, Harpo Radio, was shut down January 1, 2015 after satellite radio provider SiriusXM decided not to renew the deal with the radio service. Announced December 4, 2017, the company held 50% of the Oprah Winfrey Network now hold 25.5% of the stake in OWN. Discovery Communications purchased 24.5% of OWN for $70 million and have majority control of OWN. The company was based in Chicago, Harpo Studios was located in the Near West Side neighborhood of Chicago until the studios closed in 2015. Harpo Productions and OWN are both based in West Hollywood, California. On January 1, 2011, the Oprah Winfrey Network launched, it is co-owned by Inc.. The network replaced the Discovery Health Channel, a cable channel owned by Discovery Communications, Inc.
The network boasts a variety of new shows, including some hosted by the stable of experts Winfrey has cultivated on her daytime talk show including: The Gayle King Show, Our America with Lisa Ling, In The Bedroom with Dr. Laura Berman and Enough Already! with Peter Walsh. Harpo Studios was the home of The Oprah Winfrey Show, from January 15, 1990. Located in Near West Side neighborhood of Chicago; the set housed The Rosie Show, an American evening television talk show, hosted and produced by actress and comedian Rosie O'Donnell, airing on the Oprah Winfrey Network. Harpo Studios has Emmy Award-winning teams in production designs, camera work, audio direction and graphic design, it served as the location for the set of The Women of Brewster Place. Scenes from Beloved were filmed on a set in Harpo Studios; the studio was sold to developer Sterling Bay in 2014 and was demolished in 2016. The site would be home to the new global headquarters of McDonald's; the land where the production studio sat once housed the 2nd Regiment Armory, used as a makeshift morgue for victims of the capsizing of the steamer SS Eastland.
The 88,000-square-foot facility was opened in the late 1980s for her show. Founded in 1993, Harpo Films, Inc. was the biggest division of Harpo Productions, run by Kate Forte for 18 years. It was an active supplier of motion pictures and producing award-winning features and long-form television programs, including the "Oprah Winfrey Presents" telefilms for the ABC television network. Harpo Films was based in California. In late 2008, Harpo Films signed an exclusive output pact with HBO. Harpo Films had a deal with ABC, which included production of Oprah Winfrey Presents: Mitch Albom's For One More Day. In February 2013, Harpo Films was shut down, citing that "the demand for long-form projects on the broadcast side, has dried out." Many of its employees will move on to Harpo Studios' new scripted series division. Beloved The Great Debaters Precious: Based on the Novel Push by Sapphire The Hundred Foot Journey Selma The Water Man Oprah Winfrey Presents: Mitch Albom's For One More Day Tuesdays with Morrie Their Eyes Were Watching God Amy & Isabelle David & Lisa The Wedding Before Women Had Wings Harpo Radio, Inc. was the holding company for the Oprah & Friends channel.
Oprah & Friends featured a broad range of daily and weekly programming on a variety of topics including self-improvement, fitness, health, home and current events hosted by personalities from The Oprah Winfrey Show and O, The Oprah Magazine. Regular presenters included specialists from a variety of fields, including Dr. Maya Angelou, Dr. Robin Smith, Marianne Williamson, Dr. Mehmet Oz, Bob Greene, Nate Berkus, Jean Chatzky, Gayle King, Rabbi Shumley Boteach, Holly Robinson Peete and Rodney Peete, Michael Losier. Oprah, herself personally interviewed some of the most influential voices in the spiritual realm on her weekly program, Oprah's Soul Series. Harpo Radio, Inc. produced and broadcast the Oprah & Friends channel from an XM studio in Chicago, from New York, New York. It shut down on January 1, 2015. Together with Hearst Magazines, Harpo Print, LLC publishes The Oprah Magazine; the company published O at Home, which Hearst folded in 2008 after a four-year run. Harpo Productions Harpo Productions on IMDb
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Gloria Naylor was an American novelist, known for novels including The Women of Brewster Place, Linden Hills and Mama Day. Naylor was born in New York on January 25, 1950, the oldest child of Roosevelt Naylor and Alberta McAlpin; the Naylors, sharecroppers in Robinsonville, had migrated to Harlem to escape life in the segregated South and seek new opportunities in New York City. Her father became a transit worker. Though Naylor's mother had little education, she loved to read, encouraged her daughter to read and keep a journal. Before her teen years, Gloria began writing prodigiously, filling many notebooks with observations and short stories. In 1963, Naylor's family moved to Queens and her mother joined the Jehovah's Witnesses. An outstanding student who read voraciously, Naylor was placed into advanced classes in high school, where she immersed herself in the work of nineteenth century British novelists, her educational aspirations, were delayed by the shock of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in her senior year.
She decided to postpone her college education, becoming a missionary for the Jehovah's Witnesses in New York, North Carolina, Florida instead. She left seven years as "things weren't getting better, but worse."From 1975 to 1981 Naylor attended Medgar Evers College and Brooklyn College while working as a telephone operator, majoring in nursing before switching to English. It was at that time that she read Toni Morrison's novel The Bluest Eye, a pivotal experience for her, she began to avidly read the work of Zora Neale Hurston, Alice Walker, other black women novelists, none of which she had been exposed to previously. She went on to earn an M. A. in African-American studies at Yale University. Naylor earned her bachelor's degree in English at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York in 1981, she obtained a master's degree in African American Studies from Yale University in 1983. She was an honorary member of Delta Sigma Theta sorority. Naylor's debut novel, The Women of Brewster Place, was published in 1982 and won the 1983 National Book Award in the category First Novel.
It was adapted as a 1989 television miniseries of the same name by Oprah Winfrey's Harpo Productions. Naylor's work is featured in such anthologies as Breaking Ice: An Anthology of Contemporary African-American Fiction, Calling the Wind: Twentieth-Century African-American Short Stories and Daughters of Africa. During her career as a professor, Naylor taught writing and literature at several universities, including George Washington University, New York University, Boston University, University of Kent, University of Pennsylvania and Cornell University. Naylor died of a heart attack on September 28, 2016, while visiting St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands, she was 66. During her studies at Brooklyn College, Naylor became immersed in the works of African-American female authors such as Zora Neale Hurston, Alice Walker, Toni Morrison. Drawing inspiration from these authors, Naylor began writing stories centered on the lives of African-American women, which resulted in her first novel, The Women of Brewster Place.
The Women of Brewster Place, ISBN 0-7868-6421-4 Linden Hills, ISBN 0-14-008829-6 The Meanings of a Word Mama Day, ISBN 0-89919-716-7 Bailey's Cafe, ISBN 0-15-110450-6 Children of the Night: The Best Short Stories by Black Writers, 1967 to the Present, ISBN 0-316-59926-3 The Men of Brewster Place, ISBN 0-7868-8405-3 1996, ISBN 0-88378-263-4 Gloria Naylor won critical and popular acclaim for her first published novel, The Women of Brewster Place. In that book, as in her successive novels, including Linden Hills, Mama Day, The Men of Brewster Place, Naylor gave an intense and vivid depiction of many social issues, including poverty, homophobia, discrimination against women, the social stratification of African Americans. Vashti Crutcher Lewis, a contributor to the Dictionary of Literary Biography, commented on the "brilliance" of Naylor's first novel, derived from "her rich prose, her lyrical portrayals of African Americans, her illumination of the meaning of being a black woman in America."
In The Women of Brewster Place and her other novels, Naylor focuses on "themes of deferred dreams of love, marriage and economic stability, while observing the recurring messages that poverty breeds violence, that true friendship and affection are not dependent on gender, that women in the black ghettos of America bear their burdens with grace and courage," stated Lewis. National Book Award for first novel, 1983 National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship, 1985 Candace Award, National Coalition of 100 Black Women, 1986 Guggenheim Fellowship, 1988 Lillian Smith Award, 1989. Prahlad, Sw. Anand. 1998. "All chickens come home to roost: The function of proverbs in Gloria Naylor's Mama Day." Proverbium, 15: 265-282. Drieling, Claudia, 2011. Constructs of "Home" in Gloria Naylor's Quartet. Würzburg, Germany: Königshausen & Neumann, 325 pp. ISBN 978-3-8260-4492-2. Biography at aalbc.com "Award Winning Author Gloria Naylor Donates Archives to SHU" Kami Fletcher, "A Tribute To Gloria Naylor: Teacher Of Black Feminism", AAIHS, November 26, 2016