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The World's End, Camden

The World's End is a pub and music venue at 174 Camden High Street in Camden Town, England, just south of Camden Town tube station with an additional branch at Finsbury Park, 23 Stroud Green Rd, London. It is a long established business known as Mother Red Cap or Mother Damnable's; the first reference to a tavern in the area occurs in 1690. At that time the locality was rural and the proprietors relied on trade passing by on the road from London to Hampstead and Highgate; the name Halfway House was accordingly used. It is not clear whether there was one establishment in the first half of the 18th century or two, but by 1751 the Mother Red Cap and the Mother Black Cap were both in business. In the late 18th century the Mother Red Cap was at its present location, it had acquired a tea garden. Camden Road was built across the grounds, the building was reconstructed; the present building dates from 1875 and was designed by H. H. Bridgman; the pub and venue in its present large guise is the work of Andrew Marler, a serial developer of Licensed Premises, who owned it as a 200 capacity pub and in 1988 bought the whole'island site' on which it stands.

He enlarged the pub to a capacity of 1,000 and built the 500 capacity Underworld venue beneath the pub. Marler went on in 1994 to buy the BBC Television Theatre from the BBC and refurbish and launch the site as The Shepherd's Bush Empire, continuing with the business model of selling drinks to customers whilst being professionally entertained; the World's End and its Underworld Club, both Camden and Finsbury locations, have won Venue of the Year and hosted bands/artists like Dave Stewart, The Cranberries, Stuck Mojo, The Datsuns, The Darkness and Radiohead, as well as a host of extreme metal bands. The World's Chelsea Camden Town and Primrose Hill Past by John Richardson. ISBN 0-948667-12-5 London 4: North by Bridget Cherry and Nikolaus Pevsner. ISBN 0-14-071049-3 Official website

Vladimir Lobov

Vladimir Nikolayevich Lobov is a former Soviet and Russian military commander, Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces in 1991, General of the Army, Doctor of Military Sciences and People's Deputy of the USSR from 1989 to 1991. Lobov was born into a large family with six children on 22 July 1935 in the village of Buraevo, having four brothers and a sister, his father was a mechanic of machine and tractor systems, his mother worked on the farm. Lobov found his childhood quite difficult as his family were missing clothes and food, his school was far from home, where he had to walk in severe weather conditions. In 1954, he was drafted into the Soviet Army, serving in the Artillery Regiment of the 201st Mountain Division of the Turkestan Military District in Stalinabad. In September 1956, Sergeant Lobov was sent to study at the Ryazan Artillery School, where he graduated in 1959, reaching the rank of Lieutenant. After graduation, he became the Commander of a platoon of cadets. In 1960, he passed the retraining of military courses and in September, he was sent to the newly formed Strategic Rocket Forces of the USSR, serving as the Commander of a platoon of cadets, the instructor and Assistant Chief of Training in the training school of Sergeants in the Missile Division in the Chita region.

Lobov was sent for entrance exams in Moscow in the Frunze Military Academy. In 1967, he reached the rank of Captain. In August 1968, he participated in the invasion of Czechoslovakia, his battalion captured a military airfield near Prague. In May 1969, he became the Chief of Staff, from 1970, became the Commander of the 74th Separate Motorised Rifle Regiment of Training in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany. In October 1973, he became the Commander of the 63rd Guards Training Mechanised Infantry Division in the Leningrad Military District. In 1975, he reached the rank of Major General and in December 1975, he became the Commander of the 26th Army Corps in Arkhangelsk. In 1979, he graduated from the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR. In 1979, he became the Commander of the 28th Combined Arms Army in the Belorussian Military District. In October 1981, he became the First Deputy Commander of the Leningrad Military District. In June 1984, he became the Commander of the Central Asian Military District.

In January 1987, he became the First Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces, on behalf of Gorbachev, who developed a military reform project, which changed the length of military service from 2 years to 18 months. However, disagreement led to the Minister of Defense, being removed from office in November 1988. From 24 January 1989, he became the First Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces. After the Soviet coup attempt on 23 August 1991, he was appointed Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces. From 1–25 December 1991, he became a member of the Council of Defense of the President of the USSR. On 7 December 1991, he was released from the post of Chief of the General Staff. In 1992, he became a military inspector-adviser of the Group of Inspectors General of the Ministry of Defence. After its disbandment in May 1992, he was for some time a military adviser to the Russian President, he also worked on a military reform project. In March 1992, he retired.

Lobov is married to Valentina Fyodorovna, a teacher, has a son and daughter, three grandchildren. In his spare time, he enjoys reading, listening to classical and folk music, watching theatre and taking nature walks, he lives in Moscow

Cwmpengraig

Cwmpengraig is a rural hamlet in Wales, located in the Teifi Valley 1.5 miles from the village of Dre-fach Felindre. Cwmpengraig is part of the Carmarthen Heritage Trails and the Discover Carmathenshire ramblers trail for Dre-fach Felindre. Located just 1.5 miles from Dre-fach Felindre, Cwmpengraig is a small community with a history of woollen mill production. In the early 19th century, furling mills were established in Pentrecwrt, Dolwyon and Cwmpengraig. By the beginning of the 20th century, substantial mills were built. Mill cottages were built to house the employees although by the end of the 1920s the industry went into decline. Through the centre of the hamlet runs the stream Nant Esgair which flows down into the rural village of Dre-fach Felindre. At the centre of the hamlet is Soar Chapel. A number of mill cottages still exist along the river valley

Spencer Ponsonby-Fane

Sir Spencer Cecil Brabazon Ponsonby-Fane, was an English cricketer and civil servant. He was born in 1824 in the sixth son of John Ponsonby, 4th Earl of Bessborough. Ponsonby played for both Middlesex and Surrey, administered Somerset and Harrow Cricket Club, he was one of the founders of I Zingari in 1845. Ponsonby joined the Foreign Office in 1840, he was Private Secretary to three Foreign Secretaries: Lord Palmerston 1846–1851, Lord Granville 1851–1852, Lord Clarendon 1853–1857. In 1856 he brought from Paris the definitive copy of the peace treaty for the Crimean War, he was Comptroller of the Lord Chamberlain's Office 1857–1901, Gentleman Usher to the Sword of State 1901–1915 and Bath King of Arms 1904–1915. Ponsonby-Fane married, on 7 October 1847, Honourable Louisa Anne Rose Lee Dillon, daughter of Henry Dillon, 13th Viscount Dillon. Lady Ponsonby-Fane died at their estate on 18 July 1902, they had eleven children: John Henry Ponsonby-Fane, married Florence Farquhar on 14 October 1875 and had issue.

Lt. George Richard Ponsonby, RA Helen Emily Cristal Ponsonby, her second middle name having been given in memory of the Prince Consort's Crystal Palace at the Great Exhibition of 1851. Robert Charles married Mary Maclachlan on 17 July 1877 and had issue. Constance Louisa married William Robert Phelips on 1 January 1881 and had issue. Margaret Maria Ponsonby-Fane, married Rev. Hon. Arnald de Grey, third son of Thomas de Grey, 5th Baron Walsingham, on 17 April 1882 and had issue. Clementina Sarah Ponsonby-Fane, married Sir Edmund Turton, 1st Baronet, on 9 August 1888. Eleanor Hariett Ponsonby-Fane, drowned in a boating accident at Brympton d'Evercy. Sydney Alexander Ponsonby-Fane, married Audrey Catherine St Aubyn, daughter of John St Aubyn, 1st Baron St Levan, on 10 June 1893 and had issue. Hugh Spencer married Anitha Magdalene Feuerheerd on 8 November 1894 and had issue. Theobald Brabazon Ponsonby-Fane, married Bertha Edwards on 10 August 1892. In 1875, he changed his surname to Ponsonby-Fane upon inheriting the estate of Brympton d'Evercy from his aunt, Lady Georgiana Fane.

He spent the remainder of his life there improving the gardens until he died in 1915, after which the estate passed to his eldest son, John. Media related to Spencer Ponsonby-Fane at Wikimedia Commons Spencer Ponsonby-Fane at ESPNcricinfo

Tooned

Tooned is an animated cartoon by McLaren starring Jenson Button, Fernando Alonso and comedian Alexander Armstrong. It was aired on Sky Sports F1 before the start of each Formula One race; the first season, which starred former McLaren driver Lewis Hamilton aired from the 2012 British Grand Prix onwards. The second season aired from the 2013 British Grand Prix onwards. All episodes can be watched on McLaren's YouTube channel and the Sky Sports F1 website any time after the premiere; the episodes are a little more than 3 minutes long. On 16 May 2014 it was announced on McLaren's YouTube channel, it was announced when Jenson Button was shown a picture of his 2014 team mate Kevin Magnussen's character on Tooned and added that'the production of Season 3 was going well'. It was announced by McLaren on 19 October 2016 that Tooned would be making a return, featuring Fernando Alonso and Stoffel Vandoorne. Tooned was developed from the extensive media research carried out by John Allert, the McLaren Group brand director, analysed by Ron Dennis.

The show is written and animated by Chris Waitt and Henry Trotter and visual effects house Framestore. Season One Lewis Hamilton as Lewis, one of McLaren's star racing drivers, he loves racing, finds engineering and testing boring, listens to Professor M. He appears in episodes 1–7, picture appearance in episode 8, 9-10, makes his final appearance in episode 12. Jenson Button as Jenson, McLaren's other star driver. Like Lewis, he loves racing and is bored by testing, is amused by Lewis' antics, he appears in episode 1–10 and 12. Alexander Armstrong as Professor M, McLaren's head of engineering, he has little patience for Lewis and Jenson, is oblivious to the way they find his testing programmes boring. Armstrong described M as a blend of Steve Q but not anyone specific, he appears in every episode of the series. Season Two Jenson Button as Jenson, now McLaren's star driver following the departure of Lewis Hamilton to Mercedes. Sergio Pérez as Sergio, he joined the team and the cast of Tooned from 2013.

Lewis' departure to Mercedes and replacement by Pérez was written into the final episode of the first season. He left the cast at the end of the 2013 season. Alexander Armstrong as Professor M, McLaren's head of engineering. Brian Cox as The Mechanic with No Name, a little old Scotsman who tells the people at the McLaren Technology Centre'The Real Story of McLaren' which Professor M disapproves of, he appears in every episode of series 2. Renewed Season Three Mobil 1 Series Jenson Button as Jenson, now McLaren's star driver following the departure of Lewis to Mercedes. Sergio Pérez as Checo, McLaren's new recruit. Alexander Armstrong as Professor M, McLaren's head of engineering. Tony Stewart as Smoke, from NASCAR, he co-owns the Mobil 1-sponsored teams of Stewart-Haas Racing and drove the No. 14 car before a season-ending injury in real life. Mobil 1 Series 2 – Oil Jenson Button as Jenson, McLaren's star driver. Kevin Magnussen as Kevin, McLaren's up and coming rookie. Alexander Armstrong as Professor M, McLaren's head of engineering.

Tony Stewart as Smoke, co-owner of Mobil 1-sponsored Stewart-Haas Racing. The Mechanics appear in every episode, they never speak. The head mechanic is Charlie McRae, they appear in episodes 1–11. The Tour Guide appears in the first four episodes of the first season, showing tour groups around the McLaren team headquarters, she shows off memorabilia from some of the team's famous drivers. Baron von Richtmacher was Professor M's rival. While von Richtmacher was the faster driver, M's intelligence and appreciation for engineering saw him win, he appears in episode 5. The Mayoress of Woking is the mayor of the town in which McLaren is based, she appears as a little old lady, Professor M wrongfully assumes that she knows nothing of engineering. She appears in Episode 6; however if the Tooned DVD is bought, an episode hidden in the extra features portrays the same episode on with the Mayoress replaced by the Queen of the UK. MP4 RTD-1 is a robot developed by Professor M to be the perfect test driver. RTD-1 appears in episode 7, along with MP4-RPM1.

Nyck de Vries as Nyck, a member of the McLaren driver development programme. He is young and eager to drive a Formula One car, but is forced to sit through M's lessons, which he finds boring. Nyck appears in episodes 8 and 11. Mika Häkkinen as the 1998 and 1999 Formula One World Drivers' Champion. Mika insists that he is retired from racing, but it does not take much persuasion from Lewis and Jenson to convince him to start racing again, he appears in episode 10. It is revealed in Season 2. Ron Dennis as Ron Dennis, the Executive Chairman of the McLaren group, he is styled with a talking parrot, Cosworth. He appears in episode 12; the first season comprises the following 12 episodes. The second season comprised eight episodes. Based on McLaren's 50th Anniversary, Season 2 was written by Chris Waitt, Henry Trotter, Ed Dyson and Tim Bain. A special series of Tooned was produced in partnership with Mobil 1, it stars Jenson, Professor M and a new character, Smoke (three-time NASCAR Sprint Cup Series drivers' and 2011 owners

Video game preservation

Video game preservation is a form of digital preservation applied to the video game industry. Such preservation efforts include archiving development source code and art assets, digital copies of video games, emulation of video game hardware and preservation of specialized video game hardware such as arcade games and video game consoles, digitization of print video game magazines and books prior to the Digital Revolution. Unlike most other forms of media like books and photography, film which can be preserved in a variety of formats that are not ladened with intellectual property issue, video games require specialized and/or proprietary computer hardware and software to read and execute game software. However, as technology advances, these older game systems become obsolete, no longer produced nor maintained to use for executing games; the media formats of the early days of computer gaming, relying on floppy discs and CD-ROMs, suffers from disc rot and degrade over time, making it difficult to recover information.

Further, video games tend to rely on other resources like operating systems, network connectivity, external servers outside control of users, making sure these boundary aspects to a video game are preserved along with the game are essential. One period of the video game industry that has received a great deal of attention is up through the 1980s; as a result of the video game crash of 1983, many companies involved in developing games folded or were acquired by other companies. In this process, the source code for many games prior to the crash were lost or destroyed, leaving only previously-sold copies of games on their original format as evidence of their existence. Most issues related to video game preservation are based on the United States, one of the largest markets for video games, as such, issues related to preservation are limited by laws of the country. In general, the copying and distribution of video games that are under copyright without authorization is considered a copyright violation.

However, it has been allowed that users may make archival copies of software as long as they own the original software. This is justification for a person being able to make ROM images from game cartridges that they own. In 1998, the United Congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, designed to bring copyright within the United States to align with two doctrines published by the World Intellectual Property Organization in 1996; the DMCA make it a criminal offense to develop, sell, or use technologies that are designed to bypass digital rights management used in various forms of media. This subsequently made it illegal to backup up one's software for many games distributed via either game cartridge or optical disc, if some form of DRM was used to limit access to the software on the media; the Library of Congress is responsible to open submissions for specific and narrow exemptions from interested parties every three years, determine which of those, if any, to grant. Through the Library of Congress, some key exceptions to the DMCA have been granted to allow for video game preservation.

In the 2003 set of exemptions, the Library disallowed enforcement of the DMCA for "computer programs protected by dongles that prevent access due to malfunction or damage and which are obsolete" and for "computer programs and video games distributed in formats that have become obsolete and which require the original media or hardware as a condition of access". In the 2015 exemptions, the Library granted permission for preservationists to work around copy-protection in games which required an authentication step with an external server, no longer online prior to playing the game which otherwise did not require online connectivity. In the 2018 exemptions, the Library allowed for preservation and fair use of server-based games like MMOs, permitting preservationists to offer such games where they have obtained the game's code within museums and libraries; the DMCA exemptions do not mean all ROM images are legal, concern about continuing video game preservation was raised in mid-2018, after Nintendo initiated a lawsuit against two website that distributed ROMs for games from their older platforms.

Normal copyright laws and contractual agreements may hamper legitimate preservation efforts. The game The Operative: No One Lives Forever and its sequel is considered to be copyright limbo due to subsequent business moves that dispersed where the IP may have gone: the game was developed by Monolith Studios which after publication became a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, it had been published by Sierra Entertainment, owned by Fox Interactive, a subsidiary of 20th Century Fox, but sold to Vivendi Games. Night Dive Studios, a company with interest in reviving old games, had spent significant time working between Warner Bros. Fox, Activision to try to track down the ownership of the game's IP but none of the three companies had immediate knowledge of the IP's state, did not see the value in searching their paper archives to find the required documents if became a case of jointly-owned IP. Video game console emulators use software that replicates the hardware of a video game console or arcade machine.

These create a virtual machine on newer computer systems that simulate the key processing units of the original hardware. The emulators can read in software, such as a ROM image