An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitar player strums, fingerpicks, slaps or taps the strings; the pickup uses electromagnetic induction to create this signal, which being weak is fed into a guitar amplifier before being sent to the speaker, which converts it into audible sound. The electric signal can be electronically altered to change the timbre of the sound; the signal is modified using effects such as reverb, distortion and "overdrive". Invented in 1931, the electric guitar was adopted by jazz guitar players, who wanted to play single-note guitar solos in large big band ensembles. Early proponents of the electric guitar on record include Les Paul, Lonnie Johnson, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, T-Bone Walker, Charlie Christian. During the 1950s and 1960s, the electric guitar became the most important instrument in popular music, it has evolved into an instrument, capable of a multitude of sounds and styles in genres ranging from pop and rock to country music and jazz.
It served as a major component in the development of electric blues and roll, rock music, heavy metal music and many other genres of music. Electric guitar design and construction varies in the shape of the body and the configuration of the neck and pickups. Guitars may have a fixed bridge or a spring-loaded hinged bridge, which lets players "bend" the pitch of notes or chords up or down, or perform vibrato effects; the sound of an electric guitar can be modified by new playing techniques such as string bending and hammering-on, using audio feedback, or slide guitar playing. There are several types of electric guitar, including: the solid-body guitar. In pop and rock music, the electric guitar is used in two roles: as a rhythm guitar, which plays the chord sequences or progressions, riffs, sets the beat. In a small group, such as a power trio, one guitarist switches between both roles. In large rock and metal bands, there is a rhythm guitarist and a lead guitarist. Many experiments at electrically amplifying the vibrations of a string instrument were made dating back to the early part of the 20th century.
Patents from the 1910s show telephone transmitters were adapted and placed inside violins and banjos to amplify the sound. Hobbyists in the 1920s used carbon button microphones attached to the bridge. With numerous people experimenting with electrical instruments in the 1920s and early 1930s, there are many claimants to have been the first to invent an electric guitar. Electric guitars were designed by acoustic guitar makers and instrument manufacturers; the demand for amplified guitars began during the big band era. The first electric guitars used in jazz were hollow archtop acoustic guitar bodies with electromagnetic transducers. Early electric guitar manufacturers include Rickenbacker in 1932; the first electrically amplified stringed instrument to be marketed commercially was designed in 1931 by George Beauchamp, the general manager of the National Guitar Corporation, with Paul Barth, vice president. The maple body prototype for the one-piece cast aluminium "frying pan" was built by Harry Watson, factory superintendent of the National Guitar Corporation.
Commercial production began in late summer of 1932 by the Ro-Pat-In Corporation, in Los Angeles, a partnership of Beauchamp, Adolph Rickenbacker, Paul Barth. In 1934, the company was renamed the Rickenbacker Electro Stringed Instrument Company. In that year Beauchamp applied for a United States patent for an Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument and the patent was issued in 1937. By early-mid 1935, Electro String Instrument Corporation had achieved mainstream success with the A-22 "Frying Pan" steel guitar, set out to capture a new audience through its release of the Electro-Spanish Model B and the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts, the first full 25" scale electric guitar produced; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was revolutionary for its time, providing players a full 25" scale, with easy access to 17 frets free of the body. Unlike other lap-steel electrified instruments produced during the time, the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was designed to play standing vertical, upright with a strap; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was the first instrument to feature a hand-operated vibrato as a standard appointment, a device called the "Vibrola," invented by Doc Kauffman.
It is estimated that fewer than 50 Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts were constructed between 1933 and 1937. The solid-body electric guitar is made without functionally resonating air spaces; the first solid-body Spanish standard guitar was offered by Vivi-Tone no than 1934. This model featured a guitar-shaped body of a single sheet
North Mississippi Allstars
North Mississippi Allstars is an American southern rock/blues band from Hernando, United States, founded in 1996. The band is composed of Luther Dickinson and Cody Dickinson. Duwayne Burnside, who played second guitar in the band, is a son of R. L. Burnside played on some of the band's tracks; the Allstars' first release, Shake Hands with Shorty, was nominated for a Grammy Award for "Best Contemporary Blues Album". Since 51 Phantom and Electric Blue Watermelon have received nominations in the same category; the group won a Blues Music Award for "Best New Artist Debut" in 2001. The band made its network television debut in 2000 on Late Night with Conan O'Brien and served as the house band on the program Last Call with Carson Daly for a short period in 2004; the band tours with John Hiatt and released an album with him, Master of Disaster. All the members of the Allstars have teamed up with Robert Randolph and John Medeski to form the Word. In November 2007, Luther Dickinson joined the Black Crowes as lead guitarist and has appeared on their albums Warpaint, Before the Frost...
Until the Freeze and Croweology. He devotes his time to both the Black Crowes and the North Mississippi Allstars. Cody Dickinson has started a side project, Hill Country Revue, featuring Daniel Coburn, Kirk Smithhart, Doc Samba and Ed Cleveland, they are sometimes joined by members of the Burnside family. They have released two albums, Make Zebra Ranch. Luther and Cody Dickinson's father was record producer Jim Dickinson. Besides releasing music in his own name, he worked with Ry Cooder, Bob Dylan, the Rolling Stones, Primal Scream. Jim Dickinson established the Zebra Ranch recording studio complex during the 1990s in Hernando, Mississippi, his career spanned more than four decades before his death, on August 15, 2009. The band opened for Robert Plant and the Band of Joy on their concert tour in 2011, they opened for the Dave Matthews Band in the spring of 2013. The band released the album World Boogie Is Coming in 2013 and the album Freedom & Dreams in 2015. In 2015, Luther Dickinson announced, their eighth studio album, Prayer for Peace, was released on June 2, 2017 via Sony Legacy, featured the title track, a rendition of R. L. Burnside track, "Long Haired Doney".
The album was self-produced by the Dickinson Brothers. It was recorded across the US at six different studios: including the Royal Studios in Memphis with Boo Mitchell, their father Jim Dickinson’s Zebra Ranch in Hernando, Mississippi. Special guests on the album included the bassist Oteil Burbridge, Graeme Lesh, vocalist Sharisse Norman, bassist Dominic Davis, singer/fife player Shardé Thomas, the granddaughter of Otha Turner; the album reached number one on the Billboard Blues Albums Chart in June 2017. Southern Avenue supported the Allstars on their "Prayer for Peace" tour in 2017. Timeline Shimmy She Wobble Shake Hands with Shorty 51 Phantom Polaris Tate County Hill Country Blues Hill Country Revue - Live at Bonnaroo Instores & Outtakes Electric Blue Watermelon Screwed & Chopped Paradise Boston, Ma 11.12.05 Keep On Marchin': Live in Burlington, VT Mississippi Folk Music - Volume One Hernando Boulderado: Live at the Fox Do It Like We Used to Do Live in the Hills 6.26.10 Keys to the Kingdom Live In The Hills II 6.24.11 World Boogie Is Coming Freedom & Dreams with Anders Osborne Prayer for Peace Official website North Mississippi Allstars at AllMusic Zebra Ranch studio Hill Country Revue Official Website North Mississippi Allstars collection at the Internet Archive's live music archive
Gospel music is a genre of Christian music. The creation, performance and the definition of gospel music varies according to culture and social context. Gospel music is composed and performed for many purposes, including aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Gospel music has dominant vocals with Christian lyrics. Gospel music can be traced with roots in the black oral tradition. Hymns and sacred songs were repeated in a call and response fashion. Most of the churches relied on hand clapping and foot stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Most of the singing was done a cappella; the first published use of the term "gospel song" appeared in 1874. The original gospel songs were written and composed by authors such as George F. Root, Philip Bliss, Charles H. Gabriel, William Howard Doane, Fanny Crosby. Gospel music publishing houses emerged; the advent of radio in the 1920s increased the audience for gospel music. Following World War II, gospel music moved into major auditoriums, gospel music concerts became quite elaborate.
Gospel blues is a blues-based form of gospel music. Southern gospel used all tenor-lead-baritone-bass quartet make-up. Progressive Southern gospel is an American music genre that has grown out of Southern gospel over the past couple of decades. Christian country music, sometimes referred to as country gospel music, is a subgenre of gospel music with a country flair, it peaked in popularity in the mid-1990s. Bluegrass gospel music is rooted in American mountain music. Celtic gospel music infuses gospel music with a Celtic flair, is quite popular in countries such as Ireland. British black gospel refers to Gospel music of the African diaspora, produced in the UK; some proponents of "standard" hymns dislike gospel music of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, with historical distance, there is a greater acceptance of such gospel songs into official denominational hymnals. Gospel music features Christian lyrics; some modern gospel music, isn't explicitly Christian and just utilizes the sound.
Subgenres include contemporary gospel, urban contemporary gospel, Southern gospel, modern gospel music. Several forms of gospel music utilize choirs, use piano or Hammond organ, drums, bass guitar and electric guitar. In comparison with hymns, which are of a statelier measure, the gospel song is expected to have a refrain and a more syncopated rhythm. Several attempts have been made to describe the style of late 19th and early 20th century gospel songs in general. Christ-Janer said "the music was tuneful and easy to grasp... rudimentary harmonies... use of the chorus... varied metric schemes... motor rhythms were characteristic... The device of letting the lower parts echo rhythmically a motive announced by the sopranos became a mannerism". Patrick and Sydnor emphasize the notion that gospel music is "sentimental", quoting Sankey as saying, "Before I sing I must feel", they call attention to the comparison of the original version of Rowley's "I Will Sing the Wondrous Story" with Sankey's version.
Gold said, "Essentially the gospel songs are songs of testimony, religious exhortation, or warning. The chorus or refrain technique is found." According to Yale University music professor Willie Ruff, the singing of psalms in Gaelic by Presbyterians of the Scottish Hebrides evolved from "lining out" – where one person sang a solo and others followed – into the call and response of gospel music of the American South. Coming out of the African-American religious experience, American gospel music can be traced to the early 17th century, with foundations in the works of Dr. Isaac Watts and others. Gospel music has roots in the black oral tradition, utilizes a great deal of repetition, which allows those who could not read the opportunity to participate in worship. During this time and sacred songs were lined and repeated in a call and response fashion, Negro spirituals and work songs emerged. Repetition and "call and response" are accepted elements in African music, designed to achieve an altered state of consciousness we sometimes refer to as "trance", strengthen communal bonds.
Most of the churches relied on foot-stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Guitars and tambourines were sometimes available, but not frequently. Church choirs became a norm only after emancipation. Most of the singing was done a cappella; the most famous gospel-based hymns were composed in the 1760s and 1770s by English writers John Newton and Augustus Toplady, members of the Anglican Church. Starting out as lyrics only, it took decades for standardized tunes to be added to them. Although not directly connected with African-American gospel music, they were adopted by African-Americans as well as white Americans, Newton's connection with the abolition movement provided cross-fertilization; the first published use of the term "Gospel Song" appeared in 1874 when Philip Bliss released a songbook entitled Gospel Songs. A Choice Collection of Hymns and Tunes, it was used to describe a new style of church music, songs that were easy to grasp and more singable than the traditional church hymns, which came out of the mass revival movement starting with Dwight L. Moody, whose musician was Ira D. Sankey, as well as the Holiness-Pentecostal movement.
Prior to the meeting of Moody and
Jazz fusion is a musical genre that developed in the late 1960s when musicians combined jazz harmony and improvisation with rock music and rhythm and blues. Electric guitars and keyboards that were popular in rock and roll started to be used by jazz musicians those who had grown up listening to rock and roll. Jazz fusion arrangements vary in complexity; some employ groove-based vamps fixed to a single key or a single chord with a simple, repeated melody. Others use elaborate chord progressions, unconventional time signatures, or melodies with counter-melodies; these arrangements, whether simple or complex include improvised sections that can vary in length, much like in other form of jazz. As with jazz, jazz fusion employs brass and woodwind instruments such as trumpet and saxophone, but other instruments substitute for these. A jazz fusion band is less to use piano, double bass, drums, more to use electric guitar, bass guitar, drums; the term "jazz rock" is sometimes used as a synonym for "jazz fusion" and for music performed by late 1960s and 1970s-era rock bands that added jazz elements to their music.
After a decade of popularity during the 1970s, fusion expanded its improvisatory and experimental approaches through the 1980s in parallel with the development of a radio-friendly style called smooth jazz. Experimentation continued in the 2000s. Fusion albums those that are made by the same group or artist, may include a variety of musical styles. Rather than being a codified musical style, fusion can be viewed as approach. In 1967 John Coltrane died, because rock was the most popular genre of music in America, DownBeat magazine declared in a headline that "Jazz as We Know It Is Dead". Guitarist Larry Coryell, sometimes called the godfather of fusion, referred to a generation of musicians who had grown up on rock and roll when he said, "We loved Miles but we loved the Rolling Stones." In 1966 he started the band the Free Spirits with Bob Moses on drums and recorded the band's first album. Out of Sight and Sound was released in 1967, the same year DownBeat began to report on rock music. After the Free Spirits, Coryell was part of a quartet led by vibraphonist Gary Burton, releasing the album Duster with its rock guitar influence.
Burton produced the album Tomorrow Never Knows for Count's Rock Band, which included Coryell, Mike Nock, Steve Marcus, all of them former students at Berklee College in Boston. The pioneers of fusion emphasized exploration, electricity, intensity and volume. Charles Lloyd played a combination of rock and jazz at the Monterey Jazz Festival in 1966 with a quartet that included Keith Jarrett and Jack DeJohnette. Lloyd adopted the trappings of the California psychedelic rock scene by playing at the rock venue the Fillmore, wearing colorful clothes, giving his albums titles like Dream Weaver and Forest Flower, which were bestselling jazz albums in 1967. Flautist Jeremy Steig experimented with jazz in his band Jeremy & the Satyrs with vibraphonist Mike Mainieri; the jazz label Verve released the first album by rock guitarist Frank Zappa in 1966. Rahsaan Roland Kirk performed with Jimi Hendrix at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club in London. AllMusic states that "until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly separate".
As members of Miles Davis's band, Chick Corea and Herbie Hancock played electric piano on Filles de Kilimanjaro. Davis wrote in his autobiography that in 1968 he had been listening to Jimi Hendrix, James Brown, Sly and the Family Stone; when Davis recorded Bitches Brew in 1969, he abandoned the swing beat in favor of a rock and roll backbeat and bass guitar grooves. The album "mixed free jazz blowing by a large ensemble with electronic keyboards and guitar, plus a dense mix of percussion." Davis played his trumpet like an electric guitar -- pedals. By the end of the first year, Bitches Brew sold 400,000 copies, four times the average for a Miles Davis album. Over the next two years the aloof Davis recorded more worked with many sideman, appeared on television, performed at rock venues. Just as Davis tested the loyalty of rock fans by continuing to experiment, his producer, Teo Macero, inserted recorded material into the Jack Johnson soundtrack, Live-Evil, On the Corner. Although Bitches Brew gave him a gold record, the use of electric instruments and rock beats created consternation among some jazz critics, who accused Davis of betraying the essence of jazz.
Music critic Kevin Fellezs commented that some members of the jazz community regarded rock music as less sophisticated and more commercial than jazz. Davis's 1969 album In a Silent Way is considered his first fusion album. Composed of two side-long improvised suites edited by Teo Macero, the album was made by pioneers of jazz fusion: Corea, Wayne Shorter, Joe Zawinul, John McLaughlin. A Tribute to Jack Johnson has been cited as "the purest electric jazz record made" and "one of the most remarkable jazz rock discs of the era". According to music journalist Zaid Mudhaffer, the term "jazz fusion" was coined in a review of Song of Innocence by David Axelrod when it was released in 1968. Axelrod said. Miles Davis dropped out of music in 1975 because of problems with drugs and alcohol, but his sidemen took advantage of the creative and financial vistas, opened. Herbie Hancock brought elements of funk and electronic music into commercially successful albums such as Head Hunters and Feets, Don't Fail Me Now.
Several years after recording Miles in the Sky with Davis, guitarist George Benson becam
Conan (talk show)
Conan is a late-night talk show airing each Monday through Thursday at 11:00 p.m. eastern time on TBS in the United States. The show premiered on November 8, 2010, is hosted by writer and performer Conan O'Brien, accompanied by his long-time "sidekick" Andy Richter. Describing itself as a traditional late-night talk show, Conan draws its comedy from recent news stories, political figures and prominent celebrities, as well as aspects of the show itself. For eight years, Conan aired as an hour-long show akin to O'Brien's previous NBC late-night shows; the show was reformatted to a half-hour length starting January 22, 2019. On May 17, 2017, TBS renewed the series to 2022. Conan followed the established six-piece late-night format popularized by evening talk show hosts such as Ed Sullivan, Johnny Carson and David Letterman, executed during O'Brien's tenures as host of NBC's Late Night and The Tonight Show; each episode of Conan from its first eight years runs 60 minutes in length, including commercials, consists of: Act 1: Monologue Act 2: Comedy Bit Act 3: Celebrity Interview 1 Act 4: Celebrity Interview 1 continued Act 5: Celebrity Interview 2 Act 6: Musical or Stand-Up Comedy Guest, SignoffGuests come from a wide range of cultural sources, include actors, authors and political figures.
The original hour-long show opened with Richter proclaiming "Coming to you from Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, it's Conan!", introducing O'Brien, The Basic Cable Band, as well as the episode's guests. For the first several seasons, each episode had a title, which Richter would announce at the end of the opening sequence; the titles were in the style of old fashioned murder-mystery radio shows, television sitcoms, or other assorted jokes. The episode titles were dropped in early 2014; the original title sequence was designed by Dan Dome and Eric McGilloway. There were several different variations of the opening credits, with the final product being inspired by graphic designer Saul Bass; the opening design process was described by Ashe as utilizing "organic-looking textures made of construction paper, soak them in soda, light them in Photoshop." O'Brien opens each episode with a monologue drawing from current news issues. The monologue is sometimes accompanied by clips and brief comedy skits, in addition to occasional interactions between O'Brien and Richter, the audience.
One or more comedy bits followed the monologue. Following the monologue, some comedy bits were presented from the monologue stage. Following the first commercial break, additional comedy sketches were introduced presented from the desk area; some sketches appeared only once. An additional sketch would air between the first and second guest. In May 2018, O'Brien and TBS announced the show would be reformatted into a 30-minute show, with a looser structure starting 2019. In January 2019, O'Brien gave a more detailed description of the new format of his show, it would not feature a band or a desk area, for the first time as host of a talk show O'Brien would not be wearing a suit. He commented, "I don’t miss the desk, it started to feel like I’m doing someone’s taxes." The last hour-long regular episode aired on October 4, 2018. The new reformatted version premiered on Tuesday January 22, 2019 on TBS. O'Brien's first guest for the new-look show was Tom Hanks. October 31–November 3, 2011: taped at the Beacon Theatre in New York City.
Guests included Jimmy Fallon, Hugh Jackman, Matthew Broderick and Louis C. K.. June 11–14, 2012: taped at the Chicago Theatre in Chicago, Illinois as part of the TBS Just for Laughs Festival. Guests included Andy Samberg, Johnny Galecki and Adam Sandler. April 1–4, 2013: taped at The Tabernacle in Atlanta, Georgia to coincide with the NCAA Final Four being held a few blocks away at the Georgia Dome. Guests included Paul Rudd, Steven Yeun and Charles Barkley. March 31–April 3, 2014: taped at the Majestic Theatre in Dallas, Texas to coincide with the NCAA Final Four. Guests included Adam Sandler, Seth Rogen, Simon Helberg and Charles Barkley. July 8 -- 11, 2015: taped at the Spreckels Theatre in San Diego. Guests include Elijah Wood, Jennifer Lawrence, Josh Hutcherson, Peter Capaldi. July 20–24, 2016: returned to the Spreckels Theatre in San Diego to coincide with Comic-Con. Guests include The cast of Arrowverse shows, Will Arnett, the cast of Game of Thrones. October 31–November 3, 2016: taped at the Apollo Theater in Harlem.
July 19–23, 2017: had live shows from the Spreckels Theatre in San Diego to coincide with Comic-Con for the third year in a row. Guests were the casts of Bright, Kingsman: The Golden Circle, The Lego Ninjago Movie, Game of Thrones. November 6–9, 2017: taped at the Apollo Theater in Harlem. July 18–22, 2018: had live shows from the Spreckels Theatre in San Diego to coincide with Comic-Con for the fourth year in a row. Guests were the casts of Breaking Bad, The Predator and Aquaman. O'Brien filmed several specials abroad; these episodes were not filmed before an audience. Instead, they involve O'Brien being followed by a camera crew as he focused more on the normal life of the locals and visiting cultural locations, all while improvising to provide comedy. March 4, 2015: Conan in Cuba, taped in Havana. With relations between the United States and Cuba improving, O'Brien and a film crew went to Havana for four days around the weekend of February 14–15 to tape segments for an episode; this is not a regular live-to-tape show featuring celebrity guests, with Conan focusing on normal life for citizens of the country by visiting a cigar factory and le
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
Blues rock is a fusion genre combining elements of blues and rock. It is an electric ensemble-style music with instrumentation similar to electric blues and rock: electric guitar, electric bass, drums with Hammond organ. From its beginnings in the early- to mid-1960s, blues rock has gone through several stylistic shifts and along the way it inspired and influenced hard rock, Southern rock, early heavy metal. Blues rock continues to be an influence in the 2010s, with performances and recordings by popular artists. Blues rock started with rock musicians in the United Kingdom and the United States performing American blues songs, they recreated electric Chicago-style blues songs, such as those by Muddy Waters, Jimmy Reed, Howlin' Wolf, Albert King, at faster tempos and with a more aggressive sound common to rock. In the UK, the style was popularized by groups such as the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds, the Animals, who managed to place blues songs into the pop charts. In the US, Lonnie Mack, the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, Canned Heat were among the earliest exponents and "attempted to play long, involved improvisations which were commonplace on jazz records".
John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers and Peter Green's Fleetwood Mac developed this more instrumental, but traditional-based style in the UK, while late 1960s and early 1970s groups, including Ten Years After, Savoy Brown, the Climax Blues Band and Foghat became more hard rock oriented. In the US, Johnny Winter, the Allman Brothers Band, ZZ Top represented a hard rock trend. Although around this time, the differences between blues rock and hard rock lessened, there was a return to more blues-influenced styles. In the 1980s, the Fabulous Thunderbirds and Stevie Ray Vaughan, recorded their best-known works and the 1990s saw guitarists Gary Moore, Jeff Healey, Kenny Wayne Shepherd become popular concert attractions. Groups such as the Jon Spencer Blues Explosion and the White Stripes, brought an edgier, more diverse style into the 2000s, as do contemporary artists such as the Black Keys. Blues rock can be characterized by bluesy improvisation, the twelve-bar blues, extended boogie jams focused on the electric guitar player, a heavier, riff-oriented sound and feel to the songs than might be found in traditional Chicago-style blues.
Blues rock bands "borrow the idea of an instrumental combo and loud amplification from rock & roll". It is often played at a fast tempo, again distinguishing it from the blues; the core blues rock sound is created by bass guitar and drum kit. Bands included a harmonica called "a harp." The electric guitar is amplified through a tube guitar amplifier or using an overdrive effect. Two guitars are commonplace in blues rock bands: one guitarist focused on rhythm guitar, playing riffs and chords as accompaniment. While 1950s-era blues bands would sometimes still use the upright bass, the blues rock bands of the 1960s used the electric bass, easier to amplify to loud volumes. Keyboard instruments, such as the piano and Hammond organ, are occasionally used; as with the electric guitar, the sound of the Hammond organ is amplified with a tube amplifier, which gives a growling, "overdriven" sound quality to the instrument. Vocals typically play a key role, although the vocals may be equal in importance or subordinate to the lead guitar playing.
As well, a number of blues rock pieces are instrumental-only. Blues rock pieces follow typical blues structures, such as twelve-bar blues, sixteen-bar blues, etc, they use the I-IV-V progression, though there are exceptions, some pieces having a "B" section, while others remain on the I. The Allman Brothers Band's version of "Stormy Monday", which uses chord substitutions based on Bobby "Blue" Bland's 1961 rendition, adds a solo section where "the rhythm shifts effortlessly into an uptempo 6/8-time jazz feel"; the key is major, but can be minor, such as in "Black Magic Woman". One notable difference is the frequent use of a straight eighth-note or rock rhythm instead of triplets found in blues. An example is Cream's "Crossroads". Although it was adapted from Robert Johnson's "Cross Road Blues", the bass "combines with drums to create and continually emphasize continuity in the regular metric drive". Cream uses some of the lyrics from "Traveling Riverside Blues" to create their own interpretation of the song.
Rock and blues have always been linked, with driving rhythms and electric guitar techniques such as distortion and power chords used by 1950s blues guitarists Memphis bluesmen such as Joe Hill Louis, Willie Johnson and Pat Hare. Characteristics that blues rock adopted from electric blues include its dense texture, basic blues band instrumentation, rough declamatory vocal style, heavy guitar riffs, string-bending blues-scale guitar solos, strong beat, thick riff-laden texture, posturing performances. Precursors to blues rock included the Chicago blues musicians Elmore James, Albert King, Freddie King, who began incorporating rock and roll elements into their blues music during the late 1950s to early 1960s. In 1963, American rockabilly soloist Lonnie Mack had an idiosyncratic, fast-paced electric blues guitar style that came to be identified with blues rock, his instrumentals from that period were recognizable as blues or R&B tunes, but he relied upon fast-picking techniques derived from traditional American country and bluegrass genres.
The best-known of these are the 1963 hit singles "Memphis" and "Wham!". However, blues rock was not named as such, or recognized as a distinct movement w