Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors
Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors is an adventure video game developed by Chunsoft. It is the first installment in the Zero Escape series, was released in Japan in 2009 and in North America in 2010 for the Nintendo DS; the story follows Junpei, a college student, abducted along with eight other people and forced to play the "Nonary Game," which puts its participants in a life-or-death situation, to escape from a sinking cruise liner. The gameplay alternates between two types of sections: Escape sections, where the player completes puzzles in escape-the-room scenarios. Development of the game began after Uchikoshi joined Chunsoft to write a visual novel for them that could reach a wider audience; the inspiration for the story was the question of. The music was composed by Shinji Hosoe; the localization was handled by Aksys Games. Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors was positively received, with reviewers praising the story and puzzles, but criticizing the game's tone and how the player is required to re-do the puzzles every time they play through the game.
While the Japanese release was a commercial failure, the game sold better than expected for the genre in the United States. Although Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors was developed as a stand-alone title, its unexpected critical success in North America prompted the continuation of the series; the sequel, Zero Escape: Virtue's Last Reward, was released in 2012, followed by Zero Time Dilemma, released in 2016. An updated version of Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors, with voice acting and higher resolution graphics, was released alongside a port of Virtue's Last Reward in the 2017 bundle, Zero Escape: The Nonary Games; this bundle was released on Steam, the PlayStation Vita, the PlayStation 4. Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors is an adventure game in which the player assumes the role of a college student named Junpei; the gameplay is divided into two types of sections: Escape. In the Novel sections, the player progresses through the storyline and converses with non-playable characters through visual novel segments.
These sections require little interaction from the player as they are spent reading the text that appears on the screen, which represents either dialogue between the various characters or Junpei's thoughts. During Novel sections, the player will sometimes be presented with decision options that affect the course of the game; the player's decisions result in one of six branching storylines, each with a unique ending. The whole plot is not revealed in just one playthrough. To reach this ending, the player needs to reach one specific ending beforehand; some of the endings contain hints to. In between Novel sections are Escape sections, which occur when the player finds themselves in a room from which they need to find the means of escape; these are presented from a first-person perspective, with the player being able to move between different pre-determined positions in each room. To escape, the player is tasked with finding various items and solving puzzles, reminiscent of escape-the-room games.
At some points, the player may need to combine objects with each other to create the necessary tool to complete a puzzle. The puzzles include various brain teasers, such as magic squares. An in-game calculator is provided for math-related problems, the player can ask characters for hints if they find an Escape room too difficult. All Escape sections are self-contained, with all items required to solve the puzzles being available within that section. After finishing an Escape section, it becomes available to replay from the game's main menu. Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors features nine main characters, who are forced to participate in the Nonary Game by an unknown person named Zero; the characters adopt code names to protect their identities due to the stakes of the Nonary Game. The player-controlled Junpei is joined by June, a nervous girl and an old friend of Junpei whom he knows as Akane; the events of the game occur within a cruise ship, though all of the external doors and windows have been sealed, many of the internal doors are locked.
The game's nine characters learn that they have been kidnapped and brought to the ship to play the Nonary Game, with the challenge to find the door marked with a "9" within nine hours before the ship sinks. To do this, they are forced to work in separate teams to make their way through the ship and solve puzzles to find this door; this is set in part by special locks on numbered doors.
Charles Herbert Lightoller, RNR was the second officer on board the RMS Titanic and a decorated Royal Navy officer. He was the most senior member of the crew to survive the Titanic disaster; as the officer in charge of loading passengers into lifeboats on the port side, Lightoller enforced the "women and children first" protocol, not allowing any male passengers to board the lifeboats unless they were needed as auxiliary seamen. Lightoller stayed until the last, was sucked against a grate and held under water, but was blown from the grate by a rush of warm air as a boiler exploded, he found refuge on an upturned collapsible boat with 30 others, showing his fellow survivors how to shift their weight to avoid being swamped, until their rescue at dawn. Lightoller served as a commanding officer of the Royal Navy during World War I and was twice decorated for gallantry. First while in command of a motor torpedo boat he engaged German Zeppelin L31 during a night time raid on Southern England. Second whilst in command of destroyer HMS Garry protecting a merchant convoy, Lightoller's ship rammed and sank the German U-Boat UB-110.
The captain of UB-110 claimed that some of the German survivors were massacred by Lightoller's crew, an allegation never substantiated. In his 1935 memoir'Titanic and Other Ships', Lightoller wrote of the incident that he "refused to accept the hands-up business", but did not go into further detail on the matter. In retirement, he further distinguished himself in World War II, by providing and sailing as a volunteer on one of the "little ships" that played a part in the Dunkirk evacuation. Rather than allow his motoryacht to be requisitioned by the Admiralty, he sailed the vessel to Dunkirk and repatriated 127 British servicemen. Charles Herbert Lightoller was born in Chorley, Lancashire, on 30 March 1874, into a family that had operated cotton-spinning mills in Lancashire since the late 18th century, his mother, Sarah Jane Lightoller, died of scarlet fever shortly after giving birth to him. His father, Frederick James Lightoller, emigrated to New Zealand when Charles was 10, leaving him in the care of extended family.
At age 13, not wanting to end up with a factory job like most of Britain's youth at the time, young Charles began a four-year seafaring apprenticeship on board the barque Primrose Hill. On his second voyage, he set sail with the crew of the Holt Hill, during a storm in the South Atlantic, the ship was forced to put in at Rio de Janeiro. Repairs were made in the midst of a revolution. Another storm, on 13 November 1889 in the Indian Ocean, caused the ship to run aground on an uninhabited four-and-a-half-square-mile island now called Île Saint-Paul, they were taken to Adelaide, Australia. Lightoller joined the crew of the clipper ship Duke of Abercorn for his return to England. Lightoller returned to the Primrose Hill for his third voyage, they arrived in Calcutta, where he passed his second mate's certificate. The cargo of coal caught fire while he was serving as third mate on board the windjammer Knight of St. Michael, for his successful efforts in fighting the fire and saving the ship, Lightoller was promoted to second mate.
In 1895, at age 21 and a veteran of the dangers at sea, he obtained his mate's ticket and left sailing ships for steamships. After three years of service in Elder Dempster's African Royal Mail Service on the West African coast, he nearly died from a heavy bout of malaria. Abandoning the sea, Lightoller went to the Yukon in 1898 to prospect for gold in the Klondike Gold Rush. Failing at this endeavour, he became a cowboy in Alberta, Canada. In order to return home, he became a hobo, he earned his passage back to England by working as a cattle wrangler on a cattle boat and arrived home penniless in 1899. He obtained his master's certificate and joined Greenshields, Cowie & Co, for whom he made another trip on a cattle boat, this time as third mate of the Knight Companion. In January 1900, he began his career with the White Star Line as fourth officer of the SS Medic. While on the Medic, on a voyage from Britain to South Africa and Australia, Lightoller was reprimanded for a prank he and some shipmates played on the citizens of Sydney at Fort Denison in Sydney Harbour.
In 1900, the Boer War was raging in South Africa, where Australian troops were fighting alongside British in the first war in which the colonies had taken part. As a result, passions were high when the White Star Line's Medic sailed into Sydney Harbour and dropped anchor in Neutral Bay. Spending time ashore with shipmates, the young sailor was amazed by the depth of concern expressed by locals regarding the distant South African conflict, so he decided to have some fun at their expense. Soon after midnight on Saturday 6 October 1900, accompanied by two shipmates rowed to the fortress and climbed its tower, they accessed the fort by means of the lightning conductor and hoisted a makeshift Boer flag on the tower. They loaded a cannon with 14 lb of blasting powder and a similar amount of fine-grain powder and rammed in a harmless wad of white cotton waste, they lit a 50 ft fuse, while in retreat, their small rowboat became holed by rocks. The three managed to row to shore, run through Government House grounds, reach Circular Quay by the time the cannon went off with "a huge flash", followed by "a crash like thunder"... "just as the Post Office clock had struck the hour of 1 a.m."Lightoller's plan was to fool the locals into believing a Boer raiding party was attacking Sydney and had captured Fort Denison.
When the heavy gun went off, the resounding bang blew out windows and woke residents, who leapt from their beds to see wha
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a magistratus was one of the highest ranking government officers, possessed both judicial and executive powers. In other parts of the world, such as China, a magistrate was responsible for administration over a particular geographic area. Today, in some jurisdictions, a magistrate is a judicial officer who hears cases in a lower court, deals with more minor or preliminary matters. In other jurisdictions, magistrates may be volunteers without formal legal training who perform a judicial role with regard to minor matters. In ancient Rome, the word magistratus referred to one of the highest offices of state. Analogous offices in the local authorities, such as municipium, were subordinate only to the legislature of which they were members, ex officio a combination of judicial and executive power, constituting one jurisdiction. In Rome itself, the highest magistrates were members of the so-called cursus honorum -'career of honors'.
They held both judicial and executive power within their sphere of responsibility, had the power to issue ius honorarium, or magisterial law. The Consul was the highest Roman magistrate; the Praetor was the highest judge in matters of private law between individual citizens, while the Curule Aediles, who supervised public works in the city, exercised a limited civil jurisdiction in relation to the market. Roman magistrates were advised by jurists who were experts in the law; the term was maintained in most feudal successor states to the western Roman Empire. However, it was used in Germanic kingdoms in city-states, where the term magistrate was used as an abstract generic term denoting the highest office, regardless of the formal titles when, a council; the term "chief magistrate" applied to the highest official, in sovereign entities the head of state and/or head of government. Under the "civil law" systems of European countries, such as Belgium, France and the Netherlands, magistrat and magistraat are generic terms which comprise both prosecutors and judges, distinguished as the'standing' versus'sitting' magistrature, respectively.
In Portugal, besides being used in the scope of the judiciary to designate prosecutors and judges, the term magistrado was used to designate certain government officials, like the former civil governors of district. These were referred as "administrative magistrates" to distinguish them from the judiciary magistrates; the President of Portugal is considered the Supreme Magistrate of the Nation. In Finland, maistraatti is a state-appointed local administrative office whose responsibilities include keeping population information and public registers, acting as a public notary and conducting civil marriages. In Mexico's Federal Law System, a magistrado is a superior judge, hierarchically beneath the Supreme Court Justices; the magistrado reviews the cases seen by a judge in a second term if any of the parties disputes the verdict. For special cases, there are magistrados superiores who review the verdicts of special court and tribunal magistrates. In the courts of England and Wales, magistrates—also known as justices of the peace —are volunteers who hear prosecutions for and dispose of'summary offences' and some'triable-either-way offences' by making orders with regard to and placing additional requirements on offenders.
Magistrates/JPs are limited to issuing sentences of no longer than twelve months. Magistrates/JPs have other limitations in their sentencing authority with powers extending to fines, community orders which can include curfews, electronic tagging, requirements to perform unpaid work up to 300 hours, supervision for up to three years. In more serious cases, magistrates can send'either-way' offenders to the Crown Court for sentencing when the magistrate feels a penalty should be imposed, more severe than the magistrate is capable of sentencing. A wide range of other legal matters is within the remit of magistrates. In the past, magistrates have been responsible for granting licenses to sell alcohol, for instance, but this function is now exercised by local councils. Magistrates are responsible for granting search warrants to the police and other authorities. However, commission areas were replaced with Local Justice Areas by the Courts Act 2003, meaning magistrates no longer need to live within 15 miles.
Section 7 of the Courts Act 2003 states that "There shall be a commission of the peace for England and Wales—…b) addressed and not by name, to all such persons as may from time to time hold office as justices of the peace for England and Wales". Thus, every magistrate in England and Wales may act as a magistrate anywhere in Wales. There are two types of magistrates in England and Wales: justices of the peace and district judges who hold office as members of the professional judiciary. According to requirements, arou
Beyond Belief: Fact or Fiction
Beyond Belief: Fact or Fiction is an American television anthology series created by Lynn Lehmann, presented by Dick Clark Productions, produced and aired by the Fox network from 1997 to 2002. Each episode featured stories, all of which appeared to defy logic, some of which were based on actual events; the viewer was offered the challenge of determining which are false. At the end of the show, it was revealed to the viewer whether the tales were true or works of fiction; the series was hosted by James Brolin in season one and by Jonathan Frakes in seasons two and four. The show was narrated by Don LaFontaine for the first three seasons and by Campbell Lane for the fourth and final season; the show is now streaming all seasons on Amazon as of March 2018. The stories told in the program all had some connection with the supernatural, psychic phenomena, destiny, and/or with other such unusual occurrences; each episode of the show, as well as all stories within, were introduced with a pun or some other form of witticism pertaining to the particular story and episode, they all included the underlying moral that not everything we perceive as truth and falsehood is as such, that it can be difficult to separate fact from fiction, hence the show's title.
The majority of true stories on the show were based on first-hand research conducted by author Robert Tralins, while many of the ones that turned out to be fiction were modern-dressed re-telling of urban legends. From series two onwards Jonathan Frakes would end each story with a pun related to the story, for comical effect. Beyond Belief: Fact or Fiction has gained a cult following; the show was aired sporadically, sometimes going for weeks or months between airings. There is a two-year lag between Don LaFontaine and Campbell Lane's stints as narrator for the show, during which time it was believed that it had been cancelled, only for it to be brought back for another season in the summer of 2002, it was cancelled after its 2002 season. During his stint as narrator, Lane played the character John August in the story entitled'The Cigar Box' shown in episode 11 of the series. In Germany where Beyond Belief: Fact or Fiction is known as X-Factor: Das Unfassbare, the X-Factor brand was extended to other shows: The Paranormal Borderline became X-Factor: Die fünfte Dimension, X-Factor: Wahre Lügen is a German series, Scariest Places on Earth became X-Factor: Die wahre Dimension der Angst.
Each episode featured five stories, all of which defied logic, but some of which were based on actual events. The viewer was offered the challenge of determining which were false. At the end of the show, it was revealed to the viewer which tales were true and which ones were works of fiction. Episode 1The Apparition, The Electric Chair, On the Road, Number One With a Bullet & Dream House Episode 2The Viewing, The Subway, Kid in the Closet, Justice is Served & The Tractor Episode 3The Prophecy, Couch Potato, Love Over the Counter, Imaginary Friend & Last Man on Earth Episode 4E-Mail, Cup of Joe, Secret of the Family Tomb, Wheezer & The Unknown Patient Episode 5Needle Point, Toy to the Rescue, Mystery Lock, The House on Baker Street & The Train Episode 6The Candlestick, The Diner, From the Agency, The Magic Rose Garden & The Jeep Episode 7The Plane, The Gun, The Portrait, The Pass & The Caller Episode 8Firestation 32, The Computer, The Girl Next Door, The Wallet & The Woods Episode 9The Wall, The Chalkboard, The Getaway, The Prescription & Summer Camp Episode 10 The Wrestler, The Escape, Dead Friday, Ghost Visitor & The Lady in a Black Dress Episode 11The Land, The Diary, Town of Remembrance & The House on Barry Avenue Episode 12Bright Light, Magic Mightyman, The Student, Scribbles & Count Mystery Episode 13The Mummy, The Perfect Record, Grave Sitting, Murder on the Second Floor & They Towed My Car Episode 14Kirby, Malibu Cop, A Joyful Noise & The Hooded Chair Episode 15Rock & Roll Ears, The Bucket, The Bridesmaid, Voice from the Grave & The Chess Game Episode 16 The Motorcycle, Blind Man's Dog, Deer Hunters, Tribal Curse & The Card Game Episode 17 Bon Voyage, The Man in the Model T, The Scoop, Angel on Board & Buenos Dias Episode 18 Merry-Go-Round, Red Eyed Creature, Used Car Salesman, Surveillance Camera & Graffiti Episode 19The Warning, Bus Stop, The Cure, The Guardian & The Gift Episode 20Morning Sickness, The Curse of Hampton Manor, Wax Executioner, Blood Bank & Ring Toss Episode 21One for the Road, The Music Box, Two to One, Damsel & The Horn Episode 22The Find, The Golden Cue, The FBI Story, The Gravedigger's Nemesis & Last Rites Episode 23E-Mail, Blood Donor, Stitches in Time & Soldier Episode 24 The Nightmare, The Stalker, The Impossible Car Dream, The Dresser & The Burial Episode 25Red Line, Two Sisters, The Ice Box & The Gathering Episode 26Connie, Positive I.
D. Trucker, Cook Out & The New House Episode 27Creepy Comics, Louie the Dip, The Wailing, The Landlady & Curse Episode 28For the Record, Precious, Get Your Kicks at Motel 66 & Phantom Drifter Episode 29Devil's Tattoo, Static Man, The Bloody Hand, Where Have All the Heroes Gone & War Surplus Episode 30Dead Beat Daddy, Ghost Town, The Sewing Machine, The Sleepwalker & Money Laundry Episode 31The Handyman, Makeup Magic, Screwdriver & Charlie Episode 32The Dealer, The Cake, 1st Time Offender & The Mirror of Truth Episode 33The Devil's Autograph, Mail Order Degree, The News Stand, The Murder of Roy Hennessey & Mysterious Strangers Episode 34Writer's Agent, Crypt G
Changes in safety practices after the sinking of the RMS Titanic
The sinking of the RMS Titanic resulted in the following changes in maritime policy. Alexander Carlisle and Wolff's general manager and chairman of the managing directors, suggested that Titanic use a new, larger type of davit which could give the ship the potential to carry 48 lifeboats. However, the White Star Line decreed that only 20 lifeboats would be carried, which could accommodate about 38% of those on board when the ship was filled to capacity. At the time, the Board of Trade's regulations stated that British vessels over 10,000 tons must carry 16 lifeboats with a capacity of 5,500 cubic feet, plus enough capacity in rafts and floats for 75% of that in the lifeboats. Therefore, the White Star Line provided more lifeboat accommodation than was required; the regulations made no extra provision for larger ships because they had not been changed since 1894, when the largest passenger ship under consideration was only 13,000 tons, because of the expected difficulty in getting away more than 16 boats in any emergency.
On the night of the sinking, Titanic's lifeboat complement was made up of three types of boats. The most numerous were the 14 standard wooden lifeboats, each 30 ft long by 9 ft 1 in wide, with a capacity of 65 persons each. Forward of them, one on each side of the ship, two smaller emergency boats, 25 ft long, had a capacity of 40 persons each. Four Engelhardt collapsible lifeboats measuring 27 ft 5 in long by 8 ft wide had a capacity of 47 persons each. Two were stowed port and starboard on the roof of the officers' quarters, at the foot of the first funnel, while the other two were stowed port and starboard alongside the emergency lifeboat cutters. After the Titanic disaster, recommendations were made by both the British and American Boards of Inquiry stating, in part, that ships would carry enough lifeboats for those aboard, mandated lifeboat drills would be implemented, lifeboat inspections would be conducted, etc. Many of these recommendations were incorporated into the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea passed in 1914.
Following the inquiries, United States government passed the Radio Act of 1912. This Act, along with the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, stated that radio communications on passenger ships would be operated 24 hours along with a secondary power supply so as not to miss distress calls; the Radio Act of 1912 required ships to maintain contact with vessels in their vicinity as well as coastal onshore radio stations. In addition, it was agreed in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea that the firing of red rockets from a ship must be interpreted as a sign of the need for help; this decision was based on the fact that the rockets launched from the Titanic prior to sinking were interpreted with ambiguity by the freighter SS Californian. Officers on the deck of the Californian had seen rockets fired from an unknown liner yet surmised that they could be "company" or identification signals, used to signal to other ships. At the time of the sinking, aside from distress situations, it was commonplace for ships without wireless radio to use a combination of rockets and Roman candles to identify themselves to other liners.
Once the Radio Act of 1912 was passed it was agreed that rockets at sea would be interpreted as distress signals only, thus removing any possible misinterpretation from other ships. After the Titanic disaster, the U. S. Navy assigned the Scout Cruisers Chester and USS Birmingham to patrol the Grand Banks for the remainder of 1912. In 1913, the United States Navy could not spare ships for this purpose, so the Revenue Cutter Service assumed responsibility, assigning the Cutters Seneca and Miami to conduct the patrol; the Titanic disaster led to the convening of the first International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea in London, on 12 November 1913. On 30 January 1914, a treaty was signed by the conference that resulted in the formation and international funding of the International Ice Patrol, an agency of the United States Coast Guard that to the present day monitors and reports on the location of North Atlantic Ocean icebergs that could pose a threat to transatlantic sea traffic. In the mid-20th century, ice patrol aircraft became the primary ice reconnaissance method with surface patrols phased out except during unusually heavy ice years or extended periods of reduced visibility.
Use of the oceanographic vessel continued until 1982, when the Coast Guard's sole remaining oceanographic ship, USCGC Evergreen, was converted to a medium endurance cutter. The aircraft has distinct advantages for ice reconnaissance, providing much greater coverage in a shorter period of time. Following the Titanic disaster, ships were refitted for increased safety. For example, the double bottoms of many existing ships, including the RMS Olympic, were extended up the sides of their hulls, their waterlines, to give them double hulls. Another refit that many ships underwent were changes to the height of the bulkheads; the bulkheads on Titanic extended 10 feet above the water line. After the Titanic sank, the bulkheads on other ships were extended higher to make the compartments watertight
Martin Gardner was an American popular mathematics and popular science writer, with interests encompassing scientific skepticism, philosophy and literature—especially the writings of Lewis Carroll, L. Frank Baum, G. K. Chesterton, he is recognized as a leading authority on Lewis Carroll. The Annotated Alice, which incorporated the text of Carroll's two Alice books, was his most successful work and sold over a million copies, he had a lifelong interest in magic and illusion and was regarded as one of the most important magicians of the twentieth century. He was considered the doyen of American puzzlers, he was a versatile author, publishing more than 100 books. Gardner was best known for creating and sustaining interest in recreational mathematics—and by extension, mathematics in general—throughout the latter half of the 20th century, principally through his "Mathematical Games" columns; these appeared for twenty-five years in Scientific American, his subsequent books collecting them. Gardner was one of the foremost anti-pseudoscience polemicists of the 20th century.
His 1957 book Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science became a classic and seminal work of the skeptical movement. In 1976 he joined with fellow skeptics to found CSICOP, an organization promoting scientific inquiry and the use of reason in examining extraordinary claims. Gardner, son of a petroleum geologist father and an educator and artist mother, grew up in and around Tulsa, Oklahoma, his lifelong interest in puzzles started in his boyhood when his father gave him a copy of Sam Loyd's Cyclopedia of 5000 Puzzles and Conundrums. He attended the University of Chicago, where he earned his bachelor's degree in philosophy in 1936. Early jobs included reporter on the Tulsa Tribune, writer at the University of Chicago Office of Press Relations, case worker in Chicago's Black Belt for the city's Relief Administration. During World War II, he served for four years in the U. S. Navy as a yeoman on board the destroyer escort USS Pope in the Atlantic, his ship was still in the Atlantic when the war came to an end with the surrender of Japan in August 1945.
After the war, Gardner returned to the University of Chicago. He attended graduate school for a year there. In 1950 he wrote an article in the Antioch Review entitled "The Hermit Scientist", it was one of Gardner's earliest articles about junk science, in 1952 a much-expanded version became his first published book: In the Name of Science: An Entertaining Survey of the High Priests and Cultists of Science and Present. In the late 1940s, Gardner moved to New York City and became a writer and editor at Humpty Dumpty magazine where for eight years he wrote features and stories for it and several other children's magazines, his paper-folding puzzles at that magazine led to his first work at Scientific American. For many decades, his wife Charlotte, their two sons and Tom, lived in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York, where he earned his living as a freelance author, publishing books with several different publishers, publishing hundreds of magazine and newspaper articles. Appropriately enough—given his interest in logic and mathematics—they lived on Euclid Avenue.
The year 1960 saw the original edition of the best-selling book of The Annotated Alice. In 1979, Gardner retired from Scientific American and he and his wife Charlotte moved to Hendersonville, North Carolina. Gardner never retired as an author, but continued to write math articles, sending them to The Mathematical Intelligencer, Math Horizons, The College Mathematics Journal, Scientific American, he revised some of his older books such as Origami and the Soma Cube. Charlotte died in 2000 and two years Gardner returned to Norman, where his son, James Gardner, was a professor of education at the University of Oklahoma, he died there on May 22, 2010. An autobiography — Undiluted Hocus-Pocus: The Autobiography of Martin Gardner — was published posthumously. Martin Gardner had a major impact on mathematics in the second half of the 20th century, his column was called "Mathematical Games" but it was much more than that. His writing introduced many readers to real mathematics for the first time in their lives.
The column lasted for 25 years and was read avidly by the generation of mathematicians and physicists who grew up in the years 1956 to 1981. It was the original inspiration for many of them to become scientists themselves. David Auerbach wrote: A case can be made, in purely practical terms, for Martin Gardner as one of the most influential writers of the 20th century, his popularizations of science and mathematical games in Scientific American, over the 25 years he wrote for them, might have helped create more young mathematicians and computer scientists than any other single factor prior to the advent of the personal computer. Among the wide array of mathematicians, computer scientists, magicians, artists and other influential thinkers who inspired and were in turn inspired by Gardner are John Horton Conway, Bill Gosper, Ron Rivest, Richard K. Guy, Piet Hein, Ronald Graham, Donald Knuth, Robert Nozick, Lee Sallows, Scott Kim, M. C. Escher, Douglas Hofstadter, Roger Penrose, Ian Stewart, David A. Klarner, Benoit Mandelbrot, Elwyn R. Berlekamp, Solomon W. Golomb, Raymond Smullyan, James Randi, Persi Diaconis, Penn & Teller, Ray Hyman.
His admirers included such diverse people as W. H. Auden, Arthur C. Clarke, Carl Sagan, Isaac Asimov, Richard Dawkins, Stephen Jay Gould, the entire French literary group known as the Oulipo. Salvador Dali once sought him out to discuss four-dimensional hypercubes. Gardner wrote to M. C. Escher in 1961 to ask permission
Animals aboard the RMS Titanic
There were many animals aboard the RMS Titanic during her disastrous maiden voyage, which ended with the ship sinking on 15 April 1912 after colliding with an iceberg. They included dogs, chickens, other birds and an unknown number of rats. Three of the twelve dogs on the Titanic survived; the ship had her own official cat named Jenny, kept aboard Titanic as a mascot and worked to keep down the ship's population of rats and mice. Transferred over from Titanic's sister ship Olympic, Jenny gave birth in the week before Titanic sailed from Southampton, she lived in the galley, where the victualling staff fed her and her kittens on scraps from the kitchens. Stewardess Violet Jessop wrote that the cat "laid her family near Jim, the scullion, whose approval she always sought and who always gave her warm devotion". A number of dogs were brought aboard by passengers as pets. Most were kept in kennels on the ship's F Deck, though some First Class passengers kept theirs in their cabins – without the knowledge of the crew or with the turning of a blind eye, as they were not supposed to do so.
The ship's carpenter, John Hutchison, was responsible for the dogs' welfare. The kennel dogs were exercised daily on the poop deck by one of the bellboys; as for the lapdogs, the American painter Francis Davis Millet wrote disapprovingly in a letter sent from Titanic's last stop, Queenstown in Ireland, "Looking over the list I only find three or four people I know but there are... a number of obnoxious, ostentatious American women, the scourge of any place they infest, worse on shipboard than anywhere. Many of them carry tiny dogs, lead husbands around like pet lambs"; the dog owners had planned to hold a dog show aboard the ship on the morning of 15 April, but the Titanic would sink the preceding night. The details of several of the dogs aboard Titanic were recorded and included: A King Charles Spaniel and an elderly Airedale Terrier, owned by William Carter. Chow-Chow, a chow chow owned by Harry Anderson. A champion French Bulldog called Gamin de Pycombe, owned by Robert Williams Daniel, who had bought him in England for the high price of £150.
Kitty, another Airedale Terrier, owned by millionaire John Jacob Astor. A Pomeranian owned by Margaret Bechstein Hays, named Bebe. A dog owned by Elizabeth Rothschild kept in her cabin. A Pekingese called Sun Yat Sen, owned by his wife Myra. Frou-Frou, a toy dog owned by Helen Bishop; the dog was allowed to stay in her cabin as the stewards considered it "too pretty" to put among the bigger dogs in the kennels. Rigel, black Newfoundland dog said to have saved many survivors. There were more dogs aboard, but their details have not survived. Passenger Charles Moore of Washington, D. C. made a last-minute change to his plans to transport aboard Titanic 100 English foxhounds, which he intended to use to start an English-style fox hunt in the Washington area. They were instead shipped aboard another vessel; as well as the dogs and cats, there were a number of birds aboard. Ella Holmes White of New York brought four roosters and hens, which were kept in or near the F Deck dog kennels, she had imported them from France with the intention of improving her poultry stock at home.
Another woman was said to have brought 30 cockerels aboard and Elizabeth Ramel Nye brought her yellow canary. Two dogs and a canary disembarked with the passengers who left the ship at Cherbourg, Titanic's first port of call after Southampton; the animals travelled on their own tickets and the canary that left at Cherbourg had to be paid for, to the tune of 25 US cents. Like any other ship of the time, Titanic had a substantial population of rats. One was seen running across the Third Class Dining Room on the evening of the sinking, to the shock and amazement of the diners; some of the women who saw it burst into tears. Few of Titanic's animals survived the ship's sinking. Three of the dogs were taken aboard lifeboats by their owners. Margaret Hays' Pomeranian got away safely in Lifeboat 7 and lived until June 1917 when it ran away or was stolen, while Elizabeth Rothschild refused to board Lifeboat 6 unless her dog was allowed to come too. Henry and Myra Harper brought their Pekingese aboard Lifeboat 3, but Helen Bishop had to abandon Frou-Frou in her cabin, much to their mutual distress.
The dog attempted to stop her leaving by holding on to her dress with his teeth. Afterwards, Bishop spoke of her sorrow: "The loss of my little dog hurt me much. I will never forget, he so wanted to accompany me". None of the other animals survived. At some point during the sinking, someone decided to free the dogs from their kennels, leading to a pack of excited dogs racing up and down the slanting deck as the ship went down. One female passenger chose to stay aboard. Several days as the SS Bremen passed through an area still strewn with debris and bodies floating in the water, a single passenger saw the body of what she thought was a woman holding what could have been a large shaggy dog in her arms. Robert W. Daniel's bulldog Gamin de Pycombe was last seen in the water swimming for his life after the ship went down. After the sinking, several of the surviving animal owners made compensation claims for their lost pets and poultry. Daniel claimed $750 for the loss of his pedigree bulldog, while Carter claimed $300 for the loss of his two dogs.
White claimed $207.87 for her lost