An illustrator is an artist who specializes in enhancing writing or elucidating concepts by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text or idea. The illustration may be intended to clarify complicated concepts or objects that are difficult to describe textually, illustration is the art of making images that work with something and add to it without needing direct attention and without distracting from the thing they illustrate. The other thing is the focus of the attention, and the role is to add personality. A cartoon illustration can add humor to stories or essays, use reference images to create scenes and characters. This can be as simple as looking at an image to inspire artwork, or creating character sketches. Some traditional illustration techniques include watercolor and ink, airbrush art, oil painting, wood engraving, and linoleum cuts. Traditional illustration seems to have come full circle, from falling out of favor to photography in the early 1990s to being superseded by CGI, universities and art schools offer specific courses in illustration so this has become a new avenue into the profession.
Many illustrators are freelance, commissioned by publishers or advertising agencies, most scientific illustrations and technical illustrations are known as information graphics. Among the information graphics specialists are medical illustrators who illustrate human anatomy, often requiring years of artistic. A particularly popular medium with illustrators of the 1950s and 1960s was casein, the immediacy and durability of these media suited illustrations demands well. The artwork in both types of paint withstood the rigors of travel to clients and printers without damage, digital illustration is the technique of using a computer to produce original artwork. Digital illustrators use a combination of software and image editing software to create computer art. Digital illustration is not merely the manipulation of images with software, computer illustration or digital illustration is the use of digital tools to produce images under the direct manipulation of the artist, usually through a pointing device such as a tablet or a mouse.
Computers dramatically changed the industry and today many cartoonists and illustrators create digital illustrations using computers, graphics tablets, software such as Adobe Illustrator or Adobe Photoshop are now widely used by those professionals
The Sunday comics is the full-color comic strip section carried in most American newspapers. Many newspaper readers called this section the Sunday funnies, the papers or simply the funnies. The first US newspaper comic strips appeared in the late 19th century, jimmy Swinnertons The Little Bears introduced sequential art and recurring characters in William Randolph Hearsts San Francisco Examiner. In America, the popularity of comic strips sprang from the newspaper war between Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer. After the publisher of the Chicago Inter-Ocean saw the first color press in Paris at the offices of Le Petit Journal, he had his own color press operating late in 1892. At the New York Recorder, manager George Turner had R. Hoe & Co. design a color press, the following month, Pulitzers New York World printed cartoonist Walt McDougalls The Possibilities of the Broadway Cable Car as a color page on May 21,1893. In 1894, Pulitzer introduced the Sunday color supplement, the Yellow Kid is usually credited as one of the first US newspaper comic strips.
However, the artform combining words and pictures evolved gradually, in 1995, King Features Syndicate president Joseph F. Pulitzer fought back by hiring another artist to draw Outcaults character for the World. The publishers fierce battle over the bald urchin in the yellow nightshirt led bystanders to refer to sensational, the popularity of that expression tainted the early comics as a less-than-genteel entertainment, but it made it clear that the funnies had become serious business, seemingly overnight. In 1905, Winsor McCays Little Nemo in Slumberland began, by 1906, the weekly Sunday comics supplement was commonplace, with a half-dozen competitive syndicates circulating strips to newspapers in every major American city. In 1923, The Commercial Appeal in Memphis, became among the first in the nation to acquire its own radio station, for most of the 20th century, the Sunday funnies were a family tradition, enjoyed each weekend by adults and kids alike. They were read by millions and produced famous fictional characters in such strips as Flash Gordon, Little Orphan Annie, Prince Valiant, Dick Tracy and Terry and the Pirates.
Leading the lists of classic humor strips are Bringing Up Father, Gasoline Alley, Lil Abner, Peanuts, some newspapers added their own local features, such as Our Own Oddities in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. There were educational strips, such as King Features Heroes of American History, in addition to the comic strips, Sunday comics sections carried advertisements in a comics format, single-panel features, paper dolls and cut-and-paste activities. The World Museum gave readers instructions for cutting pictures apart and assembling them into a diorama, often with a subject from nature, such as The Grand Canyon or Buffalo Hunt. A page on covered wagons carried the headline, Covered wagons shown in a model, paste. Most notably, on July 8,1945, during a New York newspaper deliverers strike, la Guardia read comic strips over the radio. Early Sunday strips filled an entire newspaper page, one notable distinction among Sunday comics supplements was the supplement produced in a comic book-like format, featuring the character The Spirit
An author is narrowly defined as the originator of any written work and can thus be described as a writer. More broadly defined, an author is the person who originated or gave existence to anything, in the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship. The United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of works of authorship. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, copyright is merely the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time its created, an interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon ones death. The person who inherits the copyright is not the author, questions arise as to the application of copyright law. How does it, for example, apply to the issue of fan fiction.
If the media responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors, music. Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books, what powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or even stopping the fan fiction. In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting, in the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea that a text can be attributed to any single author and he writes, in his essay Death of the Author, that it is language which speaks, not the author. The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, with this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, and the limits formerly imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed.
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak. Michel Foucault argues in his essay What is an author and that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that a letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author. For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to certain standards upon the text which. Foucaults author function is the idea that an author exists only as a function of a work, a part of its structure
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
Comic strip formats
The first distinction in comic strips formats is between the daily comic strip and the Sunday strip. A daily strip is carried on a standard newspaper page, often alongside other strips. There is a greater variety in Sunday strip formats. Sunday strips are usually in color, published in a special newspaper section, Comics sections usually come in one of two sizes, full page or tabloid. A single comic strip may appear in numerous variations, there is a version, to appear at a given size. Expendable parts may include a topper, throwaway panels, or a title panel or tier. Due to the desire to re-arrange, comics may use a layout of the panels to allow them to be cut up. Full page is a format roughly 20 inches high and 14 inches wide, the Reading Eagle Sunday comics section is full-page size, though today no individual strips are still printed to take up a full page. When Sunday strips first appeared in newspapers, near the beginning of the 20th Century, leading full-page Sundays included Thimble Theater, Little Orphan Annie, Dick Tracy and Bringing Up Father.
Many full-page comic strips had a topper, a strip that ran above or occasionally below the main strip. The topper on Thimble Theater was Sappo, the topper on Little Orphan Annie was Maw Green, Dick Tracy never had a topper while it was still a full page, but much it had a topper, which ran at the bottom of the tabloid page. In the 1940s, comic strips were reduced in size because newspapers wanted to cram in more comics per page, paper rationing during World War II contributed to this, but was not the primary cause. Many strips were reduced in size to half of a page or one-third of a page, collectors call these formats halfs and thirds. Only a few strips, notably Prince Valiant, were published in full-page format after World War II. In the mid-1950s, there were a few attempts to revive the full-page Sunday comic strip, notably Lance and Johnny Reb and these were an artistic but not a commercial success and were reduced to half-page format after a short full-page run. The last full-page Sunday strip was Prince Valiant, which continued in full-page format in newspapers until 1970.
New Prince Valiant stories still appear in newspapers today, but in half-page or smaller formats, only a few books have been published reprinting full-page Sunday strips in their original size, The Golden Age of Tarzan, Prince Valiant, An American Epic and Little Nemo. The format was short-lived, as by 1957-58 these were printed in this format
Dioramas are often built by hobbyists as part of related hobbies such as military vehicle modeling, miniature figure modeling, or aircraft modeling. The word diorama originated in 1823 as a type of picture-viewing device, the word literally means through that which is seen, from the Greek di- through + orama that which is seen, a sight. The diorama was invented by Louis Daguerre and Charles Marie Bouton, first exhibited in Paris in July 1822, the meaning small-scale replica of a scene, etc. is from 1902. Daguerres diorama consisted of a piece of material painted on both sides, when illuminated from the front, the scene would be shown in one state and by switching to illumination from behind another phase or aspect would be seen. Scenes in daylight changed to moonlight, a train travelling on a track would crash, or an earthquake would be shown in before, one of the first uses of dioramas in a museum was in Stockholm, where the Biological Museum opened in 1893. It had several dioramas, over three floors and they were implemented by the National Museum Grigore Antipa from Bucharest Romania and constituted a source of inspiration for many important museums in the world.
Miniature dioramas are typically smaller, and use scale models. Such a scale model-based diorama is used, for example, in Chicagos Museum of Science and this diorama employs a common model railroading scale of 1,87. Hobbyist dioramas often use such as 1,35 or 1,48. An early, and exceptionally large example was created between 1830 and 1838 by a British Army officer, william Siborne, and represents the Battle of Waterloo at about 7.45 pm, on 18 June,1815. The diorama measures 8.33 by 6 metres and used around 70,000 model soldiers in its construction and it is now part of the collection of the National Army Museum in London. Sheperd Paine, a prominent hobbyist, popularized the modern miniature diorama beginning in the 1970s, modern museum dioramas may be seen in most major natural history museums. Often the distant painted background or sky will be painted upon a continuous curved surface so that the viewer is not distracted by corners, all of these techniques are means of presenting a realistic view of a large scene in a compact space. A photograph or single-eye view of such a diorama can be especially convincing since in case there is no distraction by the binocular perception of depth.
Carl Akeley, a naturalist and taxidermist, is credited with creating the first ever habitat diorama in the year 1889, akeleys diorama featured taxidermied beavers in a three-dimensional habitat with a realistic, painted background. With the support of curator Frank M. Chapman, Akeley designed the popular habitat dioramas featured at the American Museum of Natural History, combining art with science, these exhibitions were intended to educate the public about the growing need for habitat conservation. The modern AMNH Exhibitions Lab is charged with the creation of all dioramas, miniature dioramas may be used to represent scenes from historic events. A typical example of type are the dioramas to be seen at Norways Resistance Museum in Oslo
A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative, often serialized, with text in balloons and captions. With the development of the internet, they began to online as web comics. There were more than 200 different comic strips and daily cartoon panels in American newspapers alone each day for most of the 20th century, Strips are written and drawn by a comics artist or cartoonist. As the name implies, comic strips can be humorous, starting in the late 1920s, comic strips expanded from their mirthful origins to feature adventure stories, as seen in Popeye, Captain Easy, Buck Rogers and The Adventures of Tintin. Soap-opera continuity strips such as Judge Parker and Mary Worth gained popularity in the 1940s, all are called, comic strips, though cartoonist Will Eisner has suggested that sequential art would be a better genre-neutral name. In the UK and the rest of Europe, comic strips are serialized in comic book magazines, storytelling using a sequence of pictures has existed through history.
One medieval European example in textile form is the Bayeux Tapestry, printed examples emerged in 19th-century Germany and in 18th-century England, where some of the first satirical or humorous sequential narrative drawings were produced. William Hogarths 18th century English cartoons include both narrative sequences, such as A Rakes Progress, and single panels, in China, with its traditions of block printing and of the incorporation of text with image, experiments with what became lianhuanhua date back to 1884. The first newspaper comic strips appeared in North America in the late 19th century, the Yellow Kid is usually credited as one of the first newspaper strips. However, the art form combining words and pictures developed gradually, swiss author and caricature artist Rodolphe Töpffer is considered the father of the modern comic strips. In 1865, German painter and caricaturist Wilhelm Busch created the strip Max and Moritz and Moritz provided an inspiration for German immigrant Rudolph Dirks, who created the Katzenjammer Kids in 1897.
Familiar comic-strip iconography such as stars for pain, sawing logs for snoring, speech balloons, hugely popular, Katzenjammer Kids occasioned one of the first comic-strip copyright ownership suits in the history of the medium. When Dirks left William Randolph Hearst for the promise of a better salary under Joseph Pulitzer, it was an unusual move, in a highly unusual court decision, Hearst retained the rights to the name Katzenjammer Kids, while creator Dirks retained the rights to the characters. Hearst promptly hired Harold Knerr to draw his own version of the strip, Dirks renamed his version Hans and Fritz. Thus, two versions distributed by rival syndicates graced the pages for decades. Dirks version, eventually distributed by United Feature Syndicate, ran until 1979, in the United States, the great popularity of comics sprang from the newspaper war between Pulitzer and Hearst. On January 31,1912, Hearst introduced the nations first full daily comic page in his New York Evening Journal, the history of this newspaper rivalry and the rapid appearance of comic strips in most major American newspapers is discussed by Ian Gordon.
The longest running American comic strips are,1, barney Google and Snuffy Smith 5