This article is an overview of the theatre of France. Discussions about the origins of non-religious theatre -- both drama and farce—in the Middle Ages remain controversial, but the idea of a continuous popular tradition stemming from Latin comedy and tragedy to the 9th century seems unlikely. Most historians place the origin of medieval drama in the church's liturgical dialogues and "tropes". At first dramatizations of the ritual in those rituals connected with Christmas and Easter, plays were transferred from the monastery church to the chapter house or refectory hall and to the open air, the vernacular was substituted for Latin. In the 12th century one finds the earliest extant passages in French appearing as refrains inserted into liturgical dramas in Latin, such as a Saint Nicholas play and a Saint Stephen play. Dramatic plays in French from the 12th and 13th centuries: Le Jeu d'Adam - written in octosyllabic rhymed couplets with Latin stage directions Le Jeu de Saint Nicolas - Jean Bodel - written in octosyllabic rhymed couplets Le Miracle de Théophile - Rutebeuf The origins of farce and comic theatre remain controversial.
Non-dramatic plays from the 12th and 13th centuries: Le Dit de l'herberie - Rutebeuf Courtois d'Arras Le Jeu de la feuillé - Adam de la Halle Le Jeu de Robin et Marion - Adam de la Halle Le Jeu du Pèlerin Le Garçon et l'aveugle - earliest surviving French farce Aucassin et Nicolette - a mixture of prose and lyrical passagesSelect list of plays from the 14th and 15th centuries: La Farce de maître Trubert et d'Antrongnard - Eustache Deschamps Le Dit des quatre offices de l'ostel du roy - Eustache Deschamps Miracles de Notre Dame Bien Avisé et mal avisé La Farce de maître Pierre Pathelin - this play had a great influence on Rabelais in the 16th century Le Franc archer de Bagnolet Moralité - Henri Baude L'Homme pécheur La Farce du cuvier La Farce nouvelle du pâté et de la tarteIn the 15th century, the public representation of plays was organized and controlled by a number of professional and semi-professional guilds: Clercs de la Basoche - Morality plays Enfants sans Souci - Farces and Sotties Conards Confrérie de la Passion - Mystery playsGenres of theatre practiced in the Middle Ages in France: Farce - a realistic and coarse satire of human failings Sottie - a conversation among idiots, full of puns and quidproquos Pastourelle - a play with a pastoral setting Chantefable - a mixed verse and prose form only found in "Aucassin et Nicolette" Mystery play - a depiction of the Christian mysteries or Saint's lives Morality play Miracle play Passion play Sermon Joyeux - a burlesque sermon 16th-century French theatre followed the same patterns of evolution as the other literary genres of the period.
For the first decades of the century, public theatre remained tied to its long medieval heritage of mystery plays, morality plays and soties, although the miracle play was no longer in vogue. Public performances were controlled by a guild system; the guild "les Confrères de la Passion" had exclusive rights to theatrical productions of mystery plays in Paris. Another guild, the "Enfants Sans-Souci" was in charge of farces and soties, as too the "Clercs de la Basoche" who performed morality plays. Like the "Confrères de la Passion", "la Basoche" came under political scrutiny, they were suppressed in 1582. By the end of the century, only the "Confrères de la Passion" remained with exclusive control over public theatrical productions in Paris, they rented out their theatre at the Hôtel de Bourgogne to theatrical troupes for a high price. In 1597, they abandoned this privilege. Alongside the numerous writers of these traditional works, Marguerite de Navarre wrote a number of plays close to the traditional mystery and morality play.
As early as 1503 however, original language versions of Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes and Plautus were all available in Europe and the next forty years would see humanists and poets both translating these classics and adapting them. In the 1540s, the French university setting became host to a Neo-Latin theatre written by professors such as George Buchanan and Marc Antoine Muret which would leave a profound mark on the members of La Pléiade. From 1550 on, one finds humanist theatre written in French. Prominent figures such as Catherine de' Medici provided financial support for many humanist plays; the influence of Seneca was strong in humanist tragedy. His plays — which we
The Ninety East Ridge is a mid-ocean ridge on the Indian Ocean floor named for its near-parallel strike along the 90th meridian at the center of the Eastern Hemisphere. It is 5,000 kilometres in length and can be traced topographically from the Bay of Bengal southward towards the Southeast Indian Ridge, though the feature continues to the north where it is hidden beneath the sediments of the Bengal Fan; the ridge has an average width of 200 km. The ridge divides the Indian Ocean into the East Indian Ocean; the northeastern side is named the Wharton Basin and ceases at the western end of the Diamantina Fracture Zone which passes to the east and to the Australian continent. The ridge is composed of Ocean Island Tholeiites, a subset of basalt which increase in age from 43.2 ± 0.5 Ma in the south to 81.8 ± 2.6 Ma in the north though a more recent analysis using modern Ar–Ar techniques is pending publication. This age progression has led geologists to theorize that a hotspot in the mantle beneath the Indo-Australian Plate created the ridge as the plate has moved northward in the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic.
This theory is supported by a detailed analysis of the chemistry of the Kerguelen Plateau and Rajmahal Traps, which together, geologists believe, represent the flood basalts erupted at the initiation of volcanism at the Kerguelen hotspot, sheared in two as the Indian subcontinent moved northward. However, the existence of so-called deep mantle hotspots is a topic of debate in the geologic community, with a few geochemists favoring an alternative hypothesis which postulates a much shallower origin for hotspot volcanism; the ridge has been surveyed several times in the past, including several times by the Deep Sea Drilling Program. In 2007, the RV Roger Revelle collected bathymetric and seismic data together with dredge samples from nine sites along the ridge as part of an Integrated Ocean Drilling Program site survey intended to examine the hotspot hypothesis for the ridge, it had been assumed that the India and Australia are on a single tectonic plate for at least the last 32 million years.
However, considering the high level of large earthquakes in the Ninety East Ridge area and the evidence of deformation in the central Indian Ocean, it is more appropriate to consider the deformed region in the central Indian Ocean as a broad plate boundary zone separating the Indian Plate and the Australian Plate. Eighty Five East Ridge Sager, William W.. "Cruise Report KNOX06RR R/V Roger Revelle 18 June to 6 August, 2007, Phuket to Singapore". Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Nobre Silva, I. G.. Deciphering mantle source components in basalts from hotspot tracks and oceanic islands. University of British Columbia. Sager, W. W.. F.. S.. S.. E.. A.. G.. V.. "Large fault fabric of the Ninetyeast Ridge implies near-spreading ridge formation". Geophysical Research Letters. 37: n/a. Bibcode:2010GeoRL..3717304S. Doi:10.1029/2010GL044347. Verzhbitsky, E. V.. "Geothermal regime and genesis of the Ninety-East and Chagos-Laccadive ridges". Journal of Geodynamics. 35: 289–302. Bibcode:2003JGeo...35..289V. Doi:10.1016/S0264-370700068-6
Walter Davis Jr. was an American hard bop pianist. Born in Richmond, Davis performed as a teenager with Babs Gonzales. In the 1950s, Davis recorded with Melba Liston, Max Roach and played with Roach, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie. In 1958 he played with trumpeter Donald Byrd at Le Chat Qui Pêche in Paris and shortly after realized his dream of becoming pianist and composer-arranger for Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers. After retiring from music in the 1960s to work as a tailor and designer, he returned in the 1970s to perform with Sonny Rollins and again with the Jazz Messengers, he recorded with many other prominent jazz musicians, including Kenny Clarke, Sonny Criss, Jackie McLean, Pierre Michelot and Archie Shepp. Davis was known as an interpreter of the music of Bud Powell, but recorded an album capturing the compositional and piano style of Thelonious Monk. Although few of Davis' recordings as a pianist remain in print, several of his compositions served as titles for albums by Blakey's Jazz Messengers.
Combining traditional harmonies with modal patterns and featuring numerous rhythmic shifts along with internal melodic motifs within operatic, aria-like sweeping melodies, Davis's compositions included "Scorpio Rising", "Backgammon", "Uranus", "Gypsy Folk Tales", "Jodi" and "Ronnie Is a Dynamite Lady". Davis had an occasional role as the piano player on the CBS television comedy Frank's Place, he contributed to the soundtrack of the Clint Eastwood film Bird. Davis died in New York City on June 1990, from complications of liver and kidney disease. With Art Blakey Africaine Paris Jam Session Roots & Herbs Gypsy Folk Tales With Nick Brignola Burn Brigade With Donald Byrd Byrd in Hand With Sonny Criss This is Criss! Portrait of Sonny Criss With Walt Dickerson Walt Dickerson Plays Unity With Teddy Edwards Nothin' But the Truth! With Dizzy Gillespie World Statesman Dizzy in Greece With Slide Hampton Explosion! The Sound of Slide Hampton With Etta Jones Ms. Jones to You With Philly Joe Jones Philly Joe's Beat To Tadd with Love with Dameronia Look Stop Listen with DameroniaWith Jackie McLean New Soil Let Freedom Ring With Hank Mobley Newark 1953 With Max Roach The Max Roach Quartet featuring Hank Mobley With Julian Priester Spiritsville With Sonny Rollins Horn Culture With Charlie Rouse Soul Mates featuring Sahib ShihabWith Art Taylor Taylor's Tenors Walter Davis Jr. at AllMusic Walter Davis Jr. discography at Discogs Walter Davis Jr. on IMDb