Justice League (film)
Justice League is a 2017 American superhero film based on the DC Comics superhero team of the same name, distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures, it is the follow-up to 2016's Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and the fifth installment in the DC Extended Universe. The film is directed by Zack Snyder, written by Chris Terrio and Joss Whedon, features an ensemble cast that includes Ben Affleck, Henry Cavill, Gal Gadot, Ezra Miller, Jason Momoa, Ray Fisher, Amy Adams, Jeremy Irons, Diane Lane, Connie Nielsen, J. K. Simmons. In the film and Wonder Woman recruit The Flash and Cyborg after Superman's death to save the world from the catastrophic threat of Steppenwolf and his army of Parademons; the film was announced in October 2014, with Snyder on board to direct and Terrio attached to write the script. Titled Justice League Part One, with a second part to follow in 2019, the second film was indefinitely delayed to accommodate a standalone Batman film with Affleck. Principal photography commenced in April 2016 and ended in October 2016.
After Snyder stepped down to deal with the death of his daughter, Joss Whedon was hired to oversee the remainder of post-production, including directing additional scenes written by himself. Justice League premiered in Beijing on October 26, 2017, was released in the United States in 2D, Real D 3D, IMAX on November 17, 2017. With an estimated production budget of $300 million, Justice League is one of the most expensive films made; the film grossed $657 million worldwide against a break-even point of $750 million, becoming a box office bomb and losing the studio around $60 million, while making it the lowest overall gross of the DCEU. The film received mixed reviews from critics; the film's tone was met with a polarized reception, with some appreciating the lighter tone compared to the previous DCEU films, others finding it inconsistent. Thousands of years ago and his legions of Parademons attempted to take over Earth with the combined energies of three Mother Boxes, they were foiled by a unified army that included the Olympian Gods, Atlanteans, a Green Lantern.
After repelling Steppenwolf's army, the Mother Boxes were separated and hidden in locations on the planet. In the present, mankind is in mourning over Superman for two years, whose death triggers the Mother Boxes to reactivate and Steppenwolf's return to Earth. In an effort to regain favor with his master Darkseid, Steppenwolf aims to gather the boxes to form "The Unity", which will destroy Earth's ecology and terraform it in the image of Steppenwolf's homeworld. Steppenwolf retrieves the Mother Box from Themyscira, prompting Queen Hippolyta to warn her daughter Diana of Steppenwolf's return. Diana joins Bruce Wayne in his attempt to unite other metahumans to their cause, with Wayne going after Arthur Curry and Barry Allen, while Diana tries to locate Victor Stone. Wayne manages to recruit an enthusiastic Allen onto the team. Although Diana fails to convince Stone to join, he agrees to help them locate the threat if he discovers their location. Stone joins the team after his father Silas and several other S.
T. A. R. Labs employees are kidnapped by Steppenwolf seeking to acquire the Mother Box from mankind. Steppenwolf attacks an Atlantean outpost to retrieve the next Mother Box; the team receives intel from Commissioner James Gordon leading them to Steppenwolf's army, based in an abandoned facility under Gotham Harbor. Although the group manages to rescue the kidnapped employees, the facility is flooded during combat, which traps the team until Curry helps delay the flood so they can escape. Stone retrieves the last Mother Box, for the group to analyze. Stone reveals that his father used the Mother Box to rebuild Stone's body after an accident cost him his life. Wayne decides to use the Mother Box to resurrect Superman, not only to help them fight off Steppenwolf's invasion, but to restore hope to mankind. Diana and Curry are hesitant about the idea, but Wayne forms a secret contingency plan in case Superman returns as hostile. Clark Kent's body is exhumed and placed in the amniotic fluid of the genesis chamber of the Kryptonian scout ship alongside the Mother Box, which in turn activates after Flash uses his powers to charge it up and resurrects Superman.
However, Superman's memories have not returned, he attacks the group after Stone accidentally launches a projectile at him. On the verge of being killed by Superman, Batman enacts his contingency plan: Lois Lane. Superman calms down and leaves with Lane to his family home in Smallville, where he reflects and his memories come back. In the turmoil, the last Mother Box is left unguarded and Steppenwolf retrieves it with ease. Without Superman to aid them, the five heroes travel to a village in Russia where Steppenwolf aims to unite the Mother Boxes once again to remake Earth; the team fights their way through the Parademons to reach Steppenwolf, although they are unable to distract him enough for Stone to separate the Mother Boxes. Superman arrives and assists Allen in evacuating the city, as well as Stone in separating the Mother Boxes; the team defeats Steppenwolf, overcome with fear, is attacked by his own Parademons before they all teleport away. After the battle and Diana agree to set up a base of operations for the team, with room for more members.
As the team is now established, Diana steps back into the public spotlight as a heroine.
Paul Kupperberg is a writer and executive editor at Charlton Neo Comics and Pix-C Webcomics, a contributing author with Crazy 8 Press. He was an editor for DC Comics and executive editor of Weekly World News, as well as a writer of novels, comic books, newspaper strips. Paul Kupperberg entered the comics field from comics fandom, he and Paul Levitz produced the comics fanzine The Comic Reader between 1971 and 1973, Etcetera between 1972–1973. Kupperberg has written an estimated 1,000 comic book stories at DC, for the Julius Schwartz-edited Superman, Action Comics and Superboy titles, as well as the new Doom Patrol, Green Lantern, The Brave and the Bold, The Superman Family, House of Mystery, Weird War Tales, Justice League of America, Star Trek, Adventure Comics, The Savage Sword of Conan, many others, he and artist Jan Duursema co-created the Arion character in The Warlord #55 and the Arion, Lord of Atlantis series was launched in November 1982. That same month saw the debut of The Daring New Adventures of Supergirl by Kupperberg and Carmine Infantino.
Kupperberg scripted the first appearance of Keith Giffen's Ambush Bug character in DC Comics Presents #52 A revival of the Doom Patrol series by Kupperberg and Steve Lightle began in October 1987 and Kupperberg and Steve Erwin launched the Checkmate! Series six months later. Kupperberg created the Takion series as well, he wrote the syndicated The World's Greatest Superheroes newspaper comic strip with José Delbo from 1981–1985 and the Tom and Jerry newspaper strip from 1990–1991. Kupperberg wrote the first comic book miniseries, The World of Krypton in 1979 and co-wrote Secrets of the Legion of Super-Heroes the following year with E. Nelson Bridwell. Kupperberg was one of the contributors to the DC Challenge limited series in 1986 and his other mini-series include The Phantom Stranger, Power Girl, Super Powers, the first comic book adaptation of He-Man and the Masters of the Universe, he has written movie parodies and humor for Marvel's Crazy Magazine, the series "Trash" for Britain's 2000 AD, with artist Nigel Dobbyn, The Online Multipath Adventures of Superman web-animation.
Most of his current comic book writing appears in the DC-published Cartoon Network licensed comics on such characters as Johnny Bravo, I. M. Weasel, Hi Hi Puffy AmiYumi, Scooby-Doo. Kupperberg's prose credits include The Atlas to the DC Universe, The Doom Patrol Sourcebook, the Spider-Man novels Crime Campaign and Murdermoon, he has had short stories published in the anthologies The Further Adventures of Batman Featuring Catwoman, Fear Itself and Oceans of Magic. His adult novel, JSA: Ragnarok, was scheduled to be published in 2006 but has been indefinitely delayed due to the bankruptcy of its publisher, iBooks, his other published work includes the young adult novel Wishbone Mysteries: The Sirian Conspiracy, as well as color and activity books featuring Firehouse Tales. In 2005, Kupperberg began writing for Weekly World News. From 1981–1982 Kupperberg was assistant editor on Video Action Magazine, one of the first newsstand magazines to focus on the burgeoning home video market, he wrote numerous articles for the magazine.
Among his other non-fiction work are many introductions and historic prefaces to various DC collected editions and Archives, as well as essays for the anthology You Did What?: Mad Plans And Great Historical Disasters. Since 2003, Kupperberg has written numerous non-fiction books for young adults, including: Spy Satellites, The Tragedy Of The Titanic, Astronaut Biographies: John Glenn, Critical Perspectives On The Great Depression, The Nature Of Disease, Edwin Hubble And The Big Bang, The History Of The New York Colony, Rodeo Clowns, Origins Of The Action Heroes: Spider-Man, Cutting Edge Careers In Robotics, In The News: Hurricanes for Rosen Publishing. From 1991–2006, Kupperberg was on staff at DC Comics, editing such titles as The Flash, Wonder Woman, Jack Kirby's Fourth World, Peter Cannon and others, he edited in DC's Licensed Publishing department, overseeing such titles as MADvertising: A MAD Look at 50 Years of MADison Avenue by David Shayne, Marv Wolfman's novelization of his landmark comics series Crisis on Infinite Earths, a trilogy of Green Lantern novels by Christopher Priest, Mike Baron and Mike Ahn, dozens of MAD reprints, kids storybooks, young adult novels and children's color and activity books based on DC Comics properties.
In early 2006, Kupperberg left DC to become senior editor at the Weekly World News. In 2007, he contributed to the Doctor Who short-story collection Short Trips: Destination Prague, The Avenger Chronicles from Moonstone Books; the Weekly World News ceased publication in August 2007, in January 2008, Kupperberg became senior editor of WWE KIDS for World Wrestling Entertainment. He is freelancing and consulting for DC Comics, Archie Comics, Moonstone Publishing, Stone Arch Books, Bongo Comics, GIT Corp, others, he wrote the Harvey Award and Eisner Award nominated Life with Archie series for Archie Comics which began in August 2010 in the second issue of Life With Archie: The Married Life, in magazine f
Batman is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Named the "Bat-Man," the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, the World's Greatest Detective. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman superpowers, he does, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment.
A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including the Joker. The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year; as the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller; the success of Warner Bros. Pictures' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture. Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel and video games. Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Anthony Ruivivar, Peter Weller, Bruce Greenwood, Jason O'Mara, Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations.
Batman has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, he had drawn a character who looked much like Superman with kind of... reddish tights, I believe, with boots... no gloves, no gauntlets... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings, and under it was a big sign... BATMAN"; the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, gloves. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name. I tried Adams, Hancock... I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar. Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, autobiographical details referring to Kane himself; as an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said,'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin wore, on Batman's face. Bill said,'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit. I thought that black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright:'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope, he didn't have any gloves on, we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Kane signed away ownership in
Black Lightning is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character, created by writer Tony Isabella and artist Trevor Von Eeden, first appeared in Black Lightning #1, during the Bronze Age of Comic Books. While his origin story has been retconned several times, his current origin story states that he was born in the DC Universe a metahuman with superhuman abilities. Black Lightning is DC Comics' third African American superhero, after John Tyroc. Born Jefferson Pierce, Black Lightning is depicted as a schoolteacher from the crime-ridden Suicide Slum area of Metropolis who acquires electrical superpowers from a technologically advanced power belt that he puts to use to clean up crime in his neighborhood. Over time, Pierce establishes himself as a successful superhero in the DC Universe, stories depict him as having "internalized" the belt's powers as a result of his latent metagene. Retellings of Black Lightning's origins simplify his story by depicting him as metahuman with the inborn ability to manipulate and generate electricity.
Tony Isabella, an experienced writer having done work for the Luke Cage character at Marvel Comics, was signed on to develop DC's first starring black character. He pitched the idea for Black Lightning and it was developed though only 11 issues were published in the first series due to the 1978 DC Implosion. However, the character continued to make appearances in other titles over the years, including a Justice League of America storyline in which Pierce is offered but turns down a position with the group. Elements of Black Lightning were controversial. In the character's early days, Black Lightning was depicted wearing a combined afro wig/mask and affecting an exaggerated Harlem jive vernacular as part of his efforts to conceal his identity as educated school professional Jefferson Pierce. Black Lightning becomes one of the founding members of the Batman-helmed Outsiders superhero team. In the 2000s, DC Comics introduced Black Lightning's daughters, who inherited metahuman abilities from their father.
His eldest daughter Anissa, known as Thunder, can alter her density, rendering her indestructible, create shockwaves by stomping the ground. Pierce's younger child Jennifer a superhero known as Lightning, has powers identical to her father though she is still inexperienced and not in full control of them. Along with his presence in comics, Black Lightning has made various appearances in DC-related animated television series, video games and comic strips; the character is being portrayed in live action for the first time by Cress Williams for the eponymous television series, which runs on The CW. In 2011, he was ranked 85th overall on IGN's "Top 100 Comic Books Heroes" list; the original candidate for DC Comics' first headlining black superhero was a character called the Black Bomber, a white racist who would turn into a black superhero under stress. Comics historian Don Markstein described the character as "an insult to everybody with any point of view at all"; when the editor who had approved the Black Bomber left the company before the character had seen print, Tony Isabella was asked to salvage the character.
Isabella convinced editors to instead use his Black Lightning character, which he had been developing for some time. Isabella wrote the first 10 issues of Black Lightning before handing it over to Dennis O'Neil. Only one issue scripted by O'Neil came out before the series was canceled in 1978 as part of a general large-scale pruning of the company's superhero titles known as the DC Implosion. Issue #12 was published in Cancelled Comic Cavalcade and World's Finest Comics #260. Black Lightning made a number of guest appearances in various titles over the next few years, including a string of issues of World's Finest Comics written by O'Neil shifted to Detective Comics and a two-part story in Justice League of America in which he declined an offer of membership. In 1983, with his powers restored, he appeared again as a member of Batman's spinoff superhero team, the Outsiders; when The Outsiders ended, he returned to making occasional guest appearances. In 1995, a new Black Lightning series began with art by Eddy Newell and again written by Tony Isabella, fired after the eighth issue and replaced with Australian writer Dave de Vries.
The series was canceled five issues after Isabella left the title, the decision having been made before these issues had seen print. Isabella said he believes the editor replaced him with a newer writer to consolidate his position in the company. A "Black Lightning: Year One" six-issue limited series, written by Jen Van Meter and illustrated by Cully Hamner saw a bi-weekly release in 2009, was nominated for two Glyph Awards in 2010; as part of the New 52, a revamped version of Black Lightning appeared in DC Universe Presents, paired with the Blue Devil. A gold medal-winning Olympic decathlete, Jefferson Pierce, returned to his old neighborhood in the Southside section of the city of Metropolis, with his wife Lynn Stewart and his daughter Anissa to become the principal of Garfield High School. Southside, as it was once known, was where his father - renowned journalist Alvin Pierce - had been murdered. Guilt over this event was a factor in his decision to leave the city of Metropolis. Suicide Slum was being torn apart by a local organized criminal gang called the 100, shady corporations, crooked local politicians like Tobias Whale.
A family friend and tailor, Peter Gambi, had taught a much younger Jefferson how to suppress his inborn metahuman abilities so that he would not accidentally hurt any of
Superman (comic strip)
Superman was a daily newspaper comic strip which began on January 16, 1939, a separate Sunday strip was added on November 5, 1939. These strips ran continuously until May 1966. In 1941, the McClure Syndicate had placed the strip in hundreds of newspapers. At its peak, the strip, featuring Superman, was in over 300 daily newspapers and 90 Sunday papers, with a readership of over 20 million. During the National Comics Publications v. Fawcett Publications court case, the District Court ruled that McClure Syndicate failed to place the copyright notice on some of the strips and thus those strips are in the public domain; the daily strip was host to many storylines, unique from the regular Superman comic series. The early years consisted of Siegel-era Superman stories; the strips contained the first appearance of a bald Lex Luthor, the first appearance of Mr. Mxyzptlk and the first telephone booth costume change in comics. Other stories of note include Superman saving Santa Claus from the Nazis, World War II-era stories of Superman protecting the American home front and Clark Kent marrying Lois Lane.
The artwork includes runs by famed Superman artists Wayne Curt Swan. Mr. Mxyzptlk was first created to appear in the Superman #30 story, "The Mysterious Mr. Mxyztplk", but due to the publishing lag time, the daily strip team of writer Whitney Ellsworth and artist Wayne Boring saw what had been created for issue #30, were able to use him first in the daily strip story “The Mischievous Mr. Mxyzptlk” published from February 21, 1944 to July 19, 1944. So Mr. Mxyzptlk was not created for, and while published second, Mr. Mxyztplk was first created for Superman issue #30 and first written by Jerry Siegel and drawn and inked by Ira Yarborough. Superman appeared in the newspapers again in 1978, with the newspaper strip The World's Greatest Superheroes, retitled in his name in 1982 and lasted until 1985. Between these two comic strip series, Superman appeared in 12,000 unique newspaper strips. Over the years, there have been a number of different writers and artists on the Superman newspaper strips; the strip was drawn by Joe Shuster.
As Superman became more and more popular and the workload kept increasing, Shuster turned over many duties to his studio assistants. Paul Cassidy was the first in a line of ghost artists on the strip and took over the inking and detail work in 1939. In September 1940, Leo Nowak replaced Cassidy on the strip. Other assistants during this time included Dennis Neville, John Sikela, Ed Dobrotka, Paul J. Lauretta, Jack Burnley. Sikela and Dobrotka traded penciling and inking duties between each other. Lauretta inked and did backgrounds on the strips. Burnley left to work on his own comic book, but did return to pencil the Superman Sundays in 1943; the Superman strips during this early period of shop work was a team effort with multiple artists working on different parts of the same strip. This early period ended with the start of World War II. Jerry Siegel, the main writer, was drafted in 1943. Early that same year, Leo Nowak and John Sikela were drafted as well. In 1943, Stan Kaye took over the inking.
Wayne Boring, another early assistant to Joe Shuster, left the Shuster studio in 1942 to directly draw the daily strip for DC. Boring and Kaye dominated the daily strip’s artwork throughout most of the 1940s; the two provided art for the Sunday strip between 1940 and 1966. In the middle of 1949, Win Mortimer took over the daily strip from Wayne Boring. Stan Kaye continued inking Mortimer’s work until Kaye temporarily left, Mortimer inked his own work until he left DC in 1956 to publish his David Crane strip. Curt Swan took over the daily strip on June 1956, along with Stan Kaye. Swan continued on the strip until November 12, 1960; as for the stories in the Superman strips, Jerry Siegel wrote them until he was drafted in 1943. Whitney Ellsworth, who had begun on the strip in 1941, continued until 1945. Jack Schiff began his writing on the strip in 1942 and worked on the strip off and on until 1962. Alvin Schwartz first started writing for the Superman strip in October 1944. Between 1947 and 1951, Schwartz was the only writer on the Superman strip, he continued on the strip until 1958.
Bill Woolfolk wrote one story for the dailies in 1953. In 1959, Bill Finger started scripting stories, he worked through the series' end in 1966. During this final period, Jerry Siegel resumed his duties writing some stories. Lois Lane, Girl Reporter was a newspaper comic strip and topper to the Superman comic strip, featuring Superman's supporting character Lois Lane. Lois Lane accompanied the Superman Sunday strip in the Cleveland Plain Dealer, running irregularly between October 24, 1943, February 27, 1944. McClure Syndicate and fearing newspapers would cancel the popular Superman strip if it could not appear and on time, appealed to DC to instead create a spin-off strip, Lois Lane, Girl Reporter, for McClure to use as a filler material for newspaper syndication. In 2013 The Library of American Comics started to collect all the Superman comic strips and Sundays published between 1939-1966 in six sub set hardcover collections, see Superman: The Complete Comic Strips 1939-1966; the Speeding Bullet: Archive of Superman newspaper strips Supermanartists.com: Who Drew Superman?
Artist Biographies: Curt Swan After the Golden Age with Alvin Schwartz James Winslow Mortimer Superman Supersite: Win Mortimer Curt Swan: A Superman Walked Among US
The Sunday comics or Sunday strip is the comic strip section carried in most western newspapers always in color. Many newspaper readers called this section the Sunday funnies, the funny papers or the funnies; the first US newspaper comic strips appeared in the late 19th century allied with the invention of the color press. Jimmy Swinnerton's The Little Bears introduced sequential art and recurring characters in William Randolph Hearst's San Francisco Examiner. In the United States, the popularity of color comic strips sprang from the newspaper war between Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer; some newspapers, such as Grit, published Sunday strips in black-and-white, some print their Sunday strips on Saturday. Subject matter and genres have ranged from adventure and humor strips to dramatic strips with soap opera situations, such as Mary Worth. A continuity strip employs a narrative in an ongoing storyline. Other strips offer a gag complete in a single episode, such as Mutt and Jeff; the Sunday strip is contrasted with the daily comic strip, published Monday through Saturday in black and white.
Many comic strips appear both daily and Sunday, in some cases, as with Little Orphan Annie, telling the same story daily and Sunday, in other cases, as with The Phantom, telling one story in the daily and a different story in the Sunday. Some strips, such as Prince Valiant appear only on Sunday. Others, such as Rip Kirby, have never appeared on Sunday. In some cases, such as Buz Sawyer, the Sunday strip is a spin-off, focusing on different characters than the daily. Famous full-page Sunday strips include Alley Oop, Barney Google and Snuffy Smith, Bringing Up Father, Buck Rogers, Captain Easy, Flash Gordon, Thimble Theatre; such classics have found a new home in book collections of recent years. On the other hand, numerous strips such as Bob Gustafson's Specs and Virgil Partch's The Captain's Gig are completely forgotten today, other than a brief display in the Stripper's Guide site run by comics historian Allan Holtz. Many of the leading cartoonists drew an accompanying topper strip to run above or below their main strip, a practice which began to fade away during the late 1930s.
Holtz notes, "You'll hear historians say that the topper strip was a victim of World War II paper shortages. Don't believe a word of it—it's the ads that killed full-page strips, that killed the topper. World War II only exacerbated an bad situation." After the publisher of the Chicago Inter-Ocean saw the first color press in Paris at the offices of Le Petit Journal, he had his own color press operating late in 1892. At the New York Recorder, manager George Turner had R. Hoe & Co. design a color press, the Recorder published the first American newspaper color page on April 2, 1893. The following month, Pulitzer's New York World printed cartoonist Walt McDougall's "The Possibilities of the Broadway Cable Car" as a color page on May 21, 1893. In 1894, Pulitzer introduced the Sunday color supplement; the Yellow Kid is credited as one of the first US newspaper comic strips. However, the artform combining words and pictures evolved and there are many examples of proto-comic strips. In 1995, King Features Syndicate president Joseph F. D'Angelo wrote: It was in Joseph Pulitzer's New York World that cartoonist Richard Outcault's legendary Yellow Kid made his newspaper debut in 1895, but it was Hearst's New York Journal that cannily snatched the Kid away from the rival sheet and deployed him as a key weapon in the historic newspaper circulation wars.
The Kid led the charge in Hearst's trailblazing American Humorist comic supplement, with its famous motto: "Eight Pages of Iridescent Polychromous Effulgence That Makes The Rainbow Look Like A Lead Pipe!" Pulitzer fought back by hiring another artist to draw Outcault's character for the World. The publishers' fierce battle over the bald urchin in the yellow nightshirt led bystanders to refer to sensational, screaming-headline style newspaper combat as "yellow journalism." The popularity of that expression tainted the early comics as a less-than-genteel entertainment, but it made it clear that the "funnies" had become serious business overnight. In 1905, Winsor McCay's Little Nemo in Slumberland began. Stephen Becker, in Comic Art in America, noted that Little Nemo in Slumberland was "probably the first strip to exploit color for purely aesthetic purposes. By 1906, the weekly Sunday comics supplement was commonplace, with a half-dozen competitive syndicates circulating strips to newspapers in every major American city.
In 1923, The Commercial Appeal in Memphis, became among the first in the nation to acquire its own radio station, it was the first Southern newspaper to publish a Sunday comic section. For most of the 20th century, the Sunday funnies were a family tradition, enjoyed each weekend by adults and kids alike, they were read by millions and produced famous fictional characters in such strips as Flash Gordon, Little Orphan Annie, Prince Valiant, Dick Tracy and Terry and the Pirates. Leading the lists of classic humor strips are Bringing Up Father, Gasoline Alley, Li'l Abner, Pogo and Smokey Stover; some newspapers added their own local features, such as Our Own Oddities in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. There were educational strips, such as King Features' Heroes of American History. In addition to the comic strips, Sunday comics sections carried advertisements in a comics format, single-panel features, paper dolls and cut-and-paste activities; the World Museum gave readers instructions for cutting pictures apart and assembling them into a diorama with a subject from nature, such a
Robert "Bob" Rozakis is an American comic book writer and editor known for his work in the 1970s and 1980s at DC Comics, as the writer of'Mazing Man and in his capacity as DC's "Answer Man". Bob Rozakis got his start in the comics industry through his many letters to comic book letter columns. Among his earliest credits is that of editor on DC Comics "Pro-zine" The Amazing World of DC Comics between 1974 and 1978. In addition to editing, Rozakis oversaw the letters page, he is known as DC's "Answer Man", answering trivia questions from readers in the Daily Planet promotional page in many late–1970s comics and he has had an online presence in that capacity since the mid-1990s. Other pen names used by Rozakis are Ted P. Skimmer, his first comics credit was in Detective Comics #445, as writer of the back-up feature "The Touchdown Trap", with back-up stories in Action Comics, The Flash and Batman Family soon following. He was assistant editor to Julius Schwartz on issues of Action Comics, Detective Comics, Superman.
His writing credits consist of back-up features for Action Comics featuring Air-Wave and the Atom. Rozakis stated in a 2014 interview, it may have been that all three had names that began with'A' and it was a backup in Action Comics". His credits during his 25-year career with DC total "almost four hundred stories" featuring most DC characters, "plus dozens of features and activities pages". In 1976, Rozakis and Paul Levitz co-wrote a revival of the Teen Titans. Among his characters he created during this time are Duela Dent, he revived the original Bat-Girl. Rozakis and artist Juan Ortiz crafted an origin for the Teen Titans in issue #53 of the series, he and artist Dan Spiegle created the character Mister E in Secrets of Haunted House #31. Rozakis wrote seven stories for the "Whatever Happened to...?" Backup feature in DC Comics Presents in 1980 and 1981 and the Superman: The Secret Years miniseries in 1985. He scripted the comics adaptations of such movies as Rainbow Brite and the Star Stealer, Superman IV: The Quest for Peace, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure.
He was the writer of the syndicated comic strip The Superman Sunday Special for two years. His most well-known writing came in the twelve-issue 1986 series'Mazing Man, featuring the misadventures of self-declared homemade hero Sigfried Horatio Hunch III, which Rozakis co-created with artist Stephen DeStefano; the two returned to the character for three specials and for Secret Origins #16, to tell "The Closest Thing To A Secret Origin of'Mazing Man You Will Ever Get". Rozakis co-created the series Hero Hotline with DeStefano. Rozakis' comic book work in 1998–2000 was a variety of custom publications including the "Celebrate the Century" comic books for the United States Postal Service, as well as publications for Con Edison, the San Francisco Giants and the United Nations Land Mine Awareness program. In 2008, he began writing a series of "alternate reality" articles titled "The Secret History of All-American Comics Inc." for Alter Ego and Back Issue! magazines. Between 1981 and 1998, Rozakis ran DC Comics' production department, as Executive Director of Production he was instrumental in the development of offset-printed comic books in a wide variety of formats.
He was the leading proponent of "computerized color separations and typesetting, electronic page preparation, computer-to-plate printing", as a result of his efforts on DC's behalf, the look of comic books across the entire industry changed, DC won "over one hundred awards for printing excellence", Rozakis himself was profiled in Publishing & Production Executive on two separate occasions. In 2003, Rozakis announced his retirement from the comic book industry. Rozakis is married to prolific author Laurie E. Rozakis, a professor of English, grammar expert and "author of more than 100 books", Bob Rozakis' co-writer on Detective Comics #464; the two have collaborated on The Complete Idiot's Guide to Office Politics They have two children: son Charles "Chuck", who wrote his Princeton University thesis on the business viability of webcomics, daughter Samantha "Sammi". In 1973, Laurie and Bob drove the DC Comicmobile, a van which sold comic books "like the ice cream man did". Official page on Blogger Bob Rozakis at the Comic Book DB "DC Profiles #6: Bob Rozakis" at the Grand Comics Database "DC Profiles #88: Ted P. Skimmer" at the Grand Comics Database Bob Rozakis at Mike's Amazing World of Comics Bob Rozakis at the DC Database Project