Charles F. Brush
Charles Francis Brush was an American engineer, inventor and philanthropist. Born in Euclid Township, Brush was raised on a farm about 10 miles from downtown Cleveland, Brush attended Central High School in Cleveland where he built his first arc light, and graduated there with honors in 1867. His high school commencement oration was on the Conservation of Force and he received his college education from the University of Michigan, where he studied mining engineering. At Michigan, Brush was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, in 1876 he secured the backing of the Wetting Supply Company in Cleveland to design his dynamo for powering arc lights. Brush began with the design of Zénobe Gramme but his final design was a marked divergence. Brush remarked on his motivation for improving the generator in his U. S, patent 189,997, The best forms of magneto-electric apparatus at present before the public are unnecessarily bulky and expensive, and are more or less wasteful of mechanical power. His lights were easier to maintain, had automatic functions and burned twice as long as Yablochkov candles and his generators were reliable and automatically increased voltage with greater load while keeping current constant.
By 1881, New York, Philadelphia, Montreal, San Francisco and other cities had Brush arc light systems, producing public light well into the 20th century. The San Francisco system was the first case of a utility selling electricity from a plant to multiple customers via transmission lines. The California Electric Light Company purchased two generators from Charles Brushs company in 1879 and soon opened a plant with four additional generators. Service charges for light from sundown to midnight was $10 per lamp per six day week, Brushs system was lighting Broadway two years before Edisons Pearl Street Station began lighting New York. By 1893 there were 1500 arc lights illuminating New York streets, in 1879, the Anglo-American Brush Electric Light Corporation, using Brushs inventions, was formed in Lambeth, England. This company eventually moved to Loughborough England and became Brush Electrical Engineering Co. Ltd, in 1880, Brush established the Brush Electric Company in the U. S. Thomson-Houston bought out Brush in 1889 and eventually merged to become part of General Electric in 1891, after selling his interests in Brush Electric, Brush never returned to the electric industry.
In 1884, Brush built a mansion on Euclid Avenue in Cleveland that showcased many of his inventions, there he raised his family and lived the remainder of his life. The basement housed Brushs private laboratory, in 1888, he powered the mansion with the worlds first automatically operated wind turbine generator which charged the homes 12 batteries. It was the first home in Cleveland to have electricity, over its 20-year life, the turbine never failed to keep the home continuously powered. In 1926, Brush pioneered the first piezo-electric featherweight stylus, in 1898, Brush claimed to have discovered a new gas, which he named etherion
42nd Street (Manhattan)
42nd Street is a major crosstown street in the New York City borough of Manhattan, known for its theaters, especially near the intersection with Broadway at Times Square. It is the name of the region of the district near that intersection. Washingtons attempt put him in danger of being captured, and his officers had to him to leave. The rout eventually subsided into an orderly retreat, john Jacob Astor purchased a 70 acres farm in 1803 that ran from 42nd Street to 46th Street west of Broadway to the Hudson River. The street was designated by the Commissioners Plan of 1811 that established the Manhattan street grid as one of 15 east-west streets that would be 100 feet in width, the Depot, which opened in 1871, was replaced by Grand Central Terminal in 1913. In 1980, it was turned into a successful Broadway musical which ran until 1989, from the late 1950s until the late 1980s, 42nd Street, nicknamed The Deuce, was the cultural center of American grindhouse theaters, which spawned an entire subculture.
While the street outside the theatres was populated with, phony drug salesman, unkies alone in their heroin/cocaine dreamworld. Predatory chickenhawks spying on underage trade looking for pickups, ranssexuals and closety gays with a fetishistic homo- or heterosexual itch to scratch. It was common to see porn stars whose films were playing at the adult houses promenade down the block, not when you stepped onto the Deuce. Being a freak there would get you money, entertainment, or maybe a robbery and a beating. For much of the mid and late 20th century, the area of 42nd Street near Times Square was home to activities often considered unsavory, in the early 1990s, city government encouraged a clean-up of the Times Square area. In 1993, the Walt Disney Corporation bought the New Amsterdam Theatre and it is now the flagship for Disneys theatrical productions in New York. This area is now co-signed as New 42nd Street to signify this change, the IRT 42nd Street Shuttle runs under 42nd Street between Broadway/Seventh Avenue and Park Avenue.
Each line stops at Times Square and Grand Central, the Flushing Line stops at Fifth Avenue and its predecessor, the 42nd Street Crosstown Line streetcar, had used 42nd Street. The George M. Cohan song Give My Regards to Broadway includes the lyrics Tell all the gang at Forty-Second Street / That I will soon be there. The Jim Croce song You Dont Mess Around with Jim includes the lyrics 42nd street got Big Jim Walker, the Billy Joel song Miami 2017 includes the lyrics Wed seen it all the time on 42nd Street. Ghosts of 42nd Street, A History of Americas Most Infamous Block, New York, HarperCollins Books, ISBN 0-688-17089-7. A detailed history that focuses primarily on the Times Square Theater District from the beginning of the 20th century through its successful restoration, down 42nd Street, money and politics at the crossroads of the world
New York City Subway
Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the worlds oldest public transit systems, one of the worlds most used metro systems, and the metro system with the most stations. It offers service 24 hours per day, every day of the year, the New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with 472 stations in operation. Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Queens, the Port Authority Trans-Hudson and the AirTrain JFK, in Manhattan and Queens respectively, accept the subways MetroCard but are not operated by the MTA and do not allow free transfers. Another mass transit service that is not operated by the MTA, the system is one of the worlds longest. Overall, the system contains 236 miles of routes, translating into 665 miles of track. In 2015, the subway delivered over 1.76 billion rides, averaging approximately 5.7 million daily rides on weekdays and a combined 5.9 million rides each weekend. Of the systems 25 services,22 of them pass through Manhattan, the exceptions being the G train, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, and the Rockaway Park Shuttle.
Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments, or in open cuts, in total, 40% of track is not underground despite the subway moniker. Many lines and stations have both express and local services and these lines have three or four tracks. Normally, the two are used for local trains, while the inner one or two are used for express trains. Stations served by express trains are typically major transfer points or destinations, alfred Ely Beach built the first demonstration for an underground transit system in New York City in 1869 and opened it in February 1870. The tunnel was never extended for political and financial reasons, although extensions had been planned to take the tunnel southward to The Battery, the Great Blizzard of 1888 helped demonstrate the benefits of an underground transportation system. A plan for the construction of the subway was approved in 1894, the first underground line of the subway opened on October 27,1904, almost 36 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City, which became the IRT Ninth Avenue Line.
The fare was $0.05 and on the first day the trains carried over 150,000 passengers, the oldest structure still in use opened in 1885 as part of the BMT Lexington Avenue Line in Brooklyn and is now part of the BMT Jamaica Line. The oldest right-of-way, which is part of the BMT West End Line near Coney Island Creek, was in use in 1864 as a railroad called the Brooklyn, Bath. By the time the first subway opened, the lines had been consolidated into two privately owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, the city built most of the lines and leased them to the companies. This required it to be run at cost, necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time, in 1940, the city bought the two private systems. Some elevated lines ceased service immediately while others closed soon after, integration was slow, but several connections were built between the IND and BMT, these now operate as one division called the B Division
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Midtown Manhattan, or Midtown, represents the central lengthwise portion of the borough and island of Manhattan in New York City. Along Manhattans north-south long axis, Midtown Manhattan separates Lower Manhattan from Upper Manhattan, the majority of New York Citys skyscrapers, including its tallest hotels and apartment towers, lie within Midtown. Midtown spans the island of Manhattan along an east-west axis, being bounded by the East River on its east. The Encyclopedia of New York City defines Midtown as being from 34th Street to 59th Street and it is sometimes broken into Midtown East and Midtown West, or north and south as in the New York City Police Departments Midtown North and Midtown South precincts. Midtown South can refer to the part of Midtown between 23rd Street and around 42nd Street, Midtown West can refer to the area between 34th and 59th Streets, and between 5th and 12th Avenues. Midtown East can refer to the area between 42nd and 59th Streets, and between 5th Avenue and the East River, in other sources these districts are referred to as separate central business districts.
Midtown Manhattan, along with Lower Manhattan, is one of the leading financial centers. Midtown Manhattan is the countrys largest central business district and it has the headquarters of major companies, including 4Kids Entertainment, Barnes & Noble, Bloomberg L. P. The New York Institute of Finance is located in Midtown Manhattan, Haier operates its United States offices in the Haier Building at 1356 Broadway, the building used to be a building of the Greenwich Savings Bank. Haier held the ceremony on March 4,2002. Sumitomo Corporation operates its New York Office, the headquarters of the corporations United States operations, el Als North American headquarters are in Midtown. The Air France USA regional headquarters are in 125 West 55th Street in Midtown Manhattan, hachette Book Group USA has its headquarters in 237 Park Avenue. In 1994 Alitalia considered moving its USA headquarters from Midtown to Lower Manhattan, global Infrastructure Partners has an office in Midtown Manhattan. Biotechnology is emerging in Midtown Manhattan, bolstered by the strength in academic scientific research and public.
Aer Lingus had its United States offices in Midtown, in 1997, Aer Lingus announced that it was moving its North American headquarters to Melville, New York, in Suffolk County. New York City Department of Education public schools in Midtown Manhattan include Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis High School, private schools include The Beekman School, Rebecca School, and a number of private language and music centers. The La Scuola dItalia Guglielmo Marconi Italian international school will move to West Midtown in 2016, in addition to its well-known Main Branch research library—now known as the Stephen A. Pennsylvania Station and Grand Central Terminal are major railroad stations located in Midtown Manhattan, the Port Authority Bus Terminal is in Midtown
Broadway Theater District (Los Angeles)
The Broadway Theater District in Downtown Los Angeles is the first and largest historic theater district listed on the National Register of Historic Places. With twelve movie palaces located along a stretch of Broadway. Stretching for six blocks from Third to Ninth Streets along South Broadway in Downtown Los Angeles, by 1931, the district had the highest concentration of cinemas in the world, with seating capacity for more than 15,000 patrons. Broadway was the hub of L. A. s entertainment scene – a place where screen goddesses and guys in fedoras rubbed elbows with Army nurses and aircraft pioneers. In 2006, the Los Angeles Times wrote, There was a time, long ago, dozens of theaters screened Hollywoods latest fare, played host to star-studded premieres and were filled nightly with thousands of moviegoers. In those days, before World War II, downtown L. A. was the capital of the world. Columnist Jack Smith called it the large concentration of vintage movie theaters left in America. When I came out again the sky blazed, the heat bounced off the sidewalk, traffic sounds filled the street, I was back in the hard reality of the Depression.
In the years after World War II, the district began to decline, as first-run movie-goers shifted to the palaces in Hollywood, in Westwood Village. After World War II, as Anglo moviegoers moved to the suburbs, many of the Broadway movie palaces became venues for Spanish-language movies, in 1988, the Los Angeles Times noted that, without the Hispanic community, Broadway would be dead. Jack Smith wrote that Broadway had been rescued and revitalized by the Latino renaissance, the district has been the subject of preservation and restoration efforts since the 1980s. In 1987, the Los Angeles Conservancy started a program called Last Remaining Seats in which the old movie palaces were opened each summer to show classic Hollywood movies, and the movie people—seeing a classic film on a big screen is a different experience. Despite preservation efforts, many of the theaters have been converted to other uses, including flea markets, with the closure of the Loews State Theater in 1998, the Orpheum and the Palace were the only two still screening films.
In 2006, the Los Angeles Times wrote, Of all of L. A. s many hidden gems, bemoaning the possible loss of such gems, the same writer noted, L. A. gave birth to the movies. To lose the astonishing nurseries where the medium grew up would be tragic, in 2008, the City of Los Angeles launched a $40-million campaign to revitalize the Broadway district, known as the Bringing Back Broadway campaign. A worker at one of the bridal shops noted, On one side. The only thing is that I dont think they want our types of businesses, the theater was designed by architects Albert C. Martin and William Lee Woollett with a fanciful facade in the Churrigueresque style. After more than 30 years as one of the citys most prestigious first-run movie palaces, the theater had a seating capacity of 2,345 when it opened in 1918
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Metropolitan Opera House (39th Street)
The Metropolitan Opera House was an opera house located at 1411 Broadway in New York City. Opened in 1883 and demolished in 1967, it was the first home of the Metropolitan Opera Company, sometimes referred to as the old Met, the Metropolitan Opera House opened on October 22,1883, with a performance of Faust. It was located at 1411 Broadway, occupying the block between West 39th Street and West 40th Street on the west side of the street in the Garment District of Midtown Manhattan. Nicknamed The Yellow Brick Brewery for its industrial looking exterior, the original Metropolitan Opera House was designed by J. Cleaveland Cady, on August 27,1892, the nine-year-old theater was gutted by fire. The 1892−93 season was canceled while the house was rebuilt along its original lines. During that season, the Vaudeville Club, which became the Metropolitan Opera Club, was founded and hosted entertainment in the undamaged portions of the house. In 1903, architects Carrère and Hastings extensively redesigned the interior of the opera house, the familiar golden auditorium with its sunburst chandelier, and curved proscenium inscribed with the names of six composers, dates from this time.
The first of the Mets signature gold damask stage curtains was installed in 1906, in 1940, ownership of the opera house shifted from the wealthy families who occupied the theaters boxes to the non-profit Metropolitan Opera Association. At this time the last major change to the interior was completed. The second tier of privately held boxes was converted into standard row seating and this enlarged the seating capacity and left only the first tier of boxes from the golden horseshoe of the opera houses origins as a showplace for New York society. The Met had a capacity of 3,625 with 224 standing room places. While the theater was noted for its excellent acoustics and elegant interior and sets were a regular sight leaning against the building exterior on 39th Street where crews had to shift them between performances. Various plans were put forward over the years to build a new home for the company, proposed new locations included Columbus Circle and what is now Rockefeller Center, but none of these plans came to fruition.
Only with the development of Lincoln Center on New Yorks Upper West Side did the Met finally have the opportunity to build an opera house. The Metropolitan Opera said goodbye to its old house on April 16,1966, the long time Met star soprano Zinka Milanov made her last Met appearance that night and among the many invited guests was soprano Anna Case who had made her debut at the house in 1909. The final performance at the house was given not by the Met but the Bolshoi Ballet. The theater was purchased by Jack D. Weiler and despite a campaign to preserve the theater, it failed to obtain landmark status and it was replaced by a 40-story office tower,1411 Broadway, intended to provide a steady income for the opera company. Since 1966, the Metropolitan Opera House at Lincoln Center has been home to the Metropolitan Opera, the Met, One Hundred Years of Grand Opera
The Booth Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 222 West 45th Street in midtown-Manhattan, New York City. Herts designed the Booth and its companion Shubert Theatre as a pair sharing a Venetian Renaissance-style façade. It opened on October 16,1913, with Arnold Bennetts play The Great Adventure, the venue was the second New York City theatre to bear this name. The first, Booths Theatre, was owned by Edwin Booth. The box-office record was broken in 2013 by Bette Midler in Ill Eat You Last, Midler broke her own record the week following with a gross of $865,144. The revival of The Elephant Man, starring Bradley Cooper, topped Midlers record by grossing $1,058,547 for an eight-performance week ending December 28,2014
Broadway /ˈbrɔːdweɪ/ is a road in the U. S. state of New York. It is the oldest north–south main thoroughfare in New York City, dating to the first New Amsterdam settlement, the name Broadway is the English language literal translation of the Dutch name, Brede weg. Broadway is known widely as the heart of the American theatre industry, Broadway was originally the Wickquasgeck Trail, carved into the brush of Manhattan by its Native American inhabitants. Wickquasgeck means birch-bark country in the Algonquian language and this trail originally snaked through swamps and rocks along the length of Manhattan Island. Upon the arrival of the Dutch, the trail became the main road through the island from Nieuw Amsterdam at the southern tip. The Dutch explorer and entrepreneur David Pietersz. de Vries gives the first mention of it in his journal for the year 1642, the Dutch named the road Heerestraat. Although current street signs are simply labeled as Broadway, in a 1776 map of New York City, in the mid-eighteenth century, part of Broadway in what is now lower Manhattan was known as Great George Street.
An 1897 City Map shows a segment of Broadway as Kingsbridge Road in the vicinity of what is now the George Washington Bridge. In the 18th century, Broadway ended at the town north of Wall Street, where traffic continued up the East Side of the island via Eastern Post Road. The western Bloomingdale Road would be widened and paved during the 19th century, on February 14,1899, the name Broadway was extended to the entire Broadway/Bloomingdale/Boulevard road. Broadway once was a street for its entire length. The present status, in which it runs one-way southbound south of Columbus Circle, on 6 June 1954, Seventh Avenue became southbound and Eighth Avenue became northbound south of Broadway. On 3 June 1962, Broadway became one-way south of Canal Street, with Trinity Place, northbound traffic on Broadway now needs to take Amsterdam Avenue to 73rd Street, make a sharp turn on the very narrow 73rd and right turn on Broadway. Otherwise, and effectively, the traffic on Broadway has been diverted into Amsterdam Avenue.
In August 2008, two lanes from 42nd to 35th Streets were taken out of service and converted to public plazas. Additionally, bike lanes were added on Broadway from 42nd Street down to Union Square, the city decided that the experiment was successful and decided to make the change permanent in February 2010. Additionally, portions of Broadway in the Madison Square and Union Square have been dramatically narrowed, Broadway runs the length of Manhattan Island, roughly parallel to the North River, from Bowling Green at the south to Inwood at the northern tip of the island. South of Columbus Circle, it is a southbound street
Zoning describes the control by authority which designates legal areas in a municipality to permit and prohibit land uses. Zoning may specify a variety of outright and conditional uses of land and it may indicate the size and dimensions of land area as well as the form and scale of buildings. These guidelines are set in order to guide urban growth and development, areas of land are divided by appropriate authorities into zones within which various uses are permitted. Thus, zoning is a technique of land-use planning as a tool of urban planning used by governments in most developed countries. The word is derived from the practice of designating mapped zones which regulate the use, design, legally, a zoning plan is usually enacted as a by-law with the respective procedures. Canada or Germany, zoning plans must comply with upper-tier planning, similar urban planning methods have dictated the use of various areas for particular purposes in many cities from ancient times. The primary purpose of zoning is to segregate uses that are thought to be incompatible, in practice, zoning is used to prevent new development from interfering with existing uses and/or to preserve the character of a community.
However, it has not always been a method for achieving this goal. In Australia, land under the control of the Commonwealth government is not subject to state planning controls, the United States and other federal countries are similar. Zoning and urban planning in France and Germany are regulated by national or federal codes, in the case of Germany this code includes contents of zoning plans as well as the legal procedure. In Germany, zoning includes an assessment with very specific greenspace and compensation regulations. The details of how individual planning systems incorporate zoning into their regulatory regimes varies though the intention is always similar, most zoning systems have a procedure for granting variances, usually because of some perceived hardship caused by the particular nature of the property in question. The origins of zoning districts can be traced back to antiquity, the ancient walled city was the predecessor for classifying and regulating land based on use. Outside the city walls were the functions, which were usually based on noise and smell.
The space between the walls is where unsanitary and dangerous activities occurred such as butchering, waste disposal, within the wall were civic and religious places, and where the majority of people lived. Beyond the simple distinction between urban and non-urban land, most ancient cities further classified land type and use inside their walls. This was practiced in regions of the world – for example, in China during the Zhou Dynasty, in India during the Vedic Era. One legal form for enforcing this was the caste system and this meant that residential areas functioned as places of labour and commerce