Alfred Lunt was an American stage director and actor who had a long-time professional partnership with his wife, actress Lynn Fontanne. Broadways Lunt-Fontanne Theatre was named for them, Lunt was one of 20th century Broadways leading male stars. Lunt received two Tony Awards, an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor for 1931s The Guardsman and an Emmy Award for the Hallmark Hall of Fames production of The Magnificent Yankee. He became a star in 1919 as the lead in Booth Tarkingtons play, Clarence. His appearances in drama were infrequent, but he scored successes in Shakespeares The Taming of the Shrew. He was described by director and critic Harold Clurman as universally acclaimed the finest American actor in the generation which followed John Barrymore, Alfred Davis Lunt, Jr. was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1892 to Alfred D. Lunt and Harriet Washburn Briggs. With the exception of his grandmother, who was of Scottish descent, his ancestors were of colonial Maine. His father was descendant of Henry Lunt, a settler of Newbury.
His mother had several New England ancestors, including Mayflower arrivals, after his father, who was in the lumber business, died in 1893, Alfreds mother remarried a Finnish-born physician, Dr. Karl Sederholm, and had another son and two daughters. The Sederholms eventually moved to Genesee Depot, in Waukesha County, Lunt attended Carroll College in nearby Waukesha, Wisconsin. He and his wife, Lynn Fontanne, whom he married on May 26,1922, in New York City, were the pre-eminent Broadway acting couple of American history. Secure in their image as a happily married couple, they could play adulterers, as in Robert Sherwoods Reunion in Vienna. The Lunts appeared together in more than twenty plays and they were featured, posthumously, on an American postage stamp. The couple made two films together The Guardsman, in which starred, and Stage Door Canteen in which they had cameos as themselves. In 1958 they retired from the stage and they starred in several radio dramas for the Theatre Guild in the 1940s, and starred in a few television productions in the 1950s and 1960s.
Summers during their days of performing on stage and their subsequent retirement years were spent at their home Ten Chimneys at Genesee Depot in Lunts home state of Wisconsin, in 1964, Lunt and Fontanne were presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Lyndon Johnson. Like Lynn Fontanne, Alfred Lunt is represented in the American Theatre Hall of Fame, Alfred Lunt died August 3,1977, nine days before his 85th birthday, in Chicago from cancer. He is buried next to his wife at Forest Home Cemetery in Milwaukee and he was the third person for whom the house lights were dimmed in all Broadway theaters following his death
Along with Londons West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. The Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City, the great majority of Broadway shows are musicals. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggars Opera, in 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice, the company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the Bowery Theatre opened in 1826, followed by others. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the 1830s, by the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan.
In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblos Garden opened, the 3, 000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmos Opera House opened and presented opera for four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burtons Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in 1847, booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, and would revive the role at his own Booths Theatre. Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, lydia Thompson came to America in 1868 heading a small theatrical troupe, adapting popular English burlesques for middle-class New York audiences. Thompsons troupe called the British Blondes, was the most popular entertainment in New York during the 1868–1869 theatrical season, the six-month tour ran for almost six extremely profitable years. Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around 1850, in 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square.
Broadways first long-run musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857, New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keenes musical burletta The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keenes troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, the production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a musical comedy, Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits, as in England, during the latter half of the century, the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women
A WWII Love Story is a 2005 musical with book and lyrics by David Zellnik and music by his brother Joseph. Tells the story of Stu, a scared Midwestern kid who gets drafted for World War II in 1943, and becomes a photographer for Yank Magazine, the journal for and by the servicemen. Yank. has a score that pays homage to the 1940s and explores what it means to be a man, Yank. takes its title from the World War II publication Yank, the Army Weekly. The show received a production as part of the New York Musical Theatre Festival in 2005. The workshop featured Doug Kreeger, Jeffry Denman, Julie Foldesi, Tally Sessions and it was directed by Igor Goldin and choreographed by Chase Brock. A full production of Yank. was mounted at Brooklyns Gallery Players in the fall of 2007, the production starred Bobby Steggert, Nancy Anderson, Tyson Kaup, James Stover, Daniel Shevlin, Chris Carfizzi, and Maxime de Toledo. Jeffry Denman appeared again and choreographed and this production received the New York Innovative Theatre Award for Best Musical.
In 2008, the first regional production of Yank. was produced by the Diversionary Theatre in San Diego. The cast consisted of Amy Biedel, Zachary Bryant, Jacob Caltrider, Rocky DeHaro, Eric Dowdy, Tom Doyle, Juston Harlin, Tony Houck, Trevor Peringer, Sven Salumaa, John Whitley and Tom Zohar. That production won L. A. Stage Scene Awards for Best Musical, Yank. began preview performances at the York Theatre on February 16,2010 and opened on February 24. Originally slated to run through March 21, strong sales led producers to extend the show through April 4. It was directed by Igor Goldin and choreographed by Jeffry Denman, the company created partnerships with LGBT equal rights groups including The White Knot, Broadway Impact and American Veterans for Equal Rights. Cromer would replace Igor Goldin, who had been with the production since the beginning, the production was originally scheduled for Fall 2010 but changed to Fall 2011 or Spring 2012 to allow more time for further development of the script and score.
In winter 2011, the Roundabout Theatre Company produced a workshop of a revised Yank, Yank. receives its European Premiere at Manchesters Hope Mill Theatre. March 9th - April 8th 2017, produced by Katy Lipson for Aria Entertainment, Hope Mill Theatre and Ben Millerman for Mr Millerman Presents. Yank. receives its Latin American Premiere at Rio de Janeiro, produced by Leandro Terras Silhueta Produções and George Luis, Yank. - O Musical will be direteced by Menelick de Carvalho, jules Vandystadt is the music director and orchestrator of this production. The cast is leaded by Hugo Bonemer and Betto Marque alongside Leandro Terra, Fernanda Gabriela, Conrado Helt, Leandro Melo, Chris Penna, Dennis Pinheiro, Bruno Ganem, Robson Lima, the New York Times gave an overall favorable review of Yank
Ah, Wilderness. is a comedy by American playwright Eugene ONeill that premiered on Broadway at the Guild Theatre on October 2,1933. It varies from a typical ONeill play in its ending for the central character. The play was successful in its first Broadway production and the production that followed. It has since become a staple of community repertory, the play takes place on the Fourth of July,1906, and focuses on the Miller family, presumably of New London, Connecticut. The main plot deals with the son, 16-year-old Richard. Perhaps the most atypical of the works, the play presents a sentimental tale of youthful indiscretion in a turn-of-the-century New England town. The play was included in Burns Mantles The Best Plays of 1933–1934 with George M. Cohan in the cast and again as a revival in 1941–42. The story was made into the 1959 Broadway musical Take Me Along starring Jackie Gleason as the drunken Uncle Sid, Walter Pidgeon as Nat. The production ran for 448 performances, Gleason won the 1960 Tony Award for Best Actor in a Musical.
A revival in 1984 had a run for six months in Connecticut and Washington, D. C. but closed on Broadway after only a short debut. The play was made into a 1935 film of the same title, mickey Rooney starred as Tommy in the former and Richard in the latter. The play was adapted for the radio on the Campbell Playhouse produced by and starring Orson Welles on September 17,1939. Ah, Wilderness, A Comedy of Recollection in Three Acts, at the Internet Broadway Database Ah, Wilderness. Production archive at eONeill. com Ah, Wilderness, at the Internet Broadway Database Take Me Along at the Internet Broadway Database Ah, Wilderness. At the Internet Movie Database Photos of a production of Ah,1954 Theatre Guild on the Air radio adaptation of original play at Internet Archive
The Motherfucker with the Hat
The Motherfucker with the Hat is a 2011 play by Stephen Adly Guirgis. The show is described as a high-octane verbal cage match about love, Jackie is a former drug dealer who has just been released from prison to join the American workforce. His girlfriend, however, still uses cocaine and other drugs, in fact, the play begins with an intense and comic phone conversation between Veronica and her mother, whos an addict. Then Jackie arrives, full of good intentions and pent-up testosterone, but just as Jackie and Veronica are jumping into bed, he sees a hat in her apartment. Realizing it is not his, he accuses her of cheating, going to his drug and parole counselor, Ralphs wife, has had it up to here with his helium. Ralph insists that he not keep it, so he gives it to his cousin Julio for safekeeping, Jackie reveals that he had slept with his previous AA counselor, which may be part of the reason Veronica mistrusts him. Later, Veronica is entertaining a lover, which is revealed to be Ralph and they had slept together a handful of times while Jackie was in prison.
Meanwhile, Jackie gets the gun back and returns the hat to the guy who he thinks is its owner, Jackie throws it on the floor and shoots it. He talks about this with Victoria, who is tired of Ralphs cheating and she reveals to him that Veronica and Ralph have slept together—he was really the motherfucker with the hat. Jackie shows up at Veronicas apartment drunk, accusing her of cheating, when he gets loud, she hits him with a bat. He reveals that he is grateful because, years ago, Jackie showed unexpected kindness to him, Jackie wants to confront Ralph and Julio is willing to cover his back, claiming to be a Van Damme. The two men try to fight it out, but end up wrestling on the floor. Ralph admits he slept with Veronica, but he talks tough with Jackie—thats the way the world is, etc. -- and would like to be friends with Jackie. Jackie refuses to accept his friendship and returns to the apartment to pick up his things and he has broken parole by shooting the gun and is heading off to prison for a short stint.
He tries to tell Veronica he loves her, but she runs out of the room, a few moments later, Veronica comes out of hiding and calls his name. The Motherfucker with the Hat premiered at Broadways Gerald Schoenfeld Theatre on April 11,2011, the cast starred Chris Rock in his Broadway debut as Ralph D. with Bobby Cannavale, Annabella Sciorra, Elizabeth Rodriguez and Yul Vázquez. It was directed by Anna D. Shapiro, with music by Terence Blanchard, set design by Todd Rosenthal, the production closed on July 17,2011. The first regional production of the play was at Theaterworks in Hartford, the cast included Royce Johnson as Ralph D
Blithe Spirit (play)
Blithe Spirit is a comic play by Noël Coward. The scheme backfires when he is haunted by the ghost of his annoying and temperamental first wife, Elvira makes continual attempts to disrupt Charless marriage to his second wife, who cannot see or hear the ghost. The play was first seen in the West End in 1941 and it did well on Broadway that year, running for 657 performances. Coward adapted the play for film in 1945, starring Rex Harrison and it was adapted for television in the 1950s and 1960s and for radio. The play enjoyed several West End and Broadway revivals in the 1970s and 1980s and was revived again in London in 2004,2011 and 2014 and it returned to Broadway in February 2009. The title of the play is taken from Shelleys poem To a Skylark, for some time before 1941 Coward had been thinking of a comedy about ghosts. If there was a heart it would be a sad story, after his London office and flat had been destroyed in the Blitz, Coward took a short holiday with the actress Joyce Carey at Portmeirion on the coast of Snowdonia in Wales.
Keats, I regret to say, was not referred to, by lunchtime the title had emerged together with the names of the characters, and a rough, very rough, outline of the plot. At seven-thirty the next morning I sat, with the usual nervous palpitations, Joyce was upstairs in her room wrestling with Fanny Brawne. There was a pile of paper on my left and a box of carbons on my right. The table wobbled and I had to put a wedge under one of its legs, I smoked several cigarettes in rapid succession, staring gloomily out of the window at the tide running out. I fixed the paper into the machine and started, a Light Comedy in Three Acts. For six days I worked from eight to one each morning, Charles Condomine, a successful novelist, wishes to learn about the occult for a novel he is writing, and he arranges for an eccentric medium, Madame Arcati, to hold a séance at his house. At the séance, she inadvertently summons Charless first wife, Madame Arcati leaves after the séance, unaware that she has summoned Elvira.
Only Charles can see or hear Elvira, and his wife, Ruth. Elvira is louche and moody, in contrast to the more strait-laced Ruth, the ghostly Elvira makes continued, and increasingly desperate, efforts to disrupt Charless current marriage. She finally sabotages his car in the hope of killing him so that he join her in the spirit world. Ruths ghost immediately comes back for revenge on Elvira, and though Charles cannot at first see Ruth, he can see that Elvira is being chased and tormented and he calls Madame Arcati back to exorcise both of the spirits, but instead of banishing them she unintentionally materialises Ruth
Alan Alda is an American actor, director and author. A six-time Emmy Award and Golden Globe Award winner, he is known for his roles as Captain Hawkeye Pierce in the TV series M*A*S*H. He has appeared in feature films, most notably in Crimes and Misdemeanors as pretentious television producer Lester. Senator Owen Brewster, the latter of which saw Alda nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, for 14 years, he served as the host of Scientific American Frontiers, a television show that explored cutting-edge advances in science and technology. He serves on the board of the World Science Festival and is a judge for Math-O-Vision and his father, Robert Alda, was an actor and singer, and his mother, Joan Browne, was a homemaker and former beauty-pageant winner. His father was of Italian descent and his mother was of Irish ancestry and his adopted surname, Alda, is a portmanteau of ALphonso and DAbruzzo. When Alda was seven years old, he contracted polio, to combat the disease, his parents administered a painful treatment regimen developed by Sister Elizabeth Kenny, consisting of applying hot woolen blankets to his limbs and stretching his muscles.
Alda attended Archbishop Stepinac High School in White Plains, New York, in 1956, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in English from Fordham College of Fordham University in the Bronx, where he was a student staff member of its FM radio station, WFUV. Aldas half-brother, Antony Alda, born that year, became an actor, during Aldas junior year, he studied in Paris, acted in a play in Rome, and performed with his father on television in Amsterdam. In college, he was a member of the ROTC, and after graduation, he served for a year at Fort Benning, in 1956, while attending Fordham, he met Arlene Weiss, who was attending Hunter College. They bonded at a friends dinner party, when a rum cake accidentally fell onto the kitchen floor. A year after his graduation, on March 15, they were married and they have three daughters, Eve and Beatrice. Two of his eight grandchildren are aspiring actors, the Aldas have been longtime residents of Leonia, New Jersey. Alda began his career in the 1950s, as a member of the Compass Players comedy revue and he continued to play Felix the Owl for the 1964-5 Broadway season.
In 1966, he starred in the musical The Apple Tree on Broadway, although from away, Alan Alda says he became a Mainer in 1957 when he played at the Kennebunkport Playhouse. He made his Hollywood acting debut as a player in Gone are the Days. – a film version of the highly successful Broadway play Purlie Victorious, during this time, Alda frequently appeared as a panelist on the 1968 revival of Whats My Line. He appeared as a panelist on Ive Got a Secret during its 1972 syndication revival, in early 1972, Alda auditioned for and was selected to play the role of Hawkeye Pierce in the TV adaptation of the 1970 film MASH
Falco was born in Brooklyn, New York, the daughter of Judith Anderson, an actress, and Frank Falco, a jazz drummer who worked for an advertising agency. Her father was of Italian descent and her mothers ancestry was Swedish and English, falcos siblings are Joseph and Ruth. Her uncle is novelist and poet Edward Falco, from the age of four, she was raised on Long Island, moving with her family to Hicksville, followed by North Babylon, West Islip. As a child she acted in plays at the Arena Players Repertory Theater in East Farmingdale and her family eventually moved to Northport, where she attended high school and played Eliza Doolittle in a production of My Fair Lady during her senior year. Falco graduated from Northport High School in 1981 and she attended the acting program at SUNY Purchase, along with fellow actors Stanley Tucci, Paul Schulze and Ving Rhames. She graduated in 1986 with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in acting, early in her career, Falco made appearances on television shows like Law & Order and Homicide, Life on the Street.
Fontana said of her, Shes an actress whos unadorned by any embroidery and she does everything with such simplicity and honesty, its breathtaking. A struggling actress at the time, Falco said her salary from these television episodes paid for one months worth of rent and her first big break in films was a small speaking role in the 1994 Woody Allen film Bullets over Broadway. Her friendship with former SUNY Purchase classmate Eric Mendelsohn, who was the assistant to Allens costume designer, Jeffrey Kurland, Mendelsohn went on to direct Falco in his feature film Judy Berlin, for which he won Best Director honors at the Sundance Film Festival. Falco went on to star in Mendelsohns next film 3 Backyards, in 1997, Falco started portraying prison officer Diane Whittlesey, in the HBO series Oz. Falco got the role after working with Fontana on Homicide. Falco received her role in the HBO drama, The Sopranos. The series premiered in 1999 and ended in 2007 and she portrayed Carmela Soprano, wife of Mafia boss, Tony Soprano.
The series received wide acclaim, and is considered to be the one of the greatest television series of all time. For her role on the series, Falco won three Primetime Emmy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, and five Screen Actors Guild Awards. Falco, The X-Files star Gillian Anderson, Ugly Betty star America Ferrera, and 30 Rocks Tina Fey are the actresses to have received a Golden Globe, an Emmy. Falco won these awards in 2003 for her performance as Carmela Soprano during the season of The Sopranos. During her tenure on The Sopranos, Falco appeared in such as, Freedomland. She guest starred on the series and Grace
Dorothy Loudon was an American actress and singer. She won the Tony Award for Best Lead Actress in a Musical in 1977 for her performance as Miss Hannigan in Annie, Loudon was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1925 and raised in Claremont, New Hampshire and Indianapolis, Indiana. She attended Syracuse University on a scholarship but did not graduate. She began singing in clubs, mingling song with ad-libbed comedy patter. Loudon made her debut in 1962 in The World of Jules Feiffer. That same year she made her Broadway debut in Nowhere to Go But Up, loudons performance as the evil orphanage administrator Miss Hannigan in Annie won her the Tony Award and the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical in 1977. In the show she introduced the seminal showtunes Little Girls and Easy Street, of her portrayal, Clive Barnes wrote, As the wicked Miss Hannigan, Dorothy Loudon, eyes bulging with envy, face sagging with hatred, is deliciously and deliriously horrid. She never puts a sneer, a leer, or even a scream in the wrong place, and her singing has just the right brassy bounce to it.
Loudon revisited the character of Miss Hannigan in the ill-fated 1990 sequel, Annie 2, Miss Hannigans Revenge, which closed quickly after a dismal pre-Broadway engagement in Washington D. C. In 1979, Michael Bennett cast Loudon as Bea Asher, a widow who becomes involved with a mail carrier she meets at the local dance hall. She was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Leading Actress in a Musical and she performed the number Fifty Percent from the musical during that years Tony Awards ceremony. During her rendition of George Gershwins Vodka at the 1983 Tony Awards ceremony while resplendent in a sequined gown. Im too good for this song. but Im not too good for this dress, at the 38th Annual Tony Awards ceremony in 1984, Loudon performed Broadway Baby from Follies. In The New York Times, John OConnor said of her performance, in 1980, Loudon succeeded Angela Lansbury as Mrs. Lovett in Stephen Sondheims Sweeney Todd. Loudon gives a comic characterization in the most classical tradition, the following year she co-starred with Katharine Hepburn and Julia Barr in the play The West Side Waltz.
In 1982 she won the Sarah Siddons Award for her work in Chicago theatre and she appeared in the 1983 Jerry Herman revue Jerrys Girls and the same year she played the role of the miserable middle-aged actress Dotty Otley on Broadway in Michael Frayns farce Noises Off. Loudon was chosen as the replacement for Carol Burnett when Burnett left The Garry Moore Show in 1962, although that collaboration was not altogether successful, the excellent reviews she received the same year for her Broadway debut in Nowhere to Go but Up proved prophetic. Coincidentally, the two roles Loudon played so successfully on Broadway stage —Miss Hannigan and Dotty Otley — were both played by Burnett onscreen and she was a frequent guest star on many New York based comedy and game shows
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus is the god of beginnings, transitions, duality, doorways and endings. He is usually depicted as having two faces, since he looks to the future and to the past and it is conventionally thought that the month of January is named for Janus, but according to ancient Roman farmers almanacs Juno was the tutelary deity of the month. Janus presided over the beginning and ending of conflict, and hence war, the doors of his temple were open in time of war, and closed to mark the peace. Janus had no flamen or specialised priest assigned to him, Janus had a ubiquitous presence in religious ceremonies throughout the year, and was ritually invoked at the beginning of each one, regardless of the main deity honored on any particular occasion. The ancient Greeks had no equivalent to Janus, whom the Romans claimed as distinctively their own, three etymologies were proposed by ancient erudites, each of them bearing implications about the nature of the god. The first one is based on the definition of Chaos given by Paul the Deacon, hiare, be open, in this etymology the notion of Chaos would define the primordial nature of the god.
Another etymology proposed by Nigidius Figulus is related by Macrobius, Ianus would be Apollo and Diana Iana and this explanation has been accepted by A. B. It supports all the assimilations of Janus to the sky, the sun. It supposes a former *Dianus, formed on *dia- < *dy-eð2 from Indo-European root *dey- shine represented in Latin by dies day, however the form Dianus postulated by Nigidius is not attested. Modern scholars have conjectured that it derives from the Indo-European root meaning transitional movement, iānus would be an action name expressing the idea of going, formed on the root *yā- < *y-eð2- theme II of the root *ey- go from which eō, ειμι. Other modern scholars object to an Indo-European etymology either from Dianus or from root *yā-, from Ianus derived ianua, and hence the English word janitor. Almost all of modern explanations were originally formulated by the ancients. The function god of beginnings has been expressed in numerous ancient sources, among them most notably Cicero, Ovid.
As a god of motion, Janus looks after passages, causes actions to start, since movement and change are interconnected, he has a double nature, symbolised in his two headed image. He has under his tutelage the stepping in and out of the door of homes, the ianua, which took its name from him and he is present at the Sororium Tigillum, where he guards the terminus of the ways into Rome from Latium. He has an altar, a temple near the Porta Carmentalis, where the leading to Veii ended, as well as being present on the Janiculum. The connection of the notions of beginning, transition, in general, Janus is at the origin of time as the guardian of the gates of Heaven, Jupiter himself can move forth and back because of Januss working. In one of his temples, probably that of Forum Holitorium, Janus frequently symbolized change and transitions such as the progress of past to future, from one condition to another, from one vision to another, and young peoples growth to adulthood