François Alexandre Nicolas Chéri Delsarte was a French singer and coach. Though he achieved some success as a composer, he is chiefly known as a teacher in singing and declamation. Delsarte coached preachers, singers, composers and actors in the bodily expression of emotions, otherwise known as pantomime, but what he called Applied Aesthetics, his goal was to help clients connect their inner emotional experience with the use of gesture. Delsarte categorized ideas related to how emotions are expressed physically in the body into various rules, ‘laws’ or ‘principles.’ These laws were organized by Delsarte in charts and diagrams. A French student of Delsarte’s, Angélique Arnaud, stated “Delsarte published no book on art; the basis of the science he created is contained in a synthetical table. Other tables develop each branch of it considered separately”. After Delsarte’s death in 1871, his theories were preserved in fragments on mere scraps of paper and charts, scribbled on chairs and doors. Delsarte did not teach systematically but rather through inspiration of the moment, left behind no publications on his lessons.
In America, Delsarte's theories were developed into what became known as the Delsarte method or Delsarte System. Delsarte was born in Nord, he became a pupil at the Paris Conservatory, was for a time a tenor in the Opéra Comique, composed a few songs. While studying singing at the Conservatoire, he became unsatisfied with what he felt were arbitrary methods for teaching acting, he began to study how humans moved and responded to various emotional and real-life situations. By observing people in real life and in public places of all kinds, he discovered certain patterns of expression called the Science of Applied Aesthetics; this consisted of a thorough examination of voice, movement dynamics, encompassing all of the expressive elements of the human body. His hope was to develop an exact science of the physical expression of emotions, but he died before he had achieved his goals. Delsarte's sole American student Steele MacKaye brought his theories to America in lecture demonstrations he delivered in New York and Boston in 1871.
Delsarte never wrote a book explaining his method, neither did his only protégé, actor Steele MacKaye. However, MacKaye's student Genevieve Stebbins wrote a book in 1885 building on the foundation of Delsarte's theories titled The Delsarte System of Expression, which became a wild success with six editions of her book. Numerous copycat publications followed, it was the great success of the Delsarte System, its undoing. By the 1890s, it was being taught everywhere, not always in accordance with the emotional basis that Delsarte had in mind. No certification was needed to teach a course with the name Delsarte attached, the study regressed into empty posing with little emotional truth behind it. Wangh concludes, "it led others into stereotyped and melodramatic gesticulation, devoid of the heart that Delsarte had sought to restore." Delsarte was grandfather of painter Thérèse Geraldy. Franck Waille, Christophe Damour, François Delsarte, une recherche sans fin, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2015; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C..
"article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Ted Shawn, Every Little Movement: A Book about François Delsarte, the Man and his Philosophy, his Science and Applied Aesthetics, the Application of this Science to the Art of the Dance, the Influence of Delsarte on American Dance, 1963 Wangh, Stephen. An Acrobat of the Heart: A Physical Approach to Acting Inspired by the Work of Jerzy Grotowski. New York: Vintage Books, 2000. Franck Waille, Trois décennies de recherches européennes sur François Delsarte, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2011. Alain Porte, François Delsarte, une anthologie, Paris, IPMC, 1992. Williams, Joe, A Brief History of Delsarte Franck Waille, arts et spiritualité chez François Delsarte. Des interactions dynamiques, PhD in history, Université Lyon 3, 2009, 1032 pages + CDROM of annexes. Nancy Lee Chalfa Ruyter, "The Delsarte Heritage," Dance Research: The Journal of the Society for Dance Research, 14, no. 1, pp. 62–74. Delsarte system of expression, by Genevieve Stebbins.
Eleanor Georgen, The Delsarte system of physical culture Warman, Edward B. Gestures and Attitudes: Exposition of the Delsarte Philosophy of Expression and Theoretical, 1892 Works by François Delsarte at Project Gutenberg Works by or about François Delsarte at Internet Archive Works by François Delsarte at Open Library Oxford Dictionary of Dance Laban Biography and Method "Delsarte, François Alexandre Nicolas Chéri". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, masque, cantata or musical. The term libretto is sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass and sacred cantata, or the story line of a ballet. Libretto, from Italian, is the diminutive of the word libro. Sometimes other language equivalents are used for libretti in that language, livret for French works and Textbuch for German. A libretto is distinct from a synopsis or scenario of the plot, in that the libretto contains all the words and stage directions, while a synopsis summarizes the plot; some ballet historians use the word libretto to refer to the 15–40 page books which were on sale to 19th century ballet audiences in Paris and contained a detailed description of the ballet's story, scene by scene. The relationship of the librettist to the composer in the creation of a musical work has varied over the centuries, as have the sources and the writing techniques employed.
In the context of a modern English language musical theatre piece, the libretto is referred to as the book of the work, though this usage excludes sung lyrics. Libretti for operas and cantatas in the 17th and 18th centuries were written by someone other than the composer a well-known poet. Pietro Trapassi, known asMetastasio was one of the most regarded librettists in Europe, his libretti were set many times by many different composers. Another noted, he who wrote the libretti for three of Mozart's greatest operas, for many other composers as well. Eugène Scribe was one of the most prolific librettists of the 19th century, providing the words for works by Meyerbeer, Bellini, Donizetti and Verdi; the French writers' duo Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy wrote a large number of opera and operetta libretti for the likes of Jacques Offenbach, Jules Massenet and Georges Bizet. Arrigo Boito, who wrote libretti for, among others, Giuseppe Verdi and Amilcare Ponchielli composed two operas of his own; the libretto is not always written before the music.
Some composers, such as Mikhail Glinka, Alexander Serov, Rimsky-Korsakov and Mascagni wrote passages of music without text and subsequently had the librettist add words to the vocal melody lines. Some composers wrote their own libretti. Richard Wagner is most famous in this regard, with his transformations of Germanic legends and events into epic subjects for his operas and music dramas. Hector Berlioz, wrote the libretti for two of his best-known works, La Damnation de Faust and Les Troyens. Alban Berg adapted Georg Büchner's play Woyzeck for the libretto of Wozzeck. Sometimes the libretto is written in close collaboration with the composer. In the case of musicals, the music, the lyrics and the "book" may each have their own author. Thus, a musical such as Fiddler on the Roof has a composer, a lyricist and the writer of the "book". In rare cases, the composer writes everything except the dance arrangements – music and libretto, as Lionel Bart did for Oliver!. Other matters in the process of developing a libretto parallel those of spoken dramas for stage or screen.
There are the preliminary steps of selecting or suggesting a subject and developing a sketch of the action in the form of a scenario, as well as revisions that might come about when the work is in production, as with out-of-town tryouts for Broadway musicals, or changes made for a specific local audience. A famous case of the latter is Wagner's 1861 revision of the original 1845 Dresden version of his opera Tannhäuser for Paris; the opera libretto from its inception was written in verse, this continued well into the 19th century, although genres of musical theatre with spoken dialogue have alternated verse in the musical numbers with spoken prose. Since the late 19th century some opera composers have written music to prose or free verse libretti. Much of the recitatives of George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess, for instance, are DuBose and Dorothy Heyward's play Porgy set to music as written – in prose – with the lyrics of the arias, duets and choruses written in verse; the libretto of a musical, on the other hand, is always written in prose.
The libretto of a musical, if the musical is adapted from a play, may borrow their source's original dialogue liberally – much as Oklahoma! used dialogue from Lynn Riggs's Green Grow the Lilacs, Carousel used dialogue from Ferenc Molnár's Liliom, My Fair Lady took most of its dialogue word-for-word from George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion, Man of La Mancha was adapted from the 1959 television play I, Don Quixote, which supplied most of the dialogue, the 1954 musical version of Peter Pan used J. M. Barrie's dialogue; the musical Show Boat, different from the Edna Ferber novel from which it was adapted, uses some of Ferber's original dialogue, notably during the miscegenation scene. And Lionel Bart's Oliver! Uses chunks of dialogue from Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist, although it bills itself
Jovan Ćirilov was a Serbian theater expert, writer, theatre selector and significant contributor to Serbian culture. Ćirilov was born in Kikinda. The only son of Milivoj Ćirilov, a council clerk, his wife, Jelica, his parents divorced. After finishing school in his home town, he enrolled and graduated philosophy at the University of Belgrade Faculty of Philosophy in 1955, he was at the head of the Yugoslav Drama Theatre from 1985–1999, before that he had worked as a dramaturge since 1956, as well in Atelje 212 since 1967 to 1985. Since establishment in 1967 to 2014, Jovan was the artistic director and selector of BITEF festival, longest in the history of international theatre festivals. Since 2001 to 2007, he was the President of the National Commission of Yugoslavia Serbia, in UNESCO, he wrote the plays Room for four and House of Silence, scripts for the Vladimir Slijepčević film Real state of situation, Where after the rain, radio plays Windy Roads, Mechanical secretary and others. Adapted for the stage of The Damned Yard by Ivo Andrić, together with Belović Discovery, by Dobrica Ćosić.
He was the author of novels, several collections of poems, theatrological essays, books of memories, an anthology of plays and vocabularies. He had translated plays by Christopher Fry, Bertolt Brecht, Jean Genet, Sam Shepard, David Mamet and the musical Hair. Writer of columns in NIN magazine, two columns a week in the Blic newspaper, theater news in the Ludus theatre newspapers; as a member of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, he was the first person who publicly called for decriminalisation of male same-sex relations in the 1980s. He spoke German, French, Italian and studied Chinese, he died in Belgrade after a short illness on 16 November 2014. Путовање по граматици, The journey for grammar, poems, 1972. Неко време у Салцбургу, Some time in Salzburg, a novel, 1980. Узалудна путовања, песме, Trip in vain, songs, 1989. Реч недеље, Word of the Week, a collection of articles, 1997. and 2006. Пре и после гнева, Before and after anger, зборник савремене британске драме, repertory of modern British drama, 2001.
Пре и после Косе, Before and after Kosa, зборник савремене америчке драме, repertory of modern American drama, 2002. Сви моји савременици I-II, All of my contemporaries, collection of short biographies, 2010/11. Мајке познатих, Mothers of the famous, collection of short biographies, 2011. Путовање по позоришту, Travels in Theatre, 1988. Драмски писци моји савременици, Dramatic writers my contemporaries, 1989. Позориштарије, Pozorištarije, 1998. Дневници, Diaries, 1999. Room for four, play House of Silence, play Real state of situation, scripts for the Vladimir Slijepčević film Ward, script Where after the rain, script Windy Roads, radio play Mechanical secretary, radio play The Damned Yard by Ivo Andrić, adapted for the stage Discovery, by Dobrica Ćosić, together with Belović, adapted for the stage Речник нових речи, Dictionary of new words, 1982. Речник песничких слика, Dictionary of poetic images, 1985. Нови речник нових речи, New Dictionary of new words, 1991. Српско-хрватски речник варијаната, Serbo-Croatian Dictionary of variants, 1989.
And 1994. Najkraće drame na svetu Kratke kraće i najkraće drame na svetu Two Sterija Awards, awarded by Sterijino pozorje, for newspaper theater critics and for special merits in the promotion of theater arts; the Statuette of Joakim Vujić, awarded by Knjaževsko-srpski teatar in Kragujevac Foundation "Braća Karić" Award, for journalism October Award of Belgrade, for lifetime achievement Order of "Knight of Art and Literature", awarded by France. Sretenje Order, awarded by Serbia. Jovan Ćirilov on IMDb Jovan Čirilov page at UNESCO David Zarić, Mia. "Intervju: Jovan Ćirilov". B92. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2010
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Emil František Burian
Emil František Burian was a Czech poet, singer, musician, dramatic adviser and director. He was active in Communist Party of Czechoslovakia politics. Burian was born in Plzeň, where he came from a musical family, his father, Emil Burian, was an opera singer. E. F. Burian himself is the father of writer Jan Burian, he studied under the tutelage of J. B. Foerster at Prague Conservatory, whence he graduated in 1927, but had begun participating in cultural life much sooner. Along with Karel Teige and Vítězslav Nezval, E. F. Burian was a key member of Devětsil, an association of Czech avant-garde artists in the 1920s. In 1926–1927 he worked with Osvobozené divadlo, but after disputes with Jindřich Honzl, he and Jiří Frejka left the theatre, they founded their own theatre, Da-Da. He worked with the Moderní studio theatre scene. In 1927 he founded the musical and elocutionary ensemble Voiceband. In 1923 Burian joined the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, his work influenced by communist ideas, bordered on political agitation.
In May 1933 he founded the D 34 theatre, with a leftist-oriented program. In 1941 Burian was arrested and spent the rest of World War II in Nazi concentration camps at the Small Fortress Theresienstadt, Dachau and in Neuengamme, he helped to organize illegal cultural programs for the inmates. In 1945, he survived the RAF attack against the prison ship Cap Arcona, returned to Czechoslovakia, where he was presumed dead. After the war, he founded D 46 and D 47 theatre, led theatres in Brno and the operetta house in Karlín. After communist putsch in 1948, he worked as a member of the Czechoslovak communist parliament. In the post-war time, he became one of the leading promoters of the communist cultural nomenclature, he attempted to reorganize theatres, with a goal of placing communists into leadership posts of theatres. Burian died in 1959 in Prague, his work influenced by dadaism and poetism, was leftist-oriented. After the war it proved to agitate Communist ideas, he had a strong influence on Czech modern theatre, his innovative staging methods and inventions are inspirational for the theatre now.
Česká divadla. Encyklopedie divadelních souborů. Prague: Divadelní ústav, 2000. ISBN 80-7008-107-4 Čeští skladatelé současnosti. Prague: Panton, 1985. English info Encyclopedia.com article
Semiotics is the study of sign process. It includes the study of signs and sign processes, designation, analogy, metonymy, symbolism and communication, it is not to be confused with the Saussurean tradition called semiology, a subset of semiotics. The semiotic tradition explores the study of signs and symbols as a significant part of communications. Different from linguistics, semiotics studies non-linguistic sign systems. Semiotics is seen as having important anthropological and sociological dimensions; some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science, however. They examine areas belonging to the life sciences—such as how organisms make predictions about, adapt to, their semiotic niche in the world. In general, semiotic theories take signs or sign systems as their object of study: the communication of information in living organisms is covered in biosemiotics; the term derives from the Greek σημειωτικός sēmeiōtikos, "observant of signs" and it was first used in English prior to 1676 by Henry Stubbes in a precise sense to denote the branch of medical science relating to the interpretation of signs.
John Locke used the term semiotike in book four, chapter 21 of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Here he explains how science may be divided into three parts: All that can fall within the compass of human understanding, being either, the nature of things, as they are in themselves, their relations, their manner of operation: or, that which man himself ought to do, as a rational and voluntary agent, for the attainment of any end happiness: or, the ways and means whereby the knowledge of both the one and the other of these is attained and communicated. Locke elaborates on the nature of this third category, naming it Σημειωτική and explaining it as "the doctrine of signs" in the following terms: Nor is there any thing to be relied upon in Physick, but an exact knowledge of medicinal physiology, method of curing, tried medicines. In the nineteenth century, Charles Sanders Peirce defined what he termed "semiotic" as the "quasi-necessary, or formal doctrine of signs", which abstracts "what must be the characters of all signs used by... an intelligence capable of learning by experience", and, philosophical logic pursued in terms of signs and sign processes.
The Peirce scholar and editor Max H. Fisch claimed in 1978 that "semeiotic" was Peirce's own preferred rendering of Locke's σημιωτική. Charles W. Morris followed Peirce in using the term "semiotic" and in extending the discipline beyond human communication to animal learning and use of signals. Ferdinand de Saussure, founded his semiotics, which he called semiology, in the social sciences: It is... possible to conceive of a science which studies the role of signs as part of social life. It would form part of social psychology, hence of general psychology. We shall call it semiology, it would investigate the nature of the laws governing them. Since it does not yet exist, one can not say for certain, but it has a right to exist, a place ready for it in advance. Linguistics is only one branch of this general science; the laws which semiology will discover will be laws applicable in linguistics, linguistics will thus be assigned to a defined place in the field of human knowledge. While the Saussurean semiotic is dyadic, the Peircean semiotic is triadic, being conceived as philosophical logic studied in terms of signs that are not always linguistic or artificial.
The Peircean semiotic addresses not only the external communication mechanism, as per Saussure, but the internal representation machine, investigating not just sign processes, or modes of inference, but the whole inquiry process in general. Peircean semiotics further subdivides each of the three triadic elements into three sub-types. For example, signs can be icons and symbols. Yuri Lotman introduced Eastern Europe to semiotics and adopted Locke's coinage as the name to subtitle his founding at the University of Tartu in Estonia in 1964 of the first semiotics journal, Sign Systems Studies. Thomas Sebeok assimilated "semiology" to "semiotics" as a part to a whole, was involved in choosing the name Semiotica for the first international journal devoted to the study of signs. Saussurean semiotics have been challenged with serious criticism, for example by Jacques Derrida's assertion that signifier and signified are not fixed, coining the expression différance, relating to the endless deferral of meaning, to the absence of a'transcendent signified'.
For Derrida,'il n'y a pas de hors-texte'. He was in obvious opposition to materialists and marxists who argued that a sign has to point towards a real meaning, cannot be controlled by the referent's closed-loop references; the importance of signs and signification has been recognized throughout much of the history of philosophy, in psychology as well. Plato and Aristotle both explored the relationship between signs and the world, Augustine considered the nature of the sign within a conventional system; these theories have had a lasting effect in We
Antoine Vitez was a French actor and poet. He became a central character and influence on the French theater in the post-war period in the technique of teaching drama, he was translator of Chekhov, Vladimir Mayakovsky and Mikhail Sholokhov. Antoine Vitez was born in Paris and trained to be an actor, finding his first acting job at the age of 19 in Ils attendent Lefty at the Théâtre Maubel, he left the National Conservatory of Dramatic Art in Paris in 1950 without graduating and became a Communist activist, which he continued until 1979, when he left the Communist Party following the invasion of Afghanistan by the USSR. He met Louis Aragon in 1958 and became his private secretary from 1960 to 1962, he worked in the theater Balachova Tania, wrote reviews published by Jean Vilar in the magazine Théâtre populaire. Vitez found work reading on the radio and voice-dubbing in films, he had his first opportunity as director with Sophocles' Electra at the Maison de la Culture de Caen in 1966. Vitez' production of Electra was successful and he continued directing with Russian and Greek repertoire, directing Mayakovsky's Les Bains in 1967, Eugene Schwartz's Le Dragon in 1968, Chekhov's La Mouette in 1970.
After this initial period, he began working more with French and German repertoire, directing works by Racine, Jakob Lenz, Goethe and René Kalisky. He expanded his work to both traditional and classical theatrical repertoire, including Sophocles, Molière, Paul Claudel, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Pierre Guyotat, Jean Metellus and Jean Audureau. Vitez became a professor at the National Conservatory of Dramatic Arts in 1968, in 1972 he founded the Théâtre des Quartiers d'Ivry. In the same year, he founded the Ateliers d'Ivry workshop, where amateurs and professionals could share a common theatrical practice, he became director at the Chaillot National Theatre in 1981, was appointed deputy head of the Comédie-French in June 1988, a post he held until his sudden death in Paris in 1990. In 1978, Vitez' workshop sessions were recorded by film-maker Maria Koleva, who made five films on different workshop sessions. Vitez presented his plays in locations with non-theatrical elements and without any descriptive function, employing an aesthetic of "free play" and "association of ideas," according to Georges Banu.
Vitez' work required thought on the part of the audience, more than the reality of a set. He saw the theater as a "force field" and demanded an "elitist theater for all." He defended the great classical texts as "sunken galleons," works that were remote and mythological. Théâtre Antoine Vitez on the campus of the University of Provence, now Aix-Marseille University is named for him. Théâtre d'Ivry Antoine Vitez in Ivry-sur-Seine, is named for him